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What Does Hepatitis B Cause

Treatments For Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B: Explained

Hepatitis B usually clears up on its own without treatment. You may be offered medicine to help with the symptoms, such as painkillers or medicines to stop you feeling sick.

Your GP will refer you to see a liver specialist who will check how well your liver is working.

If hepatitis B lasts for over 6 months it is called long-term hepatitis B.

It is usually treated with antivirals and medicine to help relieve symptoms such as itchiness, pain, and sickness. You will also need to see a liver specialist for regular check-ups.

Causes Of Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is spread through contact with blood that contains the hepatitis B virus. If infected blood or body fluids enter another persons bloodstream, that person may become infected.

The time from exposure to the hepatitis B virus to the appearance of the illness is 45 to 180 days.

Risky activities that can cause infection include:

  • Sharing unsterile or unclean equipment for injecting drugs.
  • Piercing the skin with equipment that is not properly cleaned, disinfected and sterilised.
  • Sharing razor blades or toothbrushes.
  • Coming into contact with infected blood through open cuts or the mucous membranes of another person.
  • Having unprotected sex , especially if there is blood present.

Mothers who have hepatitis B can pass the virus to their babies or children at the time of birth or after birth. If the newborn baby is quickly immunised with 2 vaccines, they can be protected from getting hepatitis B.

All blood and blood products produced for medical purposes in Australia are carefully screened for hepatitis B and other blood-borne viruses. The risk of getting infected with hepatitis B from a blood transfusion is extremely low .

Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Test

A hepatitis B surface antigen test shows if you have an active infection. A positive result means you have hepatitis B and can transmit the virus to others. A negative result means you dont currently have hepatitis B.

This test doesnt distinguish between chronic and acute infection. This test is used together with other hepatitis B tests to determine the state of a hepatitis B infection.

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When To Call The Doctor

  • The child has not felt hungry or wanted to eat in the past 24 hours.
  • Your childs fever is over 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit for more than 2 days.
  • Your child has a stomachache.
  • Your child vomits more than 2 times in an hour.
  • Your child’s skin or the white part of the eyes turns yellow.
  • Your child is overly tired for more than 2 days.

How Is It Treated

Causes of Hepatitis B. World Hepatitis Day. Infographics. Vector ...

Acute hepatitis B: There are no drugs to treat acutehepatitis B. Doctors usually suggest rest, goodnutrition, and fluids. Some people may need to be inthe hospital.

Chronic hepatitis B: People with chronic hepatitis Bvirus infection should receive care from a provider whohas experience treating hepatitis B. These providerscan be:

  • Some internists or family medicine providers
  • Infection specialists
  • Gastroenterologists

If you have chronic hepatitis B, get checked regularlyfor signs of liver disease. Discuss treatment with yourhealth care provider. Not every person with chronichepatitis B needs treatment. If you show no signs ofliver damage, your provider will continue to check youfor liver disease.

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What Are The Risk Factors For Getting Hepatitis B

Due to the way that hepatitis B spreads, people most at risk for getting infected include:

  • Children whose mothers have been infected with hepatitis B.
  • Children who have been adopted from countries with high rates of hepatitis B infection.
  • People who have unprotected sex and/or have been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection.
  • People who live with or work in an institutional setting, such as prisons or group homes.
  • Healthcare providers and first responders.
  • People who share needles or syringes.
  • People who live in close quarters with a person with chronic hepatitis B infection.
  • People who are on dialysis.

Who Should Be Vaccinated For Hepatitis B

All newborns should be vaccinated. Also, people who are under 18 who were not vaccinated at birth should also get the vaccine. Other groups who should be sure to be vaccinated are those in certain high-risk categories, such as:

  • People who have more than one sexual partner.
  • Men who have sex with men.
  • Adults with diabetes.
  • Sexual partners of infected people and people who share households with infected individuals.
  • People who are exposed to blood and other bodily fluids, including healthcare and public safety professionals, and people who work in jails and other places taking care of people who cant take care of themselves.

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What Is Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus . The infection can range in severity from mild to acute. It may last just a few weeks or become a serious, chronic, and potentially fatal health condition.

The best way to prevent this infection is to get the hepatitis B vaccine. Heres what you need to know.

How Do Doctors Treat Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B Can Cause Liver Damage, Cancer

Doctors typically dont treat hepatitis B unless it becomes chronic. Doctors may treat chronic hepatitis B with antiviral medicines that attack the virus.

Not everyone with chronic hepatitis B needs treatment. If blood tests show that hepatitis B could be damaging a persons liver, a doctor may prescribe antiviral medicines to lower the chances of liver damage and complications.

Medicines that you take by mouth include

A medicine that doctors can give as a shot is peginterferon alfa-2a .

The length of treatment varies. Hepatitis B medicines may cause side effects. Talk with your doctor about the side effects of treatment. Tell your doctor before taking any other prescription or over-the-counter medicines.

For safety reasons, you also should talk with your doctor before using dietary supplements, such as vitamins, or any complementary or alternative medicines or medical practices.

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Who Is Most Affected

In the United States, rates of new HBV infections are highest among adults aged 30-59 years, reflecting low hepatitis B vaccination coverage among adults at risk. The most common risk factor among people with new HBV infections is injecting drugs, related to the opioid crisis and other drug use.

The highest rates of chronic hepatitis B infection in the United States occur among foreign-born individuals, especially people born in Asia, the Pacific Islands, and Africa. Approximately 70% of cases in the United States are among people who were born outside of the United States. CDC developed this map of the geographic distribution of hepatitis B around the world – PDF. Other groups who have higher rates of chronic HBV infection include people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men.

What Are Clinical Trials For Hepatitis B

Clinical trialsand other types of clinical studiesare part of medical research and involve people like you. When you volunteer to take part in a clinical study, you help doctors and researchers learn more about disease and improve health care for people in the future.

Researchers are studying many aspects of hepatitis B, such as

  • progression of hepatitis B and long-term outcomes
  • new treatments for hepatitis B
  • prevention of reactivated or worsening hepatitis B in people receiving cancer treatment

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Hiv And Hbv Coinfection

About 2% of people with HIV in the United States are coinfected with HBV both infections have similar routes of transmission. People with HIV are at greater risk for complications and death from HBV infection. All people with HIV are recommended to be tested for HBV, and if susceptible, are further recommended to receive the hepatitis B vaccination or, if chronically infected, evaluated for treatment to prevent liver disease and liver cancer. For more information about HIV and HBV coinfection, visit HIV.govâs pages about hepatitis B and HIV coinfection.

Who Should Get The Hbv Vaccine

Symptoms of Hepatitis B

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that all children and adults up to age 59 should receive the hepatitis B vaccine.

Infants should get their first hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth and complete their doses by age 6 to 18 months.

All unvaccinated children and adults through age 59 should receive the vaccine. Also, unvaccinated adults over the age 60 who are at risk of hepatitis B should get the vaccine.

Adults over age 60 who are not at risk of hepatitis B may also choose to get the shot.

Several types of the HBV vaccine are also safe to administer to pregnant women.

  • people who have had more than one sex partner in the last 6 months
  • men who have sex with men
  • people seeking treatment for a sexually transmitted infection
  • people whose partners or household members have hepatitis B
  • people who inject drugs
  • people who live or work in care facilities
  • people who are on dialysis
  • travelers to countries where hepatitis B is common
  • people with chronic liver disease, HIV, or hepatitis C
  • people who are in jail or prison

People who have diabetes should talk with a healthcare professional about their risk for contracting hepatitis B.

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Who Is At A Greater Risk Of Hepatitis B Viral Infection

Hepatitis B viral infection can occur in any individual. However, a certain group of people are at a higher risk of developing hepatitis B viral infection. Doctors generally recommend the blood test to screen patients with hepatitis B viral infection. The screening test is generally done for people who are prone to hepatitis B. Screening is important to isolate or alert the people infected with the virus so that the transmission of the virus can be controlled. The people at a greater risk of developing hepatitis B viral infection include:

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What Causes Hepatitis B

  • being born to a mother with hepatitis B
  • having unprotected sex with an infected person
  • sharing drug needles or other drug materials with an infected person
  • getting an accidental stick with a needle that was used on an infected person
  • being tattooed or pierced with tools that were used on an infected person and werent properly sterilized, or cleaned in a way that destroys all viruses and other microbes
  • having contact with the blood or open sores of an infected person
  • using an infected persons razor, toothbrush, or nail clippers

You cant get hepatitis B from

  • being coughed on or sneezed on by an infected person
  • drinking unclean water or untreated water that has not been boiled
  • eating food that is unclean or has not been properly cooked
  • hugging an infected person
  • shaking hands or holding hands with an infected person
  • sharing spoons, forks, and other eating utensils
  • sitting next to an infected person

Mothers who have hepatitis B can safely breastfeed their babies. If a baby receives hepatitis B immune globulin and starts receiving the hepatitis B vaccine to prevent hepatitis B infection shortly after birth, hepatitis B is unlikely to spread from mother to child through breastfeeding.15

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Which Hepatitis Virus Causes Chronic Liver Disease

Hepatitis B is a potentially life-threatening liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus . It is a major global health problem. It can cause chronic infection and puts people at high risk of death from cirrhosis and liver cancer.

Which hepatitis can be chronic?

Hepatitis C can range from a mild illness, lasting a few weeks, to a serious, life-long infection. Most people who get infected with the hepatitis C virus develop chronic hepatitis C. Hepatitis A can last from a few weeks to several months.

Which hepatitis does not cause chronic hepatitis?

Hepatitis A Hepatitis caused by HAV is an acute illness that never becomes chronic. At one time, hepatitis A was referred to as infectious hepatitis because it could be spread easily from person to person like other viral infections.

Other Body Fluids And Tissues

Hepatitis B Infection with Case Disorders of the Hepatobiliary Tract | Lecturio

Synovial fluid , amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, and peritoneal fluid can contain the hepatitis B virus, but the risk of transmission to workers is not known.

Feces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, urine, and vomit have not been implicated in the spread of hepatitis B. Unless they are visibly contaminated with blood, the risk of contracting hepatitis B from these fluids in the workplace is very low.

Hepatitis B is not transmitted by casual contact. For example, hospital employees who have no contact with blood, blood products, or blood-contaminated fluids are at no greater risk than the general public. However, the virus can spread through intimate contact with carriers in a household setting, possibly because of frequent physical contact with small cuts or skin rashes. The virus can also spread through biting and possibly by the sharing of toothbrushes or razors. It is not spread through sneezing, coughing, hand holding, hugging, kissing, breastfeeding, sharing eating utensils, water or food.

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Hepatitis B Services & Treatment

If you have a short-lived hepatitis B infection, you may not need treatment. But if you have chronic hepatitis B, youll be treated with antiviral medication. If your liver has been seriously damaged due to hepatitis, you may need a liver transplant.

Since there is no cure for hepatitis B, prevention is important. Get the hepatitis B vaccine if you didnt have it as a baby or child. If you have children, be sure to get them vaccinated . Other ways to prevent hepatitis B include:

  • Have sex only with partners you know do not have the infection or another STD .
  • Use a latex or polyurethane condom with any sexual contact.
  • Check areas you travel to for hepatitis B risk and ask your doctor about the HBV vaccine. You need 3 shots in 6 months to develop immunity, so be sure to plan ahead.
  • Do not share needles. Get help to stop using illegal drugs.
  • Use sterile needles if you give yourself shots.
  • Be careful if you get tattoos and piercings. When going to a professional, make sure equipment is sterile and the facility is respected.

What Is The Treatment For Hepatitis B

Prevention is recommended by receiving a vaccine for HBV.

Receiving an injection of the hepatitis B immune globulin within 12 hours of coming in contact with the virus may help prevent the development of the disease.

At present, there is no specific treatment for patients with acute hepatitis B. Acute infection is usually short and will often resolve on its own. Your health care provider may recommend rest, and adequate nutrition and fluids to help your body fight the infection. Hospitalization may be required for patients who suffer from severe vomiting and who are unable to maintain adequate nutritional levels. It may also be required to prevent the development of complications.

While chronic infection cannot be cured, there are two standard treatments in Canada that may control the virus and prevent further damage to the liver.

  • Antiviral medications can fight the virus and slow damage to the liver.
  • Interferon which may be given for short periods and if effective, results in suppression of the virus.

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Take Precautions To Avoid Hbv

Other ways to reduce your risk of HBV include:

  • Know the HBV status of any sexual partner. Don’t engage in unprotected sex unless you’re absolutely certain your partner isn’t infected with HBV or any other sexually transmitted infection.
  • Use a new latex or polyurethane condom every time you have sex if you don’t know the health status of your partner. Remember that although condoms can reduce your risk of contracting HBV, they don’t eliminate the risk.
  • Don’t use illegal drugs. If you use illicit drugs, get help to stop. If you can’t stop, use a sterile needle each time you inject illicit drugs. Never share needles.
  • Be cautious about body piercing and tattooing. If you get a piercing or tattoo, look for a reputable shop. Ask about how the equipment is cleaned. Make sure the employees use sterile needles. If you can’t get answers, look for another shop.
  • Ask about the hepatitis B vaccine before you travel. If you’re traveling to a region where hepatitis B is common, ask your provider about the hepatitis B vaccine in advance. It’s usually given in a series of three injections over a six-month period.

How Is Hepatitis B Diagnosed

Living Well: What you need to know about hepatitis

There are three main ways to diagnose HBV infection. They include:

  • Blood tests: Tests of the blood serum shows how your bodys immune system is responding to the virus. A blood test can also tell you if you are immune to HBV.
  • Abdominal ultrasound: An ultrasound uses sound waves to show the size and shape of your liver and how well the blood flows through it.
  • Liver biopsy: A small sample of your liver tissue is removed though a tiny incision and sent to a lab for analysis.

The blood test that is used to diagnose hepatitis B is not a test that you get routinely during a medical visit. Often, people whove become infected first learn they have hepatitis B when they go to donate blood. Blood donations are routinely scanned for the infection.

The virus can be detected within 30 to 60 days of infection. About 70% of adults with hepatitis B develop symptoms, which tend to appear an average of 90 days after initial exposure to the virus.

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Good Nutrition And Rest

  • All family members should eat a well-balanced diet that includes foods shown in the graphic MyPlate . You can find more information about balanced nutrition on the website ChooseMyPlate.gov .
  • All family members should get at least 8 hours of sleep each night.
  • Young children who are ill should rest during the day when possible.

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