Sunday, February 5, 2023

What Is Hepatitis Panel Acute With Reflex To Confirmation

Are These Tests Always Run As A Panel

Important lab markers in HAV infection.

No. Sometimes, if the particular hepatitis virus a person was exposed to is known, tests specific for that virus may be performed. Also, some of these tests are used for other purposes, such as monitoring the progression of disease or determining if treatment is working, and they may be run singly or in different combinations in those cases. For more about other tests used in viral hepatitis infections, see the individual articles on Hepatitis A Testing, Hepatitis B Testing, and Hepatitis C Testing.

How Much Does The Test Cost

Several factors affect the cost of an acute viral hepatitis panel, including where the test is conducted, if any other tests or procedures are being performed at the same time, and whether or not the patient has health insurance that covers testing.

In addition to the panel itself, costs may include technician fees for collecting a blood sample and an additional charge for the office visit. These costs may be covered by health insurance if the acute viral antibody test is prescribed by a doctor. Patients with health insurance may still be responsible for copays, deductibles, and other charges.

Vaccines And Immune Globulin

Vaccines to prevent hepatitis A and hepatitis B are available in the United States. A vaccine for hepatitis E is currently available only in China. No vaccines against hepatitis C or D virus are available. However, vaccination against hepatitis B virus also reduces the risk of infection with hepatitis D virus. Hepatitis vaccines are given by injection into muscle.

) and for adults at high risk of getting hepatitis .

As with most vaccines, protection requires allowing a number of weeks for the vaccine to reach its full effect as the immune system gradually creates antibodies against the particular virus.

If people who have not been vaccinated are exposed to hepatitis A virus, they are given a single dose of hepatitis A vaccine or an injection of standard immune globulin, depending on their age and health. Standard immune globulin contains antibodies obtained from blood collected from a large group of people who have a normal immune system. Immune globulin prevents infection or decreases its severity. However, the amount of protection it provides varies, and the protection is only temporary.

Babies born to mothers with hepatitis B are given hepatitis B immune globulin and hepatitis B vaccine.

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Hepatitis C Reflex Testing

To ensure complete and timely diagnosis of HCV, HCV reflex testing is recommended following a reactive hepatitis C antibody screening test. Reflex testing means the laboratory will perform the hepatitis C antibody test, and if the result is positive, the laboratory will immediately perform an HCV RNA test on the same specimen. If the subsequent HCV RNA test is negative, HCV infection is effectively ruled out for most patients. If the reflex HCV RNA test is positive, a diagnosis of active HCV infection has been confirmed, and the individual should be referred directly for HCV care and treatment.

Reflex testing obviates the need for the patient to return for follow-up testing should the initially HCV antibody test be reactive. If the RNA test is negative, the work-up is done, and the patient may be reassured.

  • Rationale for reflex testing:

Acute Viral Hepatitis Panel

Hepatitis A, B, C , Acute w/Reflex to confirm  LabReqs.com

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  • Online or over the phone

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The Treatment Programs Role In The Screening Process

Medical staff members at substance abuse treatment programs might assume the primary role for screening individuals for and explaining the screening process and test results. Opioid treatment programs with medical staff members should screen for and C at intake and periodically as indicated. In programs without onsite medical staff, clients may be referred elsewhere for screening with minimal involvement of the substance abuse treatment program.

Regardless of the type of program, counselors should have a basic understanding of the importance of screening, the screening process, and the meaning of the results. Counselors can encourage clients referred for screening to follow through and complete the screening and evaluation process . Clients might feel anxious about being diagnosed with hepatitis, and they might delay or avoid getting screened.

Hepatitis Blood Test Panel Acute

A Hepatitis Blood Test Panel includes: Hepatitis A antibody, IgM, hepatitis B core antibody, IgM, hepatitis B surface antigen, and hepatitis C antibody with reflex.

Also Known As: Acute Hepatitis Profile

Methodology:

No fasting required. Stop biotin consumption at least 72 hours prior to the collection.

Test Results:

2-3 days. May take longer based on weather, holiday or lab delays.

Also Known As: Acute Hepatitis Profile

Methodology:

No fasting required. Stop biotin consumption at least 72 hours prior to the collection.

Test Results:

2-3 days. May take longer based on weather, holiday or lab delays.

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Addressing Hepatitis For The First Time

It is crucial that a treatment counselor or health professional use a nonjudgmental and compassionate tone. Clients need to feel comfortable disclosing information about their health and risky behaviors. The following strategies can help initiate the conversation:

  • Display posters, literature, or other -related items that could help prompt the client to ask questions about hepatitis. .
  • Assess clients ability to discuss , based on their degree of openness in the counseling session, the amount of detail they provide in their responses, and the length of the therapeutic relationship.
  • Raise the subject in a way that avoids making clients feel defensive or afraid. Consider introducing the subject by making parallels with other conditions that have been discussed. Say, for example, You said you were tested for HIV several times. Were you ever tested for viral ? or You mentioned that your friend is sick with HIV. Have you been tested for HCV or HIV? Tell me about those tests.
  • Be patient and allow time for multiple, short conversations about the subject. This might ease feelings of fear, anxiety, or shame.

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What Does The Test Result Mean

Management of Alcoholic Hepatitis – Dr. Robert Gish | Dr. Waldo Concepcion

The table below summarizes results that may be seen with a hepatitis panel that is performed to detect an infection:

Anti-hepatitis A, IgM
Positive Acute or chronic hepatitis C additional tests are required to make the determination

If other hepatitis tests are performed to help determine prior exposure or previous infection, they may indicate the following:

  • Hepatitis A antibody, total if negative, no current or previous HAV infection if positive, indicates exposure to HAV or the HAV vaccine. An IgM test must be done if an acute infection is suspected.
  • Hepatitis B core antibody, total a positive test can indicate exposure to the virus. An IgM test must be performed if an acute infection is suspected.
  • Hepatitis B surface antibody if positive, it indicates that a HBV infection has resolved depending on results of other HBV tests, a negative result may indicate that an infection has not resolved. Hepatitis B surface antibody will also be positive with a negative hepatitis B core antibody after a person has received a hepatitis B vaccine.

It is possible to be infected with more than one hepatitis virus, and an acute infection with one hepatitis virus can be superimposed on a chronic infection with a different hepatitis virus. In such cases, there may be a positive result for more than one type of virus and care must be taken when interpreting the results.

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Hepatitis Panel/acute Hepatitis Panel

Please Note: This may not be an exhaustive list of all applicable Medicare benefit categories for this item or service.

This panel consists of the following tests:

  • Hepatitis A antibody , IgM Antibody
  • Hepatitis B core antibody , IgM Antibody
  • Hepatitis B surface antigen and
  • Hepatitis C antibody.

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver resulting from viruses, drugs, toxins, and other etiologies. Viral hepatitis can be due to one of at least five different viruses, designated Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. Most cases are caused by Hepatitis A virus , Hepatitis B virus , or Hepatitis C virus .

HAV is the most common cause of hepatitis in children and adolescents in the United States. Prior exposure is indicated by a positive IgG anti-HAV. Acute HAV is diagnosed by IgM anti-HAV, which typically appears within four weeks of exposure, and which disappears within three months of its appearance. IgG anti-HAV is similar in the timing of its appearance, but it persists indefinitely. Its detection indicates prior effective immunization or recovery from infection. Although HAV is spread most commonly by fecal-oral exposure, parenteral infection is possible during the acute viremia stage of the disease. After exposure, standard immune globulin may be effective as a prophylaxis.

Indications

  • To detect viral hepatitis infection when there are abnormal liver function test results, with or without signs or symptoms of hepatitis.
  • Prior to and subsequent to liver transplantation.
  • Limitations

    Treatment Of Acute Viral Hepatitis

    • Supportive care

    • Antiviral drugs for acute hepatitis C

    For most people with acute viral hepatitis, special treatment is not necessary. However, people with severe acute hepatitis may require hospitalization so that symptoms can be treated. If doctors suspect that fulminant hepatitis is developing, the person is hospitalized so that mental status can be monitored, liver tests can be done, and doctors can determine whether liver transplantation is needed.

    After the first several days, appetite usually returns and people do not need to stay in bed. Severe restrictions of diet or activity are unnecessary, and vitamin supplements are not required. Most people can safely return to work after the jaundice clears, even if their liver test results are not quite normal.

    People with hepatitis should not drink alcohol until they have fully recovered.

    The infected liver may not process drugs normally. So a doctor may need to stop a drug or reduce the dosage of a drug that could accumulate to harmful levels in the body . Thus, people with hepatitis should tell their doctor all the drugs they are taking , so that the dosage of the drug can be adjusted if necessary.

    If itching occurs, cholestyramine, taken by mouth, is often effective.

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    Is There Anything Else I Should Know

    The tests that are typically included in an acute viral hepatitis panel may not always be able to tell whether someone has had a previous hepatitis infection or has developed antibodies in response to a vaccine. Usually other types of tests are performed to provide this type of information. See the individual articles on Hepatitis A Testing, Hepatitis B Testing or Hepatitis C Testing for more on this.

    The presence of hepatitis A IgM antibodies in the blood are considered diagnostic for acute infection with hepatitis A when the test information is combined with a persons signs and symptoms. When the hepatitis screening test is performed for people who do not have symptoms of acute hepatitis, the presence of hepatitis A IgM antibodies may represent a false-positive result. Therefore, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended against using the test for screening in people without acute hepatitis symptoms to decrease the possibility of false-positive results.

    If I Have Viral Hepatitis Am I Contagious

    Tests  LabReqs.com

    You may be contagious it depends on which hepatitis virus you were infected with and the stage of your infection. Often, people with viral hepatitis can spread the infection even though they dont have symptoms. With hepatitis A, you may be contagious from the time you are infected and continue to be contagious, but less so, for several weeks after symptoms, such as jaundice, develop. A person with hepatitis B is contagious as long as the virus is present in their blood. Anyone who tests positive for the presence of hepatitis C virus should be considered contagious. The HCV RNA test may be performed as follow up to a positive result for anti-HCV.

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    Causes Of Acute Viral Hepatitis

    Acute viral hepatitis can be caused by five major hepatitis viruses :

    The hepatitis A virus is the most common cause of acute hepatitis, followed by the hepatitis B virus.

    Other viruses can also cause acute viral hepatitis. These viruses include the Epstein-Barr virus , which is the virus that causes infectious mononucleosis Infectious Mononucleosis Epstein-Barr virus causes a number of diseases, including infectious mononucleosis. The virus is spread through kissing. Symptoms vary, but the most common are extreme fatigue, fever, sore throat… read more .

    Engaging in certain activities, such as getting a tattoo or body piercing, sharing needles to inject drugs, or having multiple sex partners, increases the risk of developing hepatitis.

    Identifying Patterns Of Risky Behavior

    Screening is an opportunity to draw attention to the clients behaviors that put him or her at risk for contracting :

    • Ask for the clients perception of his or her risk for having contracted : How likely do you think it is that the test will be positive?
    • Listen for and identify behaviors that put the client at risk for contracting , B, and C and HIV, especially unprotected sex and sharing injection drug paraphernalia.
    • Assess the clients alcohol consumption.

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    What Does The Test Measure

    An acute viral hepatitis panel includes several tests that measure antigens and antibodies. Antigens are foreign substances such as proteins of the virus itself, while antibodies are substances produced by the immune system in response to the viral infection.

    An acute viral hepatitis panel tests for antigens and/or antibodies of hepatitis A, B, and C:

    Diagnosis Of Acute Viral Hepatitis

    Hepatitis VLC: Building Longitudinal Databases/Registries and Development of HCV Cascades of Care

    Doctors suspect acute viral hepatitis based on symptoms. During the physical examination, a doctor presses on the abdomen above the liver, which is tender and somewhat enlarged in about half of the people with acute viral hepatitis.

    Doctors suspect fulminant hepatitis if

    • People are very ill and develop jaundice very quickly.

    • Mental function quickly deteriorates.

    • Blood tests to determine how quickly blood clotsâprothrombin time or international normalized ratio âare abnormal.

    • People who have liver disease start worsening rapidly.

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    For Hepatitis C Testing

    As a part of the hepatitis panel test, the Hepatitis C analysis looks for the presence of antibodies in response to the Hepatitis C virus in the bloodstream. These antibodies are detectable 4-10 weeks after infection, where the positive result tests are followed by other tests measuring the amount of genetic material of the Hepatitis C virus.

    Hepatitis Panel Acute With Reflex To Confirmation

    CPT Code: 80074

    Methodology: See individual test

    Includes: Hepatitis A IgM Antibody Hepatitis B Surface Antigen with Reflex to Confirmation Hepatitis B Core Antibody Hepatitis C Antibody with Reflex to HCV, RNA, Quantitative, Real-Time PCR Hepatitis B Surface Antigen: Positive samples will be confirmed based on the manufacturer’s FDA approved recommendations at an additional charge : 87341).

    If Hepatitis C Antibody is reactive, then Hepatitis C Viral RNA, Quantitative, Real-Time PCR will be performed at an additional charge : 87522).

    Clinical Significance: See Individual test

    Alternative Name: Not applicable

    Supply: T01 – Red/Gray SST 8.5mL

    Preferred Specimen: Serum

    Preferred Volume: 2 FULL SST

    Transport Container: Serum Separator Tube

    Transport Temperature: Room Temperature

    Specimen Stability: Room Temperature: See individual test

    Rejection Criteria: See individual test

    For additional supply or collection device information, please contact DLO’s Customer Service at 891-2917, option 2.

    The CPT codes provided are based on AMA guidelines and are for informational purposes only. CPT coding is the sole responsibility of the billing party. Please direct any questions regarding coding to the Payor being billed.

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    How To Get Tested

    An acute viral hepatitis panel is performed after being prescribed by a doctor. This panel of tests requires one sample of blood, on which multiple tests can be conducted.

    A blood sample can be taken in a hospital, lab, or other medical setting. Blood can be drawn from a vein or, in children, blood can be obtained by pricking the skin. After collection, the blood sample is sent to a laboratory for analysis.

    What Happens During A Hepatitis Panel

    hepatitis b antibody test Gallery

    A health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial. You may feel a little sting when the needle goes in or out. This usually takes less than five minutes.

    At-home testing kits are available for hepatitis B and C. Usually the test kit will include a sharp device, to prick your finger so you can collect a drop of blood to send to a lab for testing. For more information on at-home testing for hepatitis, talk to your provider.

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    Discussing Screening Results With Clients

    The medical personnel who ordered or arranged the screening test, not counselors, usually explain the results. Hepatitis screening should be part of the intake physical examination in an opioid treatment program, and medical personnel may report the results. However, the client may want to discuss the results with the counselor or ask the counselor questions.

    Anxiety might interfere with some clients ability to comprehend or retain information, which might need to be repeated.

    Suggestions for conversations with clients when the test results are negative include the following:

    • Explain results clearly and simply: So the HCV screening result was negative? This means that, as of 6 months ago, you did not have .
    • Emphasize that a negative result to an HCV test does not indicate to and that the client should take precautions to avoid . If a relapse to drug use occurs, advise clients to avoid sharing any drug paraphernalia or equipment. Specify that this includes cookers, cotton, water, needles, syringes, pipes, and straws.
    • Emphasize the importance of getting HAV and HBV vaccinations. Provide information about the availability of low- or no-cost vaccinations.

    Clients whose screening test results are positive for will need additional tests and examinationsusually with doctors who specialize in diseases of the liver to get accurate diagnoses and to determine their health status and the extent of liver damage. These tests are described in .

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