Tuesday, May 17, 2022

What Causes The Hepatitis C Virus

What If I’m Pregnant And I Have Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C Virus

Hepatitis C can be passed from a mother to her child during pregnancy and during delivery. Per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , approximately 6 of every 100 infants born to HCV-infected mothers become infected with the virus. The risk is two to three times greater when the mother has HIV as well.

You and your doctor should discuss and decide if you should receive treatment for hepatitis C during your pregnancy.

What Do You Do If You Become Ill

Talk to your health care provider about getting tested if you think you:

If you have hepatitis C, tell those who may have been exposed to your blood or bodily fluids. They should get tested and be treated if necessary. Bodily fluids, like semen and vaginal fluid, are a concern because they could be carrying small amounts of infected blood.

Some adults with hepatitis C will recover from the disease on their own within 6 months. Until your health care provider confirms your recovery status, you are still contagious and can spread the disease.

After recovery, you are no longer contagious because you will not have the disease anymore. But you can get hepatitis C again.

Unfortunately, most adults with hepatitis C:

  • cannot recover on their own
  • develop a more serious form of the disease if they are sick for longer than 6 months

Sharing Toothbrushes Scissors And Razors

There’s a potential risk that hepatitis C may be passed on through sharing items such as toothbrushes, razors and scissors, as they can become contaminated with infected blood.

Equipment used by hairdressers, such as scissors and clippers, can pose a risk if it has been contaminated with infected blood and not sterilised or cleaned between customers. However, most salons operate to high standards, so this risk is low.

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Can Hepatitis C Be Prevented

There is no vaccine for hepatitis C. But you can help protect yourself from hepatitis C infection by

  • Not sharing drug needles or other drug materials
  • Wearing gloves if you have to touch another person’s blood or open sores
  • Making sure your tattoo artist or body piercer uses sterile tools and unopened ink
  • Not sharing personal items such toothbrushes, razors, or nail clippers
  • Using a latex condom during sex. If your or your partner is allergic to latex, you can use polyurethane condoms.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Do I Have To Have Drug Treatment

Hepatitis News Media Resources

The choice is up to you and your doctor. The decision to use drug therapy can be hard to make because of the potential side effects. Your doctor will closely monitor your symptoms and the amount of the virus in your body. He or she will also consider your overall health. This includes looking at blood test results. All are important factors to consider before you and your doctor start drug treatment for your hepatitis C.

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What Drugs Treat And Cure Hepatitis C

    The treatment of chronic hepatitis C has gone through several generations of medications. Not long ago, treatment was limited to interferon alpha-2b or pegylated interferon alpha-2b , and ribavirin . Interferon and pegylated interferon need to be injected under the skin , while ribavirin is taken by mouth. This combination therapy is infrequently used today, being recommended for only the least common genotypes of hepatitis C virus .

    Since 2010, direct-acting antiviral drugs have been in use. The second generation of antivirals for HCV was the protease inhibitors telaprevir and boceprevir , both taken by mouth. These were used in combination with the earlier drugs to increase effectiveness . These drugs are also no longer in common use, and have been replaced by better options.

    As more has been learned about how hepatitis C virus multiplies within the liver cells, new drugs continue to be developed to interfere with this multiplication at different stages. As such, we no longer think in terms of generations of drugs, but rather categories of action. Research and development of these direct-acting antivirals continue, with new agents coming to market every few months. Each category is improved and expanded by the addition of new drugs, which are safer and more effective.

    Currently available and commonly used direct-acting antiviral drugs include:

    • simeprevir
    • Muscle aches

    What Are The Symptoms Of Hepatitis C

    Most people infected with hepatitis C have no symptoms. Some people with an acute hepatitis C infection may have symptoms within 1 to 3 months after they are exposed to the virus. These symptoms may include

    If you have chronic hepatitis C, you most likely will have no symptoms until complications develop, which could be decades after you were infected. For this reason, hepatitis C screening is important, even if you have no symptoms.

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    Preventing The Spread Of Hepatitis C

    There is no vaccine available to prevent a person from being infected with hepatitis C. Recommended behaviours to prevent the spread of the virus include:

    • Always use sterile injecting equipment. This can be accessed from your local needle and syringe program service.
    • Avoid sharing personal items such as toothbrushes, razors, nail files or nail scissors, which can draw blood.
    • If you are involved in body piercing, tattooing, electrolysis or acupuncture, always ensure that any instrument that pierces the skin is either single use or has been cleaned, disinfected and sterilised since it was last used.
    • If you are a healthcare worker, follow standard precautions at all times.
    • Wherever possible, wear single-use gloves if you give someone first aid or clean up blood or body fluids.
    • Although hepatitis C is not generally considered to be a sexually transmissible infection in Australia, you may wish to consider safe sex practices if blood is going to be present, or if your partner has HIV infection. You may wish to further discuss this issue and personal risks with your doctor.

    Structure Of The Virus

    Hepatitis C Virus

    The hepatitis B virion is a 42-nm particle comprising an electron-dense core 27 nm in diameter surrounded by an outer envelope of the surfaceprotein embedded in membranous lipid derived from the host cell . The surface antigen isproduced in excess by the infected hepatocytes and is secreted in the form of22-nm particles and tubular structures of the same diameter .

    Interpretation of Results of Serologic Tests for Hepatitis B.

    Hepatitis B surface antigen first appears during the late stages of theincubation period and is easily detectable by radioimmunoassay or enzymeimmunoassay. The antigen persists during the acute phase of the disease andsharply decreases when antibody to the surface antigen becomes detectable.Antibody of the IgM class to the core antigen is found in the serum after theonset of the clinical symptoms and slowly declines after recovery. Itspersistence at high titer suggests continuation of the infection. Core antibodyof the IgG class persists for many years and provides evidence of pastinfection.

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    Transmission Can Become A Concern

    One point our experts at Health Services of North Texas in Denton, Wylie, and Plano, TX have found about hepatitis C involves how easy it is for the condition to move between people. You could easily transmit hepatitis C to other people by spreading blood from a cut. You could also spread it through sex, especially if it is unprotected. The spread can become worse when people have sex with multiple partners.

    Difference From Other Hepatitis

    Unlike other hepatitis, such as hepatitis B , hepatitis A does not have a chronic stage , which would mean that the infection would be suffered for life and, in addition, it is not fatal. It is a more benign virus compared to other hepatitis and usually affects mainly two sectors of the population according to age. Children usually suffer from the disease asymptomatically, while adults have visible symptoms.

    The hepatitis A virus is transmitted by the fecal-oral route , which results in a contamination of food or water that causes the infection of a healthy person. In most cases, when the contagion is through water it is due to a lack of treatment of this, which means that the virus remains and people become infected by drinking it or using it to wash food. The virus can also be spread by contact with another person .

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    What Are The Side Effects Of Treatments For Hepatitis C Infection

      Side effects of interferon or pegylated interferon

      • The most common side effects of interferon or pegylated interferon include fever, flu-like symptoms, and depression. Patients must be monitored closely for depression. Risk of suicide is a reason to avoid interferons.
      • Interferons also reduce white blood cell and/or red blood cell counts . This may cause increased susceptibility to infection. Interferons also increase the risk of certain cancers. Death rarely occurs as a result of therapy, but may occur from progression of liver failure in patients with advanced cirrhosis.

      Side effects of ribavirin

      • Ribavirin most commonly causes anemia due to destruction of red blood cells . This can be severe enough that people with heart disease may suffer a heart attack from insufficient blood flow, so people with heart disease should not receive this drug. Anemia improves with a reduction in the dose of ribavirin. Injected growth factor that stimulates the production of red blood cells often is used to improve the anemia associated with ribavirin. Ribavirin also accumulates in the testicles and ovaries and causes birth defects in animals. Although no birth defects have been reported in humans, both men and women should use contraceptive measures to avoid pregnancy during and for at least six months after ribavirin treatment.

      Side effects of DAAs

      • The most common and significant side effects of boceprevir , sofosbuvir , and ledipasvir/sofosbuvir include
      • fatigue ,
    • fatigue,
    • nausea.
    • fatigue,
    • What Is The Treatment For People With Acute Hepatitis C Infection

      Viral hepatitis: Types, symptoms, treatment, and prevention

      When people first get hepatitis C, the infection is said to be acute. Most people with acute hepatitis C do not have symptoms so they are not recognized as being infected. However, some have low-grade fever, fatigue or other symptoms that lead to an early diagnosis. Others who become infected and have a known exposure to an infected source, such as a needlestick injury, are monitored closely.

      Treatment decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis. Response to treatment is higher in acute hepatitis infection than chronic infection. However, many experts prefer to hold off treatment for 8-12 weeks to see whether the patient naturally eliminates the virus without treatment. Approaches to treatment are evolving. Patients with acute hepatitis C infection should discuss treatment options with a health care professional who is experienced in treating the disease. There is no established treatment regimen at this time.

      How effective is hepatitis C treatment? Is hepatitis C curable?

      If the hepatitis C RNA remains undetectable at the end of the treatment and follow-up period, this is called a sustained virologic response and is considered a cure. Over 90% of people treated with DAAs are cured. These people have significantly reduced liver inflammation, and liver scarring may even be reversed.

      About 5% of people who are treated for HCV infection are not cured by some of the older regimens. These people may still have options for cure with the newer regimens.

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      The 5 Types Of Viral Hepatitis

      Viral infections of the liver that are classified as hepatitis include hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. A different virus is responsible for each type of virally transmitted hepatitis.

      Hepatitis A is always an acute, short-term disease, while hepatitis B, C, and D are most likely to become ongoing and chronic. Hepatitis E is usually acute but can be particularly dangerous in pregnant women.

      How Do Doctors Treat Hepatitis C

      Doctors treat hepatitis C with antiviral medicines that attack the virus and can cure the disease in most cases.

      Several newer medicines, called direct-acting antiviral medicines, have been approved to treat hepatitis C since 2013. Studies show that these medicines can cure chronic hepatitis C in most people with this disease. These medicines can also cure acute hepatitis C. In some cases, doctors recommend waiting to see if an acute infection becomes chronic before starting treatment.

      Your doctor may prescribe one or more of these newer, direct-acting antiviral medicines to treat hepatitis C:

      You may need to take medicines for 8 to 24 weeks to cure hepatitis C. Your doctor will prescribe medicines and recommend a length of treatment based on

      • which hepatitis C genotype you have
      • how much liver damage you have
      • whether you have been treated for hepatitis C in the past

      Your doctor may order blood tests during and after your treatment. Blood tests can show whether the treatment is working. Hepatitis C medicines cure the infection in most people who complete treatment.

      Hepatitis C medicines may cause side effects. Talk with your doctor about the side effects of treatment. Check with your doctor before taking any other prescription or over-the-counter medicines.

      For safety reasons, talk with your doctor before using dietary supplements, such as vitamins, or any complementary or alternative medicines or medical practices.

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      Can You Prevent Hepatitis C Infection

      There√Ęs no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C. To avoid getting the virus:

      • Use a latex condom every time you have sex.
      • Don’t share personal items like razors.
      • Don’t share needles, syringes, or other equipment when injecting drugs.
      • Be careful if you get a tattoo, body piercing, or manicure. The equipment may have someone else’s blood on it.

      Keep Personal Items Personal

      HEPATITIS C CAUSES, SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT OPTION

      Any tools or implements that may have a bit of blood on them from infected people are potential sources of hepatitis B or C transmission. Toothbrushes, nail clippers, razors, needles, and washcloths may all contain trace amounts of blood that can transmit infection. Keep personal items such as these to yourself and never use personal items that belong to others.

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      Is Liver Transplantation An Option For A Person With Hepatitis C

      Hepatitis C is the leading reason for 40% to 45% of liver transplants in the U.S. Hepatitis C usually recurs after transplantation and infects the new liver. Approximately 25% of these patients with recurrent hepatitis will develop cirrhosis within five years of transplantation. Despite this, the five-year survival rate for patients with hepatitis C is similar to that of patients who are transplanted for other types of liver disease.

      Most transplant centers delay therapy until recurrent hepatitis C in the transplanted liver is confirmed. Oral, highly effective, direct-acting antivirals have shown encouraging results in patients who have undergone liver transplantation for hepatitis C infection and have recurrent hepatitis C. The choice of therapy needs to be individualized and is rapidly evolving.

      How Does Hepatitis C Spread

      The hepatitis C virus spreads when any blood that is contaminated with the virus enters the bloodstream of an uninfected individual. This most commonly occurs when people share contaminated needles or syringes used for injecting drugs. However, hepatitis C can also spread via:

      • Tattoo or piercing needles that have not been properly clean and sterilized
      • Blood transfusions and organ transplants performed before 1992
      • Medical procedures where healthcare professionals have not performed proper sterilization steps

      A mother with hepatitis C can also potentially pass the infection to her baby during birth. This occurs in about 6% of the infants born to a mother with hepatitis C.

      Essentially, you can get hepatitis C from sharing any personal item that came into contact with infected blood. If that infected blood then enters your own bloodstream, the infection can spread. This means that people can potentially get infected from sharing glucose monitors, nail clippers, razors, or even toothbrushes√Ęthough these are rare routes of transmission.

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      Questions To Ask Your Doctor

      • Do I need treatment?
      • What treatment is best for me?
      • What medicines should I take?
      • Are there any medicines I should avoid?
      • How can I cope with the side effects of treatment?
      • Is there a therapist I can talk to?
      • How long will my treatment last?
      • Can hepatitis C be cured?
      • Are organ transplants and blood transfusions safe?
      • Is it safe for me to get pregnant?

      Spread Of Hepatitis C

      What Are Extrahepatic Manifestations?

      Hepatitis C is spread through blood-to-blood contact when blood from a person with hepatitis C enters another persons bloodstream.

      The most common way people become infected with hepatitis C in Australia is by sharing injecting equipment such as needles, syringes, spoons and tourniquets. It is possible to be infected with hepatitis C after only one risk event.

      Hepatitis C may also be spread through:

      • tattooing and body piercing with equipment that has not been properly cleaned, disinfected or sterilised such as backyard tattoos’. Registered parlours with appropriate infection control procedures are not a risk
      • needlestick injuries in a healthcare setting
      • receiving blood transfusions in Australia prior to 1990 before hepatitis C virus testing of blood donations was introduced
      • medical procedures, blood transfusions or blood products and mass immunisation programs provided in a country other than Australia
      • pregnancy or childbirth there is a 5% chance of a mother with chronic hepatitis C infection passing on the virus to her baby during pregnancy or childbirth.

      Breastfeeding is safe, however if nipples are cracked or bleeding cease breastfeeding until they have healed.

      Less likely possible routes of transmission of hepatitis C include:

      Hepatitis C cannot be transmitted by:

      • kissing
      • sharing food, cups or cutlery
      • shaking hands or day-to-day physical contact.

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