Friday, April 12, 2024

What Kills The Hepatitis C Virus

Effect Of Household Products On Hepatitis C Virus Stability In Contaminated Syringes

Hepatitis C Virus From Screening to Cure

We determined the effect of rinsing HCV-contaminated syringes with various household products on HCV recovery from the residual contents of the rinsed syringes. All products tested were effective at eliminating residual infectivity in HCV-contaminated 1 mL insulin syringes with the exception of 5% ethanol , 20% ethanol , and water . Little difference was apparent in the infectivity of recovered virus, measured in RLU, from HCV-positive syringes after rinsing with these 3 agents .

Survival of hepatitis C virus in 1 mL insulin syringes after rinsing once with different household products. The 1 mL insulin syringes were loaded with HCV-spiked plasma and rinsed once with the indicated household products. The remaining syringe contents postrinsing were flushed out with 100 L of cell culture media and exposed to the Huh-7.5 cells. Percentage of HCV-positive syringes and residual HCV infectivity after rinsing. Black bars represent the positive control with no rinsing . Each data point represents the average relative luciferase units ± standard deviation or percent positive ± standard error of the mean from 3 experiments.

Filtering the flushed contents of 1 mL tuberculin syringes through sephacryl columns resulted in HCV recovery at levels similar to those obtained in 1 mL insulin syringes .

Awareness Prevention And Early Diagnosis Are Essential

There’s a good reason why hepatitis C is known as a “silent killer.”

According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an estimated 3.2 million Americans live with chronic hepatitis C infection, which is transmitted through infected bodily fluids like blood and semen, and causes inflammation of the liver. Yet up to 75% of people who have hepatitis C aren’t aware they have it.

Most of those living with the virus experience only mild symptoms or don’t have any symptoms at all until they develop serious liver damage or another life-threatening liver disease. Unfortunately, that means they aren’t getting diagnosed and treatment is delayed until the later stages when irreversible liver damage has occurred.

Here, hepatologistNancy Reau, MD, associate director of the Solid Organ Transplant Program at Rush University Medical Center, explains who is at risk for hepatitis C and offers advice to help you protect yourself.

Comparison Of Screening Strategies In The Total Population

Figure shows the total HCV-infected population over time in the four screening strategies analyzed. Starting with a population of 275,000 HCV-infected persons numbers are declining in all screening scenarios, but do so quite differently. As the number of detected persons is increasing with more comprehensive screening procedures, full annual treatment capacity is utilized until 2025 in total screening compared to 2018 in no screening . Thus, after 25years the number of infected patients drops to between 14,000 and 125,000 .

Fig. 2

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Deaths From Hepatitis B And C Infections Rising Worldwide

Learning from the hepatitis C experience and with better understanding of the biology of hepatitis B virus and improved animal models, pharmaceutical companies are developing drugs that target different steps of the hepatitis B virus life cycle. While a cure for hepatitis B will be more challenging because it can integrate into the patients DNA, enabling it to evade the patients immune response, I am optimistic that we will witness the availability of new combinations of drugs that will move us nearer the goal of a hepatitis B cure.

Members of Delhi Network of Positive People, a support group for HIV-positive people, in 2014 urged the Indian government to allow production of generic versions of direct-acting antivirals that could help thousands get affordable oral doses of medicine to control hepatitis C. Infection progresses more rapidly to damage the liver in HIV-positive patients.Saurabh Das/AP Photo

But the news is not all positive. While weve seen mortality rates from HIV, tuberculosis and malaria decline in recent years, deaths from hepatitis B and C have risen. Globally, an estimated 257 million people have chronic hepatitis B virus infection, and 71 million have chronic hepatitis C virus. Together hepatitis B and C caused more than 1.34 million deaths in 2015. This led the World Health Organization to challenge countries around the world to develop national plans to eliminate these two viruses by 2030.

Hepatitis C With Decompensating Cirrhosis

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Until recently, doctors considered a liver transplant to be the only effective treatment for decompensating cirrhosis.

However, a recent small-scale study found that a course of direct-acting antiviral medication may improve some peoples liver function enough to take them off the waiting list for a liver transplant. People with liver disease that was less severe had a higher likelihood of removal from the list.

However, recent Canadian guidelines warn that certain antiviral drugs may potentially be dangerous for people with severe decompensating cirrhosis. This is because the liver is less able to filter out toxic waste, meaning that the antiviral drugs could accumulate to toxic levels. Doctors must weigh up the benefits against the risks.

When a person is waiting for a liver transplant, a doctor will assess whether or not to pause antiviral treatment.

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If You Notice Symptoms See A Doctor Right Away

Symptoms of hepatitis C include the following:

  • Jaundice a yellowish tone to the eyes and skin
  • Mild, chronic right belly pain
  • Nausea
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue

If you believe you have been exposed to hepatitis C or notice any symptoms, visit your primary care doctor as soon as possible. If you test positive for the virus, your doctor can refer you to a hepatologist to discuss your options.

“I strongly encourage all baby boomers and others who are at high risk to get tested, even if you don’t look or feel sick,” Reau says. “If you do have hepatitis C, the earlier we discover it, the more likely we can prevent it from progressing and causing more serious damage.”

National Strategies For Hcv Elimination

The HCV elimination program will require collaboration with insurance agencies to ensure wider access to screening and linkage to care. In the United Kingdom, there were an estimated 2,14,000 PLHCVs in 2016, and DAA treatment led to a decline of almost 10% in the annual number of HCV-related deaths between 2014 and 2016. The National Health Service sponsors the treatment, and the price of a combination of SOF and VEL in 2016 ranged from approximately US $10,500 to US $17,000 for a 28-day supply. The Australian Programme has a unique volume purchase licensing agreement that allows PLHCVs to be treated under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme , treating an estimated 62,000 people for AUS $1 billion.

The Mongolian strategy has incorporated HCV treatment in the National Health Insurance System, which covers 98% of the population. All PLHCVs are reimbursed $265 regardless of using public or private health care providers. Yehia et al. performed a meta-analysis that suggests that the programs have a steep slope to cover. The use of generic drugs available in countries with licensing agreements has reduced the cost of treatment to a fraction .-

Of all of the PLHCVs, only a small fraction go on to have their disease diagnosed and viremic status conformed by NATs, and fewer still have the disease staged and initiated on treatment. Until DAAs were available, only 9% of the total PLHCV burden was cured, which is a far cry from the 80% required to achieve HCV elimination by 2030.

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Who Is Most At Risk Of Contracting Hepatitis C

You have a high risk of contracting hepatitis C if you:

  • use or have used injection drugs even if it was just once or many years ago
  • have received blood or blood products or an organ transplant before July 1990 in Canada
  • have been in jail or
  • have been injected or scratched during vaccination, surgery, blood transfusion or a religious/ceremonial ritual in regions where hepatitis C is common.

You have a high moderate risk of contracting hepatitis C if you:

  • have tattoos or body piercing
  • have multiple sexual partners
  • have a sexually transmitted infection , including HIV or lymphogranuloma venereum
  • have experienced traumatic sex or rough sex or have used sex toys or fisting that can tear body tissue
  • have vaginal sex during menstruation
  • have received a kidney treatment
  • have received an accidental injury from a needle or syringe
  • have another infectious disease
  • were born to a hepatitis C infected mother or
  • have a sexual partner infected with hepatitis C.

Hepatitis C is NOT passed from person to person by:

  • coughing, sneezing
  • breastfeeding unless your nipples are cracked and bleeding or
  • oral sex, unless blood is present.

Virucidal Activity Of Contact Lens Solutions

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The virucidal activity testing of eight different contact lens solutions was carried out by mixing two part of test virus suspension with eight parts of the respective contact lens solutions in analogy to a virus suspension test described before . After different incubation times, the test mixtures were immediately serially diluted in DMEM and virus titers determined by TCID50. To analyze the effect of tear fluids on the virucidal activity of contact lens solutions, one part of test virus suspension, one part tear fluid and eight parts of contact lens solutions were mixed and tested as described above.

TABLE 1. Contact lens solutions employed in this study and their active ingredients.

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When To Seek Medical Advice

See your GP if you persistently have any of the later symptoms above, or if they keep returning. They may recommend having a blood test that can check for hepatitis C. Read more about diagnosing hepatitis C.

None of the symptoms above mean you definitely have hepatitis C, but it’s important to get them checked out.

You should also speak to your GP about getting tested if there’s a risk you’re infected, even if you don’t have any symptoms. This particularly includes people who inject drugs or have done so in the past.

Read about the causes of hepatitis C for more information about who’s at risk of having the infection.

Stability Of Hcvcc At 37c Rt And 4c

To investigate the ability of HCVcc to survive different environmental temperatures, the spontaneous reductions of viral titer at 37°C, RT , and 4°C were determined individually. The HCVcc stock lost its infectivity after incubation at 37°C for 48 h, when the FFU assay became negative and no residual infectivity was found upon three successive passages of the inoculated Huh7-25-CD81 cultures . Most of the infectivity loss occurred within the first 24 h , while a further 0.4-log reduction in the following 16 h brought the virus titer down to × 101 FFU/ml, close to the detection limit . In contrast to 37°C, viral titers declined much more slowly and smoothly at RT . Incubation for every 2 days led to 0.4- to 0.5-log reduction in viral titers until day 14 when infectivity dropped to the level of detection limit. The virus stock became completely devoid of infectivity at day 16 and later . When incubated at 4°C, no obvious loss of viral infectivity was detected within the first 4 weeks . However, we noticed a nearly 0.5-log reduction of viral titer after 6 weeks, when the experiments were ended. Lindenbach et al reported that the infectivity of J6/JFH1 HCVcc did not change after three freeze-thaw cycles . Consistent with this, we found no obvious reduction of infectivity even after five cycles of freezing and thawing of the JFH1 HCVcc stock . This suggests that HCVcc is relatively insensitive to freeze-thaw manipulation.

Figure 1

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Cough Virus Kills Liver Cancer Cells And Hepatitis Virus

Reovirus stimulates the body’s own immune system to kill off the cancerous cells

University of Leeds

A virus that causes childhood coughs and colds could help in the fight against primary liver cancer, according to a study.

Reovirus stimulates the body’s own immune system to kill off the cancerous cells, the researchers at the University of Leeds found.

In addition, Reovirus is able to kill off the hepatitis C virus – a common cause of primary liver cancer – at the same time, the team discovered.

These early-stage findings are important because primary liver cancer is the third highest cause of cancer deaths worldwide and, if surgery is not an option, the prognosis is poor.

Study co-leader Dr Stephen Griffin, Associate Professor of Viral Oncology at the University of Leeds, said: “Ultimately we hope that by simultaneously treating the tumour, and the hepatitis virus that is driving the growth of the tumour, we may provide a more effective therapy and improve the outcomes for patients.

“Current treatments for liver cancer that can’t be removed by surgery are mainly palliative – with chemotherapy only tending to prolong life, rather than cure – and it can have significant side effects.”

Reovirus can cause respiratory illnesses and stomach upsets in children but by adulthood most people have been exposed to it and therefore it does not cause illness.

These Natural Killer cells then kill both the tumour, and cells infected with the hepatitis C virus.

Why Is Infected With Hepatitis C Virus

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People often get hepatitis C through:

  • Transfusion of infected blood or blood products before 1991
  • Exposure to the blood of an infected person
  • All situations that use or reuse non-sterile equipment carefully as the following cases:
  • Sharing needles or syringes
  • Tattoo, needle prick, non-sterile ear piercing
  • Use contaminated personal hygiene items
  • Transmission of sexually transmitted diseases with high risk of bleeding, intercourse during menstruation
  • Transmission from mother to child
  • In many people, the route of infection is unknown. But note, the disease is not spread by sneezing, coughing, kissing, eating the same dishes, using the same toilet or through normal communication behaviors.

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    Hepatitis C: Silent Killer

    A trio of researchers were awarded the Nobel Medicine Prize on Monday for their discovery of the Hepatitis C virus, paving the way for blood tests and new treatments.

    Thanks to their work the disease is now largely curable. Yet there are more than 70 million people living with the virus, the vast majority of which are not diagnosed.

    400,000 deaths

    Unlike Hepatitis A, which is spread via polluted food or water, Hepatitis C is a blood-borne pathogen that causes liver diseases such as cancer and cirrhosis.

    Patients can often be infected for yearssometimes decadeswithout showing symptoms, making Hepatitis C difficult to diagnose until infection gets serious.

    Its effects can range from illness lasting a few weeks to life-long medical conditions.

    The World Health Organization says Hepatitis C kills around 400,000 people a year, although that is likely to be an underestimate as many patients die from liver failure before they are diagnosed.

    In all, hepatitis viruses kill more than a million people every year, putting it on a par with other global health threats such as HIV and tuberculosis.

    Incidence is especially high in the Eastern Mediterranean and Europe, according to the WHO.

    The most common modes of infection are sharing needles, blood transfusions, unsafe healthcare or unprotected sex.

    New treatments

    Their work allowed the rapid development of antiviral drugs and blood tests, although there is no vaccine against Hepatitis C.

    Unequal access

    Explore further

    Environmental Stability And Infectivity Of Hepatitis C Virus In Different Human Body Fluids

    • 1Institute of Virology and Immunology, Mittelhäusern, Switzerland
    • 2Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
    • 3Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University Hospital of Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany
    • 4Institute of Experimental Virology, TWINCORE-Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infections Research, a joint venture between the Hannover Medical School and the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Hanover, Germany
    • 5Department of Molecular and Medical Virology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    • 6Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology, Hannover Medical School, Hanover, Germany
    • 7Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital of Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany
    • 8Institute for Clinical Hygiene, Medical Microbiology and Clinical Infectiology, Paracelsus Medical Private University, Nürnberg Hospital, Nürnberg, Germany
    • 9Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany
    • 10Institute for Virology, University Hospital of Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

    Results: We could demonstrate that HCV remains infectious over several days in body fluids like tears, saliva, semen, and cerebrospinal fluid. Only hydrogen-peroxide contact lens solutions were able to efficiently inactivate HCV in a suspension test.

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    Plasmids And In Vitro Transcription

    The plasmid pFK-Jc1 has been described recently and encodes the intragenotypic 2a/2a chimeric virus Jc1 . In vitro transcripts of the individual constructs were generated by linearizing 510 g of the Jc1 plasmid by digestion for 1 h with Mlu I. Plasmid DNA was extracted with phenol and chloroform and after precipitation with ethanol dissolved in RNase-free water. In vitro transcription reaction mixtures contained 80 mM HEPES , 12 mM MgCl2, 2 mM spermidine, 40 mM dithiothreitol , a 3.125 mM concentration of each ribonucleoside triphosphate, 1 U of RNasin per L, 0.1 g plasmid DNA/L and 0.6 U of T7 RNA polymerase per L. After incubation for 2 h at 37°C, an additional 0.3 U of T7 RNA polymerase/L reaction mixture was added, followed by another 2 h at 37°C. Transcription was terminated by the addition of 1.2 U of RNase-free DNase per g of plasmid DNA and 30 min incubation at 37°C. The RNA was extracted with acidic phenol and chloroform, precipitated with isopropanol and dissolved in RNase-free water. The concentration was determined by measurement of the optical density at 260 nm. Denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis was used to check RNA integrity.

    Materials Science And Nanotechnology

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    Current trends in nanotechnology promise to make much more versatile use of viruses. From the viewpoint of a materials scientist, viruses can be regarded as organic nanoparticles.Their surface carries specific tools that enable them to cross the barriers of their host cells. The size and shape of viruses and the number and nature of the functional groups on their surface are precisely defined. As such, viruses are commonly used in materials science as scaffolds for covalently linked surface modifications. A particular quality of viruses is that they can be tailored by directed evolution. The powerful techniques developed by life sciences are becoming the basis of engineering approaches towards nanomaterials, opening a wide range of applications far beyond biology and medicine.

    Because of their size, shape, and well-defined chemical structures, viruses have been used as templates for organising materials on the nanoscale. Recent examples include work at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C., using Cowpea mosaic virus particles to amplify signals in DNA microarray based sensors. In this application, the virus particles separate the fluorescentdyes used for signalling to prevent the formation of non-fluorescent dimers that act as quenchers. Another example is the use of CPMV as a nanoscale breadboard for molecular electronics.

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