Tuesday, May 17, 2022

How Do Contract Hepatitis C

How Do Doctors Treat Hepatitis C

How Do You Catch Hepatitis C?

Doctors treat hepatitis C with antiviral medicines that attack the virus and can cure the disease in most cases.

Several newer medicines, called direct-acting antiviral medicines, have been approved to treat hepatitis C since 2013. Studies show that these medicines can cure chronic hepatitis C in most people with this disease. These medicines can also cure acute hepatitis C. In some cases, doctors recommend waiting to see if an acute infection becomes chronic before starting treatment.

Your doctor may prescribe one or more of these newer, direct-acting antiviral medicines to treat hepatitis C:

You may need to take medicines for 8 to 24 weeks to cure hepatitis C. Your doctor will prescribe medicines and recommend a length of treatment based on

  • which hepatitis C genotype you have
  • how much liver damage you have
  • whether you have been treated for hepatitis C in the past

Your doctor may order blood tests during and after your treatment. Blood tests can show whether the treatment is working. Hepatitis C medicines cure the infection in most people who complete treatment.

Hepatitis C medicines may cause side effects. Talk with your doctor about the side effects of treatment. Check with your doctor before taking any other prescription or over-the-counter medicines.

For safety reasons, talk with your doctor before using dietary supplements, such as vitamins, or any complementary or alternative medicines or medical practices.

How You Could Contract Hepatitis C And What You Should Do Immediately

Hepatitis C is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. It affects approximately 3.5 million people in the United States alone, and many people are unaware of its symptoms. Although there are many forms of the hepatitis C virus, type one is the most common form in the United States. Hepatitis C is contracted by coming in contact with the blood or bodily fluid of someone who has the disease. Long term effects may include liver cancer. Here is what to do when symptoms present themselves.

What Causes Hepatitis C

The hepatitis C virus causes hepatitis C. The hepatitis C virus spreads through contact with an infected persons blood. Contact can occur by

  • sharing drug needles or other drug materials with an infected person
  • getting an accidental stick with a needle that was used on an infected person
  • being tattooed or pierced with tools or inks that were not kept sterilefree from all viruses and other microorganismsand were used on an infected person before they were used on you
  • having contact with the blood or open sores of an infected person
  • using an infected persons razor, toothbrush, or nail clippers
  • being born to a mother with hepatitis C
  • having unprotected sex with an infected person

You cant get hepatitis C from

  • being coughed or sneezed on by an infected person
  • drinking water or eating food
  • hugging an infected person
  • shaking hands or holding hands with an infected person
  • sharing spoons, forks, and other eating utensils
  • sitting next to an infected person

A baby cant get hepatitis C from breast milk.18

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Reactive Or Positive Hepatitis C Antibody Test

  • A reactive or positive antibody test means that Hepatitis C antibodies were found in the blood and a person has been infected with the Hepatitis C virus at some point in time.
  • Once people have been infected, they will always have antibodies in their blood. This is true even if they have cleared the Hepatitis C virus.
  • A reactive antibody test does not necessarily mean that you have Hepatitis C. A person will need an additional, follow-up test.

Persons for Whom HCV Testing Is Recommended

  • Adults born from 1945 through 1965 should be tested once
  • Those who:
  • Ever injected drugs, including those who injected once or a few times many years ago
  • Have certain medical conditions, including persons:
  • who received clotting factor concentrates produced before 1987
  • who were ever on long-term hemodialysis
  • with persistently abnormal alanine aminotransferase levels
  • who have HIV infection
  • Were prior recipients of transfusions or organ transplants, including persons who:
  • were notified that they received blood from a donor who later tested positive for HCV infection
  • received a transfusion of blood, blood components, or an organ transplant before July 1992
  • HCV- testing based on a recognized exposure is recommended for:
  • Healthcare, emergency medical, and public safety workers after needle sticks, sharps, or mucosal exposures to HCV-positive blood
  • Children born to HCV-positive women
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    How Can I Protect Myself And Others

    How Do You Catch Hepatitis
    • Never share injecting drug equipment or things that may have blood on them such as toothbrushes and razors. Also avoid sharing straws or rolled up banknotes if snorting drugs with others.
    • Use condoms for anal and vaginal sex and latex gloves for fisting.
    • During group sex, cover anything which goes from one partner to another with a fresh condom or fresh latex glove for each new person it enters. Clean objects with warm water and anti-bacterial soap before using on a new partner.
    • Dont share enema equipment or pots of lubricant.

    If you have hepatitis C you may want to tell a partner and explain that youre infectious. They can then decide if they’re happy to take any risks and whether they want to take precautions. That way they cannot accuse you of infecting them without them knowing that the risk was there.

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    What Are The Risk Factors For Hepatitis C

    In the United States, having been born between 1945 and 1965, and the use of illicit injection drugs are the two most common factors associated with hepatitis C. Other risk factors include:

    • having received blood transfusions prior to 1990,
    • hemodialysis, and
    • having greater than 10-lifetime sex partners.

    Population studies show that hepatitis C is more common among males, non-Hispanic blacks, those with low income, and those with less than a high school education.

    People who have HIV/AIDS have an increased risk for hepatitis C, because both these diseases are transmitted in the same ways, through blood and body fluids. If someone has both infections, that person is said to be co-infected with HIV and HCV.

    What Do Hepatitis C Symptoms Look Like

    Hepatitis C infection can go through two stages: acute and chronic. In the early, or acute stage, most people don’t have symptoms. If they do develop symptoms, these can include:

    • flu-like symptoms, tiredness, high temperature and aches and pains
    • loss of appetite
    • tummy pain
    • jaundice, meaning your skin and the whites of your eyes turn yellow

    While for some people, the infection will clear without treatment, in most cases, acute infection will develop into long-term chronic infection. Chronic infection may not become apparent for a number of years until the liver displays signs of damage. These symptoms can include:

    • mental confusion and depression these are specific to hepatitis C
    • constantly feeling tired
    • nausea, vomiting or tummy pain
    • dark urine
    • feeling bloated
    • joint and muscle pain

    Without treatment, chronic hepatitis C can cause scarring of the liver , which can cause the liver to stop working properly. A small number of people with cirrhosis develop liver cancer and these complications can lead to death. Other than a liver transplant, theres no cure for cirrhosis. However, treatments can help relieve some of the symptoms.

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    Sharing Personal Care Items

    The chances of spreading hepatitis C within your household are low but possible. To be safe, don’t share personal care items that could be contaminated with blood, Lee says. These include razors, toothbrushes, cuticle scissors, and nail clippers.

    In addition, be mindful when you go to nail salons or barbershops, where the same tools are used on all customers. A study published in the November-December 2014 issue of the Journal of Public Health Management & Practice found that while regulations to safeguard the public exist in most states, it’s unknown how many businesses comply with them. Ask about tool-sterilization procedures before you frequent these establishments. You can also bring your own nail care supplies.

    Top Best Answers To The Question How Do Dogs Contract Hepatitis

    How Does Hepatitis C Hurt Your Liver? | WebMD

    The virus is spread in the feces, urine, blood, saliva, and nasal discharge of infected dogs.

    It is contracted through the mouth or nose, where it replicates in the tonsils.

    Diagnosis is made by recognizing the combination of symptoms and abnormal blood tests that occur in infectious canine hepatitis.

    Those who are looking for an answer to the question «How do dogs contract hepatitis?» often ask the followingquestions:

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    Cost Of Hepatitis C Medicines

    The newer direct-acting antiviral medicines for hepatitis C can be costly. Most government and private health insurance prescription drug plans provide some coverage for these medicines. Talk with your doctor about your health insurance coverage for hepatitis C medicines.

    Drug companies, nonprofit organizations, and some states offer programs that can help pay for hepatitis C medicines. If you need help paying for medicines, talk with your doctor. Learn more about financial help for hepatitis C medicines.

    How Common Is It

    There were an estimated thirty thousand five hundred cases of acute hepatitis C viral infections reported in the United States in 2014. Chronic hepatitis C affects an estimated 2.7 to 3.9 million people in the United States alone. Of all acute hepatitis C cases, up to as many as eighty-five percent will develop a chronic infection that increases the risk of frequent infections, liver damage, cirrhosis of the liver and even liver cancer.

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    What The Cdc Recommends

    Were you born between 1945 and 1965? If so, then youre a member of the Hepatitis C generation. The CDC recently recommended that all people born between during this time have a 1-time screening test for Hepatitis C. We now have new drugs that can treat and cure Hepatitis C so you should go get tested today.

    The life you save may be your own! Please contact your local healthcare provider.

    Complications Of Hepatitis C

    Direct

    If the infection is left untreated for many years, some people with hepatitis C will develop scarring of the liver .

    Over time, this can cause the liver to stop working properly.

    In severe cases, life-threatening problems, such as liver failure, where the liver loses most or all of its functions, or liver cancer, can eventually develop.

    Treating hepatitis C as early as possible can help reduce the risk of these problems happening.

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    What If I Am Pregnant And I Have Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis C can be passed from a mother to her child during pregnancy and during delivery. Per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , approximately 6 of every 100 infants born to HCV-infected mothers become infected with the virus. The risk is 2-3 times greater when the mother has HIV as well.

    You and your doctor should discuss and decide if you should receive treatment for hepatitis C during your pregnancy.

    Effective Treatments Are Available For Hepatitis C

    New medication to treat for HCV have been approved in recent years. These treatments are much better than the previously available treatment because they have few side effects and do not need to be injected. There are several direct-acting antiviral HCV treatments that cure more than 95% of people who take them in 8 to 12 weeks. HCV treatment dramatically reduces deaths among people with HCV infection, and people who are cured of HCV are much less likely to develop cirrhosis or liver cancer.

    Take Action! CDCs National Prevention Information Network Service Locator helps consumers locate hepatitis B and hepatitis C prevention, care, and treatment services.

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    Hepatitis C Testing And Diagnosis

    Doctors will start by checking your blood for:

    Anti-HCV antibodies: These are proteins your body makes when it finds the hep C virus in your blood. They usually show up about 12 weeks after infection.

    It usually takes a few days to a week to get results, though a rapid test is available in some places.

    The results can be:

    • Nonreactive, or negative:
    • That may mean you donât have hep C.
    • If youâve been exposed in the last 6 months, youâll need to be retested.
  • Reactive, or positive:
  • That means you have hep C antibodies and youâve been infected at some point.
  • Youâll need another test to make sure.
  • If your antibody test is positive, youâll get this test:

    HCV RNA: It measures the number of viral RNA particles in your blood. They usually show up 1-2 weeks after youâre infected.

    • The results can be:
    • Negative: You donât have hep C.
    • Positive: You currently have hep C.

    You might also get:

    Liver function tests: They measure proteins and enzyme levels, which usually rise 7 to 8 weeks after youâre infected. As your liver gets damaged, enzymes leak into your bloodstream. But you can have normal enzyme levels and still have hepatitis C. Learn the reasons why you should get tested for hepatitis C.

    How Are Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C Spread From Person To Person

    How is Hepatitis C spread? — Mayo Clinic

    Like HIV, the hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses spread:

    • From mother to child: Pregnant women can pass these infections to their infants. HIV-HCV coinfection increases the risk of passing on hepatitis C to the baby.
    • Sexually: Both viruses can also be transmitted sexually, but HBV is much more likely than HCV to be transmitted sexually. Sexual transmission of HCV is most likely to happen among gay and bisexual men who are living with HIV.

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    How Can You Prevent Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis B: Vaccination is the best way to prevent all of the ways that hepatitis B is transmitted. People with HIV who do not have active HBV infection should be vaccinated against it. In addition to the 3-dose series of hepatitis B vaccine given over 6 months, as of 2017, there is a 2-dose series given over 1 month.

    Hepatitis C: No vaccine exists for HCV and no effective pre- or postexposure prophylaxis is available. The best way to prevent hepatitis C infection is to never inject drugs or to stop injecting drugs by getting into and staying in drug treatment. If you continue injecting drugs, always use new, sterile needles or syringes, and never reuse or share needles or syringes, water, or other drug preparation equipment.

    What Can I Do If I Think I Have Hepatitis C

    A doctor or sexual health clinician can test you to see if you have hepatitis C. If you do, effective treatment with fewer side effects than the older medicine is available and you can discuss how to avoid infecting your sexual partners or people you live with.

    It can take three to six months before the blood test for hepatitis C will be able to detect signs of infection in your blood. For people with HIV who may be immunocompromised, the antibody may not be detectable and it may be necessary to request an RNA test which detects the virus.

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    Symptoms Of Hcv Infection

    About 70 to 80 percent of individuals who contract HCV show no symptoms of acute hepatitis. When present, symptoms of acute illness may include fever, malaise, nausea, jaundice, arthralgia , dark urine, pale stools, and abdominal pain. Acute symptoms typically subside within several weeks. In very rare instances, primarily when another chronic liver disease is present, acute illness culminates in fulminant hepatic failure.

    In roughly 70 to 90 percent of persons infected with HCV, the virus persists in the liver following the acute phase of infection. In the majority of cases, chronic infection is asymptomatic for decades. The infection may be noticed only after routine blood tests reveal elevated levels of liver enzymes, by which time liver function has begun to decline. Symptomatic patients may experience fatigue, nausea, anorexia, myalgia , arthralgia, weakness, and weight loss. Complications arising from chronic HCV infection include cirrhosis , liver failure, and liver cancer.

    Contaminated Needles And Infected Blood

    » Hepatitis C

    You can get hepatitis C from sharing contaminated needles, syringes and other injecting equipment during recreational drug use. Banknotes and straws used for snorting may also pass the virus on.

    Being exposed to unsterilised tattoo and body piercing equipment can also pass hepatitis C on. Occasionally, you can get it from sharing a towel, razor blades or a toothbrush if there is infected blood on them.

    Hepatitis C infection is also passed on in healthcare settings, from needle stick injuries or from medical and dental equipment that has not been properly sterilised. In countries where blood products are not routinely screened, you can also get hepatitis C by receiving a transfusion of unscreened blood and blood products.

    You can prevent hepatitis C by:

    • never sharing needles and syringes or other items that may be contaminated with infected blood
    • only having tattoos, body piercings or acupuncture in a professional setting, where new, sterile needles are used
    • following the standard infection control precautions, if youre working in a healthcare setting.

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    How Do You Contract Hepatitis C

    Whats in this article

    • What is Hepatitis C?
    • How do you contract hepatitis C?
    • Diagnosis

    What is hepatitis C?Hepatitis C is a disease that is caused by a virus that infects the liver and if left untreated it can lead to liver cirrhosis, liver cancer and even liver failure. Many people who have the disease may not even know they do until there has been liver damage. Hepatitis C can be acute or chronic and only 15% or less of people who contract hepatitis C will defeat the virus with their immune system. According to the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, in 2009, there were around 16,000 reported cases of acute hepatitis C in the United States. There are around 3.2 million people in the United States who are living with chronic hepatitis C.

    Signs and symptomsThere are not always obvious signs and symptoms of hepatitis C so if you think you may have come into contact with or contracted the disease then it is important to get checked.

    In early stages, symptoms may include:

    • Sickness
    • Sharing food and water

    As hepatitis C can be spread through infected blood the following precautions should be taken:

    DiagnosisHepatitis C is most often diagnosed by having a blood or tissue sample taken. The blood will be tested for antibodies relating to the virus, this can be detected two or three months after the time of suspected contraction. Ensure that you consult your doctor if you suspect you have hepatitis.

    References

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