Thursday, June 16, 2022

How To Catch Hepatitis B And C

What Are The Chances Of Getting Hepatitis C From Sex

Hepatitis C Screening

Hepatitis C can spread through sexual intercourse, but it’s rare. And it’s extremely rare among monogamous couples. In fact, the CDC considers the risk of sexual transmission between monogamous couples so low that it doesn’t even recommend using condoms. Also, there’s no evidence that hepatitis C is spread by oral sex. But you should avoid sharing razors, toothbrushes, and nail clippers, and sex during menstruation.

If you have HIV or if you have multiple partners, you should take precautions. Using condoms will protect you and your partners.

Is There A Hepatitis C Vaccine

No vaccine exists for hepatitis C right now. While efforts to develop a vaccine for this specific strain are ongoing, it’s proven challenging. That’s because hepatitis C tends to avoid immune responses. In other words, a person can catch hepatitis C repeatedly despite past infection, which is what makes it hard to create a vaccine that works for this virus.

There is an effective treatment for hepatitis C, though, and it involves direct-acting antivirals . Thanks to this treatment, WHO aims to cut 80% of hepatitis C cases worldwide by 2030. Researchers across the globe think that a vaccine is needed to accomplish this goal, so creating one is a high priority.

How Long Before I Have Symptoms

Many people have mild symptoms or no symptoms, which is why hepatitis is sometimes called a âsilentâ disease.

Hepatitis A. The symptoms usually show up 2 to 6 weeks after the virus enters your body. They usually last for less than 2 months, though sometimes you can be sick for as long as 6 months.

Some warning signs that you may have hepatitis A are:

Hepatitis B. The symptoms are the same as hepatitis A, and you usually get them 3 months after you’re infected. They could show up, though, anywhere from 6 weeks to 6 months later.

Sometimes the symptoms are mild and last just a few weeks. For some people, the hep B virus stays in the body and leads to long-term liver problems.

Hepatitis C. The early symptoms are the same as hepatitis A and B, and they usually happen 6 to 7 weeks after the virus gets in your body. But you could notice them anywhere from 2 weeks to 6 months later.

For about 25% of people who get hep C, the virus goes away on its own without treatment. In other cases, it sticks around for years. When that happens, your liver might get damaged.

Remember, it’s possible to spread all the types of hepatitis even if you don’t show any signs of being sick.

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Are Hepatitis B And C Preventable

Hepatitis B is a vaccine-preventable disease.

There is a three-shot vaccination series that is very effective in protecting people against the virus if theyre exposed. In the United States, all newborns are vaccinated for hepatitis B and all pregnant women are screened for hepatitis B during pregnancy. This way, mothers infected with hepatitis B can take protective steps to decrease the risk of transmission of the virus to the child.

There is no vaccine for hepatitis C.

How Can You Prevent Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C

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Hepatitis B: Vaccination is the best way to prevent all of the ways that hepatitis B is transmitted. People with HIV who do not have active HBV infection should be vaccinated against it. In addition to the 3-dose series of hepatitis B vaccine given over 6 months, as of 2017, there is a 2-dose series given over 1 month.

Hepatitis C: No vaccine exists for HCV and no effective pre- or postexposure prophylaxis is available. The best way to prevent hepatitis C infection is to never inject drugs or to stop injecting drugs by getting into and staying in drug treatment. If you continue injecting drugs, always use new, sterile needles or syringes, and never reuse or share needles or syringes, water, or other drug preparation equipment.

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Who Should Be Tested

Testing for hepatitis A is not routinely recommended.

CDC recommends hepatitis B testing for:

  • Men who have sex with men
  • People who inject drugs
  • Household and sexual contacts of people with hepatitis B
  • People requiring immunosuppressive therapy
  • People with end-stage renal disease
  • People with hepatitis C
  • People with elevated ALT levels
  • Pregnant women
  • Infants born to HBV-infected mothers

CDC recommends hepatitis C testing for:

  • All adults aged 18 years and older
  • All pregnant women during each pregnancy
  • About 24,900 new infections each year
  • About 22,600 new infections in 2018
  • Estimated 862,000 people living with hepatitis B
  • About 50,300 new infections in 2018
  • Estimated 2.4 million people living with hepatitis C

How Do You Get Hepatitis C

Just like hepatitis B, you can get this type by sharing needles or having contact with infected blood. You can also catch it by having sex with somebody who’s infected, but that’s less common.

If you had a blood transfusion before new screening rules were put in place in 1992, you are at risk for hepatitis C. If not, the blood used in transfusions today is safe. It gets checked beforehand to make sure it’s free of the virus that causes hepatitis B and C.

It’s rare, but if you’re pregnant and have the disease, it’s possible to pass it to your newborn.

There are some myths out there about how you get hepatitis C, so let’s set the record straight. It’s not spread by food and water . And you canât spread it by doing any of these things:

  • Joint pain

See your doctor as soon as possible if you have any of these symptoms.

Sometimes, people have no symptoms. To be sure you have hepatitis, youâll need to get tested.

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How Does A Person Get Hepatitis

A person can get hepatitis A through the following sources:

  • Food or water contaminated with the fecal matter of an infected person
  • Sexual contact

A person can get hepatitis B in many ways, which include:

  • Having sexual contact with an infected person
  • Sharing needles
  • Being in direct contact with an infected persons blood
  • Transferred from mother to the fetus
  • Getting an infected needle prick
  • Being in contact with an infected persons body fluid

A person can get hepatitis C through:

  • Sharing infected needles
  • Being in direct contact with an infected persons blood
  • Getting an infected needle prick
  • Having sexual contact with an infected person

Hepatitis D can be spread through:

  • Transferred from mother to the fetus
  • Being in contact with the infected fluid or blood
  • A person can get hepatitis D only if they are infected previously with hepatitis B.

Hepatitis E mainly infects people who eat or drink food or water contaminated with the virus. Under-cooked foods can also spread hepatitis E. It is more dangerous in pregnant women.

What Is Viral Hepatitis

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Viral hepatitis is an inflammation of your liver that’s caused by a virus. There are five types, but the most common ones in the U.S. are hepatitis A, B, and C. All of them affect your liver. Some of the symptoms are similar, but they have different treatments.

Hepatitis A. This type won’t lead to long-term infection and usually doesn’t cause any complications. Your liver heals in about 2 months. You can prevent it with a vaccine.

Hepatitis B. Most people recover from this type in 6 months. Sometimes, though, it causes a long-term infection that could lead to liver damage. Once you’ve got the disease, you can spread the virus even if you don’t feel sick. You won’t catch it if you get a vaccine.

Hepatitis C. Many people with this type don’t have symptoms. About 80% of those with the disease get a long-term infection. It can sometimes lead to cirrhosis, a scarring of the liver. There’s no vaccine to prevent it.

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Can Hepatitis A Be Prevented

The following will help keep people safe from hepatitis A:

  • regular hand washing, especially after going to the bathroom or diapering a baby, and before eating
  • washing fruits and vegetables before eating them
  • not eating raw shellfish, such as raw oysters
  • getting the vaccine for hep A

Getting vaccinated helps a person’s body make antibodies that protect against hepatitis infection. The hepatitis A vaccine is now given to all kids when they’re between 1 and 2 years old, and to people who are traveling to countries where the virus could get into the food and water supply.

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How Is It Spread

Hepatitis A is spread when a person ingests fecal mattereven in microscopic amountsfrom contact with objects, food, or drinks contaminated by feces or stool from an infected person.

Hepatitis B is primarily spread when blood, semen, or certain other body fluids- even in microscopic amounts from a person infected with the hepatitis B virus enters the body of someone who is not infected. The hepatitis B virus can also be transmitted from:

  • Birth to an infected mother
  • Sex with an infected person
  • Sharing equipment that has been contaminated with blood from an infected person, such as needles, syringes, and even medical equipment, such as glucose monitors
  • Sharing personal items such as toothbrushes or razors
  • Poor infection control has resulted in outbreaks in health care facilities

Hepatitis C is spread when blood from a person infected with the Hepatitis C virus even in microscopic amounts enters the body of someone who is not infected. The hepatitis C virus can also be transmitted from:

  • Sharing equipment that has been contaminated with blood from an infected person, such as needles and syringes
  • Receiving a blood transfusion or organ transplant before 1992
  • Poor infection control has resulted in outbreaks in health care facilities
  • Birth to an infected mother

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If I Have No Symptoms How Would I Know If I Have Hepatitis B

To confirm whether or not you have hepatitis B, you will need blood tests.

If you have at least one risk factor , you should ask your health care provider to be tested for hepatitis B. Also, you should be tested for hepatitis B if:

  • you were born in a region where hepatitis B is more common, including Asia, Africa, southern and eastern Europe, the Pacific Islands, the Middle East, and the Arctic
  • one or both of your parents immigrated from a region where hepatitis B is more common
  • you live or travel to regions where hepatitis B is more common
  • you have a family history of liver disease or liver cancer
  • you have been in prison
  • you are pregnant
  • you have ever used injection drugs, even just once
  • you have unexplained abnormal liver enzymes or if
  • you receive medicines that suppress the immune system.

What Do Hepatitis B And C Have In Common

The difference between hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E

Hepatitis is a family of viruses that infect the liver. While hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C can all cause short-term infections, hepatitis B and C can also lead to chronic, long-term infections that severely damage the liver over time. This can cause cirrhosis or scarring of the liver, liver-related cancer, or complete liver failure, especially if you have hepatitis B.

Vaccines exist, but only for hepatitis A and B infections. There is no vaccine for hepatitis C.

Both the hepatitis B and C viruses can lead to mild infections that your immune system can fight off. But, in over half of all cases, the infection doesnt go away, and the virus remains in your body for a much longer period.

You might not experience any symptoms during a chronic hepatitis B or C infection. But because hepatitis is contagious, you may inadvertently transmit it to others. That’s why its very important to get tested if you think that you might have been exposed.

If you’ve had a long-term infection, the effects of hepatitis B or C may not surface until many years sometimes decades later. One of the first effects you might feel involve damage to your liver. Generally speaking, the younger you are at the time of a viral hepatitis infection, the more likely that it’ll become chronic.

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Hepatitis B: How Does It Spread

You can get it through contact with the blood or body fluids of an infected person. In the U.S., it’s most often spread through unprotected sex. It’s also possible to get hepatitis B by sharing an infected person’s needles, razors, or toothbrush. And an infected mother can pass the virus to their baby during childbirth. Hepatitis B is not spread by hugging, sharing food, or coughing.

What If I Am Exposed To Hepatitis B What Should I Do

You should see your GP or local health centre as soon as possible to discuss your options. You will need to have a blood test and in some cases you may start treatment immediately to stop your body becoming infected with Hepatitis B. Management may include hepatitis B immunoglobulin, an injection of plasma which contains high levels of antibodies to help prevent hepatitis B infection from developing in a person who has been exposed.

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Prevent Infection After Contact With The Virus

If you think you have been in contact with the hepatitis B virus, see your doctor right away. Doctors typically recommend a dose of the hepatitis B vaccine to prevent infection. In some cases, doctors may also recommend a medicine called hepatitis B immune globulin to help prevent infection. You must get the vaccine dose and, if needed, HBIG shortly after coming into contact with the virus, preferably within 24 hours.

Which Is Worse Hepatitis B Or C

What you need to know about Hepatitis B

The scary thing about liver conditions like hepatitis is that you may be living with it and not even be aware.

Less than half of the people living with hepatitis B or hepatitis C are diagnosed. If you are one of these people living with an undetected case of hepatitis, you may be at risk for developing liver failure or liver cancer and transmitting the illness to other people.

What are the most common hepatitis infections? Is hepatitis B worse than hepatitis C? How is hepatitis detected and treated? Michael D. Cook, certified physician assistant at Gastroenterology Associates of Southwest Florida answers these questions and can help you understand the risks of hepatitis.

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What Are Hepatitis B And C

Hepatitis B and C are diseases caused by the hepatitis B and C viruses.

Hepatitis B and C stop the liver from working properly. Both Hepatitis B and C begin as acute infections , but in some people, the virus remains in the body, resulting in chronic disease and longterm liver problems. Some people with chronic disease develop liver cancer, others might need a liver transplant.

In New Zealand, about 100,000 people are living with hepatitis B and about 50,000 are living with hepatitis C.

If I Have Hepatitis How Can I Avoid Giving It To Someone Else

For hepatitis A, one of the best things you can do is wash your hands a lot. That will keep the virus out of food and drinks.

If you have hepatitis B and C, you need to find ways to keep others from making contact with your blood. Follow these tips:

  • Cover your cuts or blisters.
  • Carefully throw away used bandages, tissues, tampons, and sanitary napkins.
  • Don’t share your razor, nail clippers, or toothbrush.
  • If your blood gets on objects, clean them with household bleach and water.
  • Don’t breastfeed if your nipples are cracked or bleeding.
  • Don’t donate blood, organs, or sperm.
  • If you inject drugs, don’t share needles or other equipment.

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Treatments For Hepatitis B

Treatment for hepatitis B depends on how long you have been infected for.

If you have been exposed to the virus in the past few days, emergency treatment can help stop you becoming infected.

If you have only had the infection for a few weeks or months , you may only need treatment to relieve your symptoms while your body fights off the infection.

If you have had the infection for more than 6 months , you may be offered treatment with medicines that can keep the virus under control and reduce the risk of liver damage.

Chronic hepatitis B often requires long-term or lifelong treatment and regular monitoring to check for any further liver problems.

Guidance On Reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization

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Vaccine providers are asked to report, through local public health officials, any serious or unexpected adverse event temporally related to vaccination. An unexpected AEFI is an event that is not listed in available product information but may be due to the immunization, or a change in the frequency of a known AEFI.

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Preventing Hepatitis B Or C

There are vaccines available to prevent hepatitis B. The vaccines are free for babies and children under 18 years, and some adults. Talk with your doctor or nurse to find out more.

There is no vaccine against hepatitis C. To prevent spreading or catching hepatitis B or C:

  • Always use condoms during sex.
  • Cover cuts and scratches.
  • Do not share toothbrushes, razors or other personal items.
  • Do not share needles, syringes or other injecting equipment, including those used for skin piercing and tattooing.
  • Be careful about blood contact, for example, when playing a contact sport.
  • Get advice from your doctor if you are likely to have contact with blood or body fluids at work.
  • Do not donate blood if you have hepatitis B or C.

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