How Can I Reduce My Risk For Liver Cancer
You can lower your risk of getting liver cancer in the following ways
- Keep a healthy weight.
- Get vaccinated against Hepatitis B. The Hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for all infants at birth and for adults who may be at increased risk.
- Get tested for Hepatitis C, and get medical care if you have it.
- Dont smoke, or quit if you do.
- Avoid drinking too much alcohol.
How Can Liver Cancer Be Avoided
For patients with hepatitis C, if the treatments against the virus are successful in clearing the virus, the treatment can also actually reduce the risk of developing liver cancer. If the virus is cleared, that will reduce the chance of developing cirrhosis. For patients who already have cirrhosis, the treatment can sometimes reduce the risk that liver cancer will develop.
For patients who have cirrhosis resulting from hepatitis C or alcohol use, the risk of further damage to the liver can be reduced by avoiding alcohol.
Patients with advanced cirrhosis can be evaluated for a liver transplant before liver cancer develops.
Patients with hepatitis B and a high hepatitis B viral load can be treated with medications for hepatitis B. Reducing the hepatitis B viral load will reduce the chance of developing liver cancer.
Screening For Primary Liver Cancer
Cirrhosis of the liver and certain types of chronic liver disease, such as chronic hepatitis B, leave you more likely to have liver inflammation and scarring and to develop liver cancer.
We can help you set up a plan for a surveillance program to undergo regular screening with imaging tests, such as ultrasound, every six months. This will allow us to identify the disease at an early stage so that you can start to get care at a point when the cancer is still very treatable.
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What Are The Types Of Hepatitis B
There are two types of hepatitis B infection: acute and chronic.
An acute infection happens at the beginning, when you first get infected with hepatitis B. Many people are able to clear it from their bodies and recover. In fact, this is true of about 4 in 5 adults who are infected.
If you are not able to clear the infection within six months or longer, you have chronic hepatitis B. It is chronic hepatitis B that leads to inflammation and the serious, and possibly fatal, illnesses of cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. Treatment can slow disease progress, reduce the chance of liver cancer and increase your chances of surviving.
What Is Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is a vaccine preventable disease of the liver and leading cause of liver cancer worldwide caused by infection with the hepatitis B virus . Symptoms associated with the initial HBV infection, also called acute infection, could be so mild that many people including their doctors may not know they have been infected. But in some, it could result in an illness with symptoms of fatigue, lost of appetite, dark urine and yellow discoloration of the eyes, lasting for several months and even death from liver failure. Those who fail to clear the infection will develop lifelong, chronic hepatitis B infection that can lead to premature death from cirrhosis , liver failure, or liver cancer. Approximately 1 in 30 people worldwide is living with chronic hepatitis B which causes 60-80% of liver cancer cases worldwide. Without appropriate medical management, as many as 1 in 4 people chronically infected with HBV will die from liver cancer or liver failure, resulting in about 600,000 to a million deaths annually.
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What About Hepatitis C Patients Who Have Been Successfully Treated
A person who develops cirrhosis due to hepatitis C is still at risk of liver cancer, even if the hepatitis C is treated successfully and the virus can no longer be detected in the bloodstream . Successful treatment of hepatitis C reduces the liver cancer risk by approximately 70%. However, the risk is not zero. Therefore, the person will still need liver cancer screening.
What Is The Liver
The liver is located on the upper right side of the body, behind the lower ribs. The liver does many jobs, including
- Storing nutrients.
- Removing waste products and worn-out cells from the blood.
- Filtering and processing chemicals in food, alcohol, and medications.
- Producing bile, a solution that helps digest fats and eliminate waste products.
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Therapy: Can You Cure An Inflammation Of The Liver
Depending on the cause and course of the hepatitis, it either heals on its own or becomes chronic. For this reason, only the symptoms are usually treated in acute hepatitis.
Chronic hepatitis can be treated with different drugs, depending on the trigger. The virus-related liver inflammation can be treated with the help of antivirals, for example. The treatment is accompanied by the doctor with repeated tests of the liver values in the blood. This gives a more accurate picture of the livers condition. If the inflammation of the liver worsens drastically, a liver transplant may also be necessary.
In the case of alcoholic hepatitis, alcohol consumption should be completely stopped. Ultimately, a liver transplant may also be necessary in this case.
Autoimmune hepatitis is treated with glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids suppress the immune system and are supposed to prevent the own immune system from destroying the liver.
Vitamin B Is A Crucial Resource In Your Body Yet Many People Don’t Consume Enough Vitamin B With Diet Alone
However, how to actually collect those benefits is a different story. For some people, hepatitis b infection becomes chronic, meaning it lasts more than six months. Some people have it and may never know it as they are affected by any sorts of symptoms. People with diabetes are at risk for hepatitis b because of frequent percutaneous expos. They offer a range of health benefits, and if you’re not getting enough of these vitamins in your diet, the effects can rang. It can remain silent until there is severe damage to your liver. Here is a look at what exactly medicare is, the various parts of the program and the c. There are eight types of vitamin b, including: Asian americans and pacific islanders make up over half of the people in the uni. This page contains materials in all supported languages. Most americans are aware that medicare provides healthcare for citizens once they turn 65 as well as younger people with certain disabilities and end stage renal disease. Hepatitis c, a virus that attacks the liver, is a tricky disease. National social insurance program, has been in existence since 1966, it can still be rather confusing to fully understand.
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Who Gets Liver Cancer
People with cirrhosis are at increased risk of developing liver cancer. The cirrhosis may be due to hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, alcohol, fatty liver, or other causes. People living with hepatitis B are also at risk of liver cancer even if they haven’t developed cirrhosis, especially if they have a high hepatitis B viral load or are of Asian or African descent. Among patients living in the United States with both hepatitis C and cirrhosis, about 1-4% per year will develop liver cancer.
Liver Cancer Risk Factors
A risk factor is anything that increases your chance of getting a disease, such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like a person’s age or family history, can’t be changed.
But having a risk factor, or even several risk factors, does not mean that you will get the disease. And some people who get the disease may have few or no known risk factors.
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How Is Hepatitis B Transmitted
Birth – HBV can be transmitted from a chronically infected mother to her child during the birthing process. This is one of the most common modes of transmission for Asians. Many pregnant mothers with chronic hepatitis B are unaware of their infection and end up silently passing the virus to the next generation.
Blood – HBV can be transmitted through direct contact with infected blood. This includes:
- Wound-to-wound contact
- Reusing or sharing needles for tattoos, piercings, acupuncture, or injection drugs
- Reusing syringes or medical devices
- Sharing razors or toothbrushes contaminated by blood
- Blood transfusions
Sex – HBV can be transmitted through unprotected sex with a person infected with HBV. The use of condoms can reduce, but not eliminate, the risk of infection. Vaccination remains the most effective way to protect against HBV.
HBV is NOT transmitted through food or water. It is not spread through:
- Sharing food or water
- Sharing eating utensils or drinking glasses
- Tears, sweat, urine, or stool
- Coughing or sneezing
Symptoms Of Chronic Hepatitis B
Symptoms of chronic hepatitis B vary depending on how badly the liver is damaged.
Many people with chronic hepatitis B, particularly children, have no symptoms. People who have symptoms usually feel generally ill and tired and lose their appetite. Some people have a low-grade fever and vague discomfort in the upper abdomen.
Often, the first specific symptoms occur when the liver disease has progressed and there is evidence of cirrhosis. Symptoms can include
An enlarged spleen
Deterioration of brain function due to malfunction of the liver
Brain function deteriorates because toxic substances build up in the blood and reach the brain. The liver normally removes them from the blood, breaks them down, then excretes them as harmless by-products into the bile or blood. The badly damaged liver is less able to remove them.
People have a tendency to bleed because the damaged liver can no longer synthesize enough of the proteins that help blood clot.
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Hepatitis B Vs Hepatitis C
Hepatitis has many different types. HBV and the hepatitis C virus have both acute and chronic forms.
The main difference between HBV and HCV is how they spread from person to person. Although HCV is transmissible via sexual activity, this is rare. HCV usually spreads when blood that carries the virus comes into contact with blood that does not.
Prevent Hepatitis B Infections In Newborns
If you are pregnant and have hepatitis B, talk with your doctor about lowering the risk that the infection will spread to your baby. Your doctor will check your virus levels during pregnancy. If virus levels are high, your doctor may recommend treatment during pregnancy to lower virus levels and reduce the chance that hepatitis B will spread to your baby. Your doctor may refer you to a liver specialist to find out if you need hepatitis B treatment and to check for liver damage.
When it is time to give birth, tell the doctor and staff who deliver your baby that you have hepatitis B. A health care professional should give your baby the hepatitis B vaccine and HBIG right after birth. The vaccine and HBIG will greatly reduce the chance of your baby getting the infection.
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Causes Of Liver Cancer
The exact cause of liver cancer is unknown, but many cases are linked to a problem with the liver called cirrhosis. This is where the tissue of the liver has become scarred and cannot perform many of its usual functions.
Cancer is a condition where cells in a specific part of the body grow and reproduce uncontrollably, producing a lump of tissue known as a tumour.
In cases of liver cancer, it is uncertain why and how the cells of the liver are affected, but it appears that cirrhosis can increase a person’s chances of developing the condition.
However, most cases of cirrhosis do not lead to liver cancer, and people without cirrhosis can also develop liver cancer.
Who Is More Likely To Get Hepatitis B
People are more likely to get hepatitis B if they are born to a mother who has hepatitis B. The virus can spread from mother to child during birth. For this reason, people are more likely to have hepatitis B if they
- were born in a part of the world where 2 percent or more of the population has hepatitis B infection
- were born in the United States, didnt receive the hepatitis B vaccine as an infant, and have parents who were born in an area where 8 percent or more of the population had hepatitis B infection
People are also more likely to have hepatitis B if they
- are infected with HIV, because hepatitis B and HIV spread in similar ways
- have lived with or had sex with someone who has hepatitis B
- have had more than one sex partner in the last 6 months or have a history of sexually transmitted disease
- are men who have sex with men
- are injection drug users
- work in a profession, such as health care, in which they have contact with blood, needles, or body fluids at work
- live or work in a care facility for people with developmental disabilities
- have been on kidney dialysis
- live or work in a prison
- had a blood transfusion or organ transplant before the mid-1980s
In the United States, hepatitis B spreads among adults mainly through contact with infected blood through the skin, such as during injection drug use, and through sexual contact.12
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Treatment Of Chronic Hepatitis B
People with chronic hepatitis B have been taking antiviral drugs for a long time.
They are treated with hepatitis immune globulin before and often after transplantation.
Hepatitis B immune globulin is obtained from the blood of people who have high levels of antibodies to hepatitis B. It is given by injection into a muscle or into a vein. It helps the body fight infection.
Hepatitis C Virus Infection
Worldwide, 140 million infections with hepatitis C virus are estimated . The lack of proof-reading capacity of the HCV-encoded polymerase along with high replication rates results in a high mutation rate and genesis of a heterogeneous but closely related quasi-species . HCV is transmitted via parenteral routes, occurs in industrialized countries via intravenous drug abuse or by invasive sexual practices and is rarely transmitted from mother to child. Transmission has been limited by improving hygienic standards. In contrast with HBV, the risk of viral persistence and the development of chronic HCV infection in children are lower than those in adults. HCV has a very different prevalence depending on demographic factors: approximately 1.6% in the USA, less than 0.5% in Northern Europe and up to 3% in rural regions of Romania the most-affected regions are Central and East Asia and North Africa.
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Is There A Cure For Chronic Hepatitis B
Currently, there is no complete cure for hepatitis B. But when managed properly, those living with the virus can expect to live a normal life. Maintaining a healthy diet and avoiding alcoholic beverages and tobacco products are crucial components in managing the disease.
You should also visit a doctor familiar with hepatitis B at least annuallythough twice a year might be best to monitor your liver through blood tests and medical imaging. As with most diseases, detecting it early leads to a better outcome. If youre exposed to the virus, you should get an antibody injection within 12 hours of exposure.
How Are Hepatitis B And C Treated
- Antiviral medications, interferon injections and a liver transplant are options for treatment of ongoing infections. Not everyone will need these treatments.
- Medicines known as direct-acting antiviral agents are now available that can lead to a cure in 8 to 12 weeks in many patients with hepatitis C, but hepatitis B may require long-term treatment.
- There is a vaccine that is used to prevent hepatitis B infection in both adults and newborns, but there is no vaccine yet for hepatitis C.
The newer direct-acting antiviral agents medications to treat HCV include:
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Genetic Risk Factors In Hepatocellular Carcinoma Development
Besides the well-known patient-specific risk factors for HCC development in CHB described above, evidence exists for a genetic predisposition due to single-nucleotide polymorphisms . Several SNPs associated with HCC have been reported and expression profiles generated . These polymorphisms alter biological pathways, including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA repair, cell cycle and growth factors . The association between aflatoxin B1 and CHB is well established, and a concomitant SNP of GTSM1 and GSTT1 is associated with a dramatic increase in HCC risk . This indicates that the HCC risk attributable to specific polymorphisms depends on underlying risk factors and specific SNPs are associated with increased HCC risk in CHB. Such polymorphisms include SNPs of MDM2 and p53 XRCC3 HLA -DQ CTL-4 GLB1 and TGF-1 but no other proinflammatory cytokines or interleukin-10 . Nonetheless, these SNPs were mostly detected in collectives of CHB patients from the Far East or Asia and confirmatory studies in other patient populations are required.
Prevent Infection After Contact With The Virus
If you think you have been in contact with the hepatitis B virus, see your doctor right away. Doctors typically recommend a dose of the hepatitis B vaccine to prevent infection. In some cases, doctors may also recommend a medicine called hepatitis B immune globulin to help prevent infection. You must get the vaccine dose and, if needed, HBIG shortly after coming into contact with the virus, preferably within 24 hours.
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How Do Doctors Treat Hepatitis B
Doctors typically dont treat hepatitis B unless it becomes chronic. Doctors may treat chronic hepatitis B with antiviral medicines that attack the virus.
Not everyone with chronic hepatitis B needs treatment. If blood tests show that hepatitis B could be damaging a persons liver, a doctor may prescribe antiviral medicines to lower the chances of liver damage and complications.
Medicines that you take by mouth include
A medicine that doctors can give as a shot is peginterferon alfa-2a .
The length of treatment varies. Hepatitis B medicines may cause side effects. Talk with your doctor about the side effects of treatment. Tell your doctor before taking any other prescription or over-the-counter medicines.