Saturday, February 4, 2023

What Is Hepatitis And Its Types

How Can You Prevent Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C

What Are The Early Signs Of Hepatitis?

Hepatitis B: Vaccination is the best way to prevent all of the ways that hepatitis B is transmitted. People with HIV who do not have active HBV infection should be vaccinated against it. In addition to the 3-dose series of hepatitis B vaccine given over 6 months, as of 2017, there is a 2-dose series given over 1 month.

Hepatitis C: No vaccine exists for HCV and no effective pre- or postexposure prophylaxis is available. The best way to prevent hepatitis C infection is to never inject drugs or to stop injecting drugs by getting into and staying in drug treatment. If you continue injecting drugs, always use new, sterile needles or syringes, and never reuse or share needles or syringes, water, or other drug preparation equipment.

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What Is The Difference Between Hepatitis A B And C

Hepatitis is the combination of two words, Hepa or Hepatic means related to the Liver, and itis means infection. There are five main strains of hepatitis, namely, A, B, C, D, and E, with different etiologies. While some are caused by ingestion of contaminated food, some are caused by blood-to-blood or body fluids contact. According to WHO, 354 million people globally live with a hepatitis B or C infection. In the WHO European Region, an estimated 13.3 million people live with chronic hepatitis B and an estimated 15 million people with hepatitis C.

Adding to the alarming stats, as per the CDC , since the outbreaks were first identified in 2016, 37 states have publicly reported 44,241 cases, 27,029 hospitalizations, and 420 deaths as of May 6, 2022.

Even though the prevalence of Hepatitis is high, not many people know about the difference in the strains of Hepatitis viruses and their transmission route. Here, we have highlighted the main differences in hepatitis A, B, and C and how is it caused?

LetsLets begin by talking about,

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Willowbrook State School Experiments

A New York University researcher named Saul Krugman continued this research into the 1950s and 1960s, most infamously with his experiments on mentally disabled children at the Willowbrook State School in New York, a crowded urban facility where hepatitis infections were highly endemic to the student body. Krugman injected students with gamma globulin, a type of antibody. After observing the temporary protection against infection this antibody provided, he then tried injected live hepatitis virus into students. Krugman also controversially took feces from infected students, blended it into milkshakes, and fed it to newly admitted children.

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Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Test

A hepatitis B surface antigen test shows if you have an active infection. A positive result means you have hepatitis B and can transmit the virus to others. A negative result means you dont currently have hepatitis B.

This test doesnt distinguish between chronic and acute infection. This test is used together with other hepatitis B tests to determine the state of a hepatitis B infection.

Possible Complications Of Hepatitis C

Types of Viral Hepatitis. Hepatitis a, B, C, D, E, F, G. World ...

Theres one main complication of acute hepatitis C: It could become chronic.

If you go on to develop chronic hepatitis C, you could eventually experience a number of health complications, including:

  • Cirrhosis. With cirrhosis, scar tissue gradually replaces healthy tissue in your liver, blocking blood flow and disrupting liver function. Cirrhosis can eventually lead to liver failure.
  • Liver cancer. Having chronic hepatitis C raises your risk for eventually developing liver cancer. If you develop cirrhosis or your liver is very damaged before treatment, youll still have a higher risk for cancer after getting treated.
  • Liver failure. It takes a long time for your liver to fail. Liver failure, or end-stage liver disease, happens slowly over months, often years. When your liver becomes unable to function properly, youll need a transplant.

If you believe you contracted the hepatitis C virus, a good next step involves reaching out to a healthcare professional. Getting timely treatment can lower your risk for experiencing serious complications.

The sooner you get a diagnosis, the sooner your healthcare professional can start a treatment plan.

research continues.

Currently, the best way to protect yourself from the hepatitis C virus is to avoid using any items that may have come into contact with someone elses blood.

You can do this by:

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How Can I Protect Myself Against Viral Hepatitis

There are many ways you can reduce your chances of getting hepatitis:

  • Get the vaccines for hepatitis A and hepatitis B.
  • Use a condom during sex.
  • Don’t share needles to take drugs.
  • Practice good personal hygiene such as thorough hand-washing with soap and water.
  • Don’t use an infected person’s personal items.
  • Take precautions when getting any tattoos or body piercings.
  • Take precaution when traveling to areas of the world with poor sanitation.
  • Drink bottled water when traveling.

It is very important that you take these preventive measures if you participate in risky behaviors. Take preventive steps, too, if you work in places like a nursing homes, dormitories, daycare centers, or restaurants where there you have extended contact with other people and a risk of coming into contact with the disease.

The A B Cs Of Hepatitis

Hepatitis A

The hepatitis A virus causes acute inflammation of the liver that almost always gets better on its own, although it can be more serious if you get it when you are older or if you already have liver disease. It is easily spread from person to person, in food and water, and can infect many people at once. For example, if a food handler at a restaurant is infected with hepatitis A, those who eat food prepared by that handler may be infected. Hepatitis A can be prevented by getting vaccinated.

Hepatitis B

The hepatitis B virus can be both acute and chronic and is spread through blood or other body fluids in various ways. Hepatitis B is very common in Asia and Africa and those who were born or lived in these areas should be checked for hepatitis B. Like hepatitis A, a vaccine is available to prevent HBV infection as long as you have not been previously exposed. Although chronic HBV cannot be cured, there are oral medications available to treat and control the virus.

Hepatitis C

The hepatitis C virus is almost always chronic and spreads mostly by direct blood to blood contact. Although hepatitis A and B can be prevented by vaccination, hepatitis C cannot. However, there are currently oral medications available that are able to cure Hepatitis C in 95% of all cases regardless of prior treatment history.

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How Do You Get Hepatitis A

The main way you get hepatitis A is when you eat or drink something that has the hep A virus in it. A lot of times this happens in a restaurant. If an infected worker there doesn’t wash their hands well after using the bathroom, and then touches food, they could pass the disease to you.

Food or drinks you buy at the supermarket can sometimes cause the disease, too. The ones most likely to get contaminated are:

You could catch or spread it if you’re taking care of a baby and you don’t wash your hands after changing their diaper. This can happen, for example, at a day care center.

Another way you can get hep A is when you have sex with someone who has it.

Common Symptoms Of Hepatitis

Viral hepatitis (A, B, C, D, E) – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

If you are living with a chronic form of hepatitis, like hepatitis B and C, you may not show symptoms until the damage affects liver function. By contrast, people with acute hepatitis may present with symptoms shortly after contracting a hepatitis virus.

Common symptoms of infectious hepatitis include:

It is crucial to understand what is causing hepatitis in order to treat it correctly. Doctors will progress through a series of tests to accurately diagnose your condition.

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What Is Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is contagious. The virus lives in poop from people who have the infection. That’s why it’s so important to wash your hands before eating and after going to the bathroom. If you don’t, and then go make yourself a sandwich, hep A virus might end up on your food, and then in you! People who recover from hepatitis A have immunity to the virus and won’t get it again.

The hepatitis A vaccine has made the infection less common in the United States and other developed countries. Getting vaccinated helps a person’s body make antibodies that protect against hepatitis infection. The hepatitis A vaccine is given to all kids when they’re between 1 and 2 years old, and to people who travel to countries where the virus could get into the food and water supply.

These steps also help keep people safe from hepatitis A:

  • regular hand washing, especially after going to the bathroom or diapering a baby, and before eating
  • washing fruits and vegetables before eating them
  • not eating raw shellfish, such as raw oysters

Is There Any Way To Prevent Hepatitis A

The No. 1 way to avoid getting hepatitis A is by getting the hepatitis A vaccine. This vaccine is given in a series of two injections, 6 to 12 months apart.

If youre traveling to a country where hepatitis A transmission is more common, get your vaccination at least 2 weeks before traveling. It usually takes 2 weeks after the first injection for your body to start building immunity to hepatitis A. If youre not traveling for at least a year, its best to get both injections before leaving.

Check your destination on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention site to see if you should get a hepatitis A vaccination.

To limit your chance of contracting hepatitis A, you should also:

  • thoroughly wash your hands with soap and warm water before eating or drinking, and after using the restroom
  • drink bottled water rather than local water in developing countries, or in countries where theres a high risk of contracting hepatitis A
  • dine at established, reputable restaurants, rather than from street vendors
  • avoid eating peeled or raw fruit and vegetables in an area with low sanitation or hygienic standards

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Who Should Be Tested

Testing for hepatitis A is not routinely recommended.

CDC recommends hepatitis B testing for:

  • Men who have sex with men
  • People who inject drugs
  • Household and sexual contacts of people with hepatitis B
  • People requiring immunosuppressive therapy
  • People with end-stage renal disease
  • People with hepatitis C
  • People with elevated ALT levels
  • Infants born to HBV-infected mothers

CDC recommends hepatitis C testing for:

  • All adults aged 18 years and older
  • All pregnant women during each pregnancy
  • About 24,900 new infections each year
  • About 22,600 new infections in 2018
  • Estimated 862,000 people living with hepatitis B
  • About 50,300 new infections in 2018
  • Estimated 2.4 million people living with hepatitis C

Vaccination Is The Best Way To Prevent Hepatitis A

Pin on Hepatitis Awareness

Hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for:

Children

  • All children aged 1223 months
  • All children and adolescents 218 years of age who have not previously received hepatitis A vaccine

People at increased risk for hepatitis A

  • International travelers
  • Men who have sex with men
  • People who use or inject drugs
  • People with occupational risk for exposure
  • People who anticipate close personal contact with an international adoptee
  • People experiencing homelessness

People at increased risk for severe disease from hepatitis A infection

  • People with chronic liver disease, including hepatitis B and hepatitis C
  • People with HIV

Other people recommended for vaccination

  • Pregnant women at risk for hepatitis A or risk for severe outcome from hepatitis A infection
  • Any person who requests vaccination

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Cirrhosis And Hepatitis C: Their Connection Prognosis And More

Hepatitis C can lead to cirrhosis

Some 3.5 million people in the United States have chronic hepatitis C virus . Yet most people infected with HCV dont know they have it.

Over years, HCV infection can cause major damage to the liver. For every 75 to 85 people who have chronic HCV infection, between

Over time, inflammation in the liver causes scarring and permanent damage . At the point of cirrhosis, the liver is unable to heal itself. Cirrhosis can lead to:

  • end-stage liver disease

There are two stages of cirrhosis:

  • Compensated cirrhosis means the body still functions despite reduced liver function and scarring.
  • means that liver functions are breaking down. Serious symptoms may occur, like kidney failure, variceal hemorrhage, and hepatic encephalopathy.

How Is Hepatitis A Spread

The hepatitis A virus is found in the stool and blood of people who are infected. The hepatitis A virus is spread when someone ingests the virus, usually through:

Person-to-person contact
Eating contaminated food or drink

Contamination of food with the hepatitis A virus can happen at any point: growing, harvesting, processing, handling, and even after cooking. Contamination of food and water happens more often in countries where hepatitis A is common. Although uncommon, foodborne outbreaks have occurred in the United States from people eating contaminated fresh and frozen imported food products.

Hepatitis A can be prevented with a safe and effective vaccine.

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How Are Hepatitis A B And C Different

There are approximately 400 million people in the world who have been diagnosed with one form of hepatitis.

About 1.4 million people die from this disease annually, and what is most surprising is the fact that experts estimate that as many as 95% of people who have hepatitis do not know about this disease.

Left untreated, hepatitis, in one form or another, can cause permanent liver damage. We must be aware that patients with hepatitis usually have mild or no symptoms at all.

  • People with elevated ALT levels
  • Infants born to HBV-infected mothers

CDC recommends hepatitis C testing for:

  • All adults aged 18 years and older
  • All pregnant women during each pregnancy
  • About 24,900 new infections each year
  • About 22,600 new infections in 2018
  • Estimated 862,000 people living with hepatitis B
  • About 50,300 new infections in 2018
  • Estimated 2.4 million people living with hepatitis C

What Is The Outlook For Hepatitis

Hepatitis | Pathophysiology of Viral Hepatitis

Hepatitis A and E usually only cause short-term infections that your body can overcome. The others can also cause acute infections, but might also cause chronic infections. The chronic forms are more dangerous. Hepatitis non-E is usually acute, but can become chronic.

Most people recover fully from hepatitis even though it might take several months for the liver to heal. To help improve your health and to help speed up your recovery:

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Hepatitis B: How Does It Spread

You can get it through contact with the blood or body fluids of an infected person. In the U.S., itâs most often spread through unprotected sex. Itâs also possible to get hepatitis B by sharing an infected personâs needles, razors, or toothbrush. And an infected mother can pass the virus to their baby during childbirth. Hepatitis B is not spread by hugging, sharing food, or coughing.

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Can Hepatitis Be Prevented

There are different ways to prevent or lower your risk for hepatitis, depending on the type of hepatitis. For example, not drinking too much alcohol can prevent alcoholic hepatitis. There are vaccines to prevent hepatitis A and B. Autoimmune hepatitis cannot be prevented.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

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How Serious Is It

  • People can be sick for a few weeks to a few months
  • Most recover with no lasting liver damage
  • Although very rare, death can occur
  • 15%25% of chronically infected people develop chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis, liver failure, or liver cancer
  • More than 50% of people who get infected with the hepatitis C virus develop a chronic infection
  • 5%-25% of people with chronic hepatitis C develop cirrhosis over 1020 years

Is Hepatitis B Curable

Types of hepatitis viruses hepatitis a b c d Vector Image

Theres currently no known cure for hepatitis B, but there are many ways you can prevent infection and avoid transmitting the virus to others.

The most effective and safe way to prevent hepatitis B is to get vaccinated. You can also use barrier methods, like condoms, when having sex and avoid sharing needles.

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Medications For Hepatitis C

Many different medications can treat hepatitis C. Treatments most often include antivirals, with Riboviria sometimes prescribed if previous treatments were ineffective.

Medications called direct-acting antivirals work to fully remove the hepatitis C virus from your body while helping prevent liver damage at the same time.

A few brand names of these medications include:

6 different genotypes , or strains, of hepatitis C.

Once your doctor or other healthcare professional knows your genotype, theyll have a better idea of which medication will work best for you. Some strains have developed a resistance to some medications, so your genotype can affect your treatment options.

Are Hepatitis B And C Preventable

Hepatitis B is a vaccine-preventable disease.

There is a three-shot vaccination series that is very effective in protecting people against the virus if theyre exposed. In the United States, all newborns are vaccinated for hepatitis B and all pregnant women are screened for hepatitis B during pregnancy. This way, mothers infected with hepatitis B can take protective steps to decrease the risk of transmission of the virus to the child.

There is no vaccine for hepatitis C.

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