Who Is At Risk
Anyone who has not been vaccinated or previously infected can get infected with the hepatitis A virus. In areas where the virus is widespread , most hepatitis A infections occur during early childhood. Risk factors include:
- poor sanitation
- living in a household with an infected person
- being a sexual partner of someone with acute hepatitis A infection
- use of recreational drugs
- travelling to areas of high endemicity without being immunized.
What Is Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment
Hepatic encephalopathy is a syndrome that is observable among patients that have cirrhosis. Hepatic encephalopathy falls under the spectrum of neuropsychiatric problems among individuals suffering from liver dysfunction, without including brain disease. Liver function examinations check for elevated enzyme levels. A raise in enzymes suggests stress on the liver or alternatively liver damage. Inform your doctor in case you suffer from liver disease or kidney disease. The symptoms you are encountering together with your medical background can oftentimes be adequate to detect hepatic encephalopathy. But is Hepatic encephalopathy treatment possible?
Using treatment, this syndrome is usually reversible. In fact, full recovery is a possibility, especially if it was induced by a correctable cause. Then again, men and women with a chronic liver condition are susceptible to upcoming attacks of encephalopathy. Several require prolonged treatment. The prevalence of encephalopathy serious enough to result in hospitalization associates with survival possibility of 42% during one year of follow-ups, and at 23% for three years. Roughly 30% of sufferers suffering from the final stage of liver disease suffer from significant encephalopathy, drawing near to coma. Continue reading to learn more about hepatic encephalopathy treatment which is crucial to aid you if you have this syndrome specifically.
How To Treat Hepatitis In Dogs
Does your dog have hepatitis? Read on to learn how to treat your pet if he or she has hepatitis. Canine viral hepatitis is a highly contagious disease that can be life-threatening. It is caused by canine adenovirus type I. It mainly affects dogs under 1 year old and its symptoms include weight loss, fever, ocular and nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and vomiting, among others. Learn how to treat hepatitis in dogs in this oneHOWTO.
Viral hepatitis or CAV-1 cannot be cured, but it can be treated. The treatment is aimed at alleviating the negative effects of the virus, that is, to ensure that damage is minimized. Keep in mind that many times, despite doing everything possible, a dog that has contracted hepatitis may not survive.
Veterinarians usually diagnose this disease after a full and thorough examination that includes blood and urine analysis. To confirm the presence of the virus, it is usually isolated in the kidney, liver and the anterior chamber of the eyeball via immunofluorescence. After seeing the results, your veterinarian will determine how to treat the disease.
The standard treatment for hepatitis is antibiotics to control any secondary bacterial infections. Drugs are also administered for different symptoms such as vomiting, liver failure, diarrhea and blood clotting problems.
- Vegetable protein
- Wholegrain rice
- Fiber-rich foods such as spinach and lettuce
- Vitamin C
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What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Hepatitis A
- Many people with HAV infection have no symptoms at all.
- Sometimes symptoms are so mild that they go unnoticed.
- Older people are more likely to have symptoms than children.
- People who do not have symptoms can still spread the virus so it is difficult to know when a person has been exposed to the virus.
Symptoms of hepatitis A usually develop between 2-6 weeks after infection. The symptoms are usually not too severe and go away on their own, over time. The most common hepatitis A symptoms are as follows:
- Urine is dark brownish in color, like cola or strong tea.
- Pain in the area of the liver, on the right side of the abdomen just under the rib cage
If the vomiting is severe, dehydration may occur. Dehydration may become serious and life-threatening in some affected individuals, so symptoms of dehydration need to be quickly addressed, often by a medical caregiver. Symptoms of dehydration include the following:
- Feeling weak or tired
- Feeling confused or unable to concentrate
- Rapid heartbeat
- Urinating less frequently than usual
Symptoms of hepatitis A infection usually last less than 2 months, although they may last as long as 9 months. Some people infected with hepatitis A have symptoms that come and go for 6-9 months.
Hepatitis B During Pregnancy
If a woman with HBV becomes pregnant, they may transmit the virus to their baby. Women should inform the doctor who delivers their baby that they have HBV.
The infant should receive an HBV vaccine and HBIG with 1224 hours of birth. This significantly reduces the risk that they will develop HBV.
The HBV vaccine is safe to receive while pregnant.
People with a high risk of HBV include:
- the infants of mothers with HBV
- the sexual partners of people with HBV
- people who engage in sexual intercourse without contraception and those who have multiple sexual partners
- men who have sex with men
- people who inject illicit drugs
- those who share a household with a person who has a chronic HBV infection
- healthcare and public safety workers who are at risk of occupational exposure to blood or contaminated bodily fluids
- people receiving hemodialysis, which is a type of kidney treatment
- people taking medications that suppress the immune system, such as chemotherapy for cancer
- those who come from a region with a high incidence of HBV
- all women during pregnancy
People can prevent HBV infection by:
- wearing appropriate protective equipment when working in healthcare settings or dealing with medical emergencies
- not sharing needles
- following safe sexual practices
- cleaning any blood spills or dried blood with gloved hands using a 1:10 dilution of one part household bleach to 10 parts water
A vaccine against HBV has been available since 1982.
People who should receive this vaccine include:
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Altered Level Of Consciousness
An altered level of consciousness is any measure of other than normal. Level of consciousness is a measurement of a persons arousability and responsiveness to from the environment. A mildly depressed level of or may be classed as someone in this state can be aroused with little difficulty. People who are have a more depressed level of consciousness and cannot be fully aroused. Those who are not able to be aroused from a sleep-like state are said to be . is the inability to make any purposeful response. Scales such as the have been designed to measure the level of consciousness.
An altered level of consciousness can result from a variety of factors, including alterations in the chemical environment of the brain , insufficient or in the brain, and excessive . Prolonged unconsciousness is understood to be a sign of a . A deficit in the level of consciousness suggests that both of the or the have been injured. A decreased level of consciousness correlates to increased and . Thus it is a valuable measure of a patients medical and neurological status. In fact, some sources consider level of consciousness to be one of the .
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Questions To Ask Your Doctor
- Do I need treatment?
- What treatment is best for me?
- Will I need be hospitalized?
- Are there any medicines I should avoid taking?
- Are there foods I should avoid eating?
- Can I drink alcohol?
- How can I protect my family from getting hepatitis A?
- If Ive had hepatitis A, am I at higher risk of getting other types of hepatitis?
- Will I have permanent liver damage?
- How soon before I travel should I be vaccinated?
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What Are The Risk Factors For Hepatitis B And C
Hepatitis B: Although most commonly acquired early in life, adults can also contract it. Hepatitis B is largely transmitted through bodily fluids. It can be passed at birth from a hepatitis B-infected mother or through exposure in early childhood to body fluids, blood or contaminated medical instruments. Hepatitis B can also be transmitted through intranasal and injection drug use as well as infected tools used during tattooing and body piercing.
Hepatitis C: The key risk factors are also intranasal and injection drug use, tattoos and body piercings, high-risk sexual contact, blood transfusions before 1992 and organ transplantation.
Another key risk factor for hepatitis C is being born from 1945 to 1965, during the baby-boom years. Eighty percent of all people who currently have hepatitis C in the United States were born in that timeframe.
Although the reasons that baby boomers are more likely to have hepatitis C than others arent entirely understood, its believed that most were infected in the 1970s and 1980s, when rates of hepatitis C were at their peak.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommend that all U.S. adults born from 1945 to 1965 undergo a one-time screening test for hepatitis C. Connecticut is one of several states that has written this recommendation into law. In Connecticut ,the law requires that primary care clinicians screen all adults born within those years.
What Is The Follow
Follow the recommendations of the healthcare professional.
- Take it easy get plenty of rest.
- Drink plenty of clear fluids.
- Avoid alcoholic beverages.
- Avoid medicines such as acetaminophen that can be harmful to the liver.
- Avoid prolonged or vigorous physical exercise until your symptoms improve.
- Be extra careful about personal hygiene and close personal contacts, especially while the person is still shedding HAV, and thus is still capable of transmitting the disease.
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Clinical Features Of Hepatic Encephalopathy
Two broad categories of hepatic encephalopathy are covert and overt hepatic encephalopathy. CHE is particularly associated with poor outcomes.
Grading of the symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy is performed according to the so-called West Haven classification system, as follows :
Grade 0 Minimal hepatic encephalopathy lack of detectable changes in personality or behavior minimal changes in memory, concentration, intellectual function, and coordination asterixis is absent.
Grade 1 Trivial lack of awareness shortened attention span impaired addition or subtraction hypersomnia, insomnia, or inversion of sleep pattern euphoria, depression, or irritability mild confusion slowing of ability to perform mental tasks
Grade 2 Lethargy or apathy disorientation inappropriate behavior slurred speech obvious asterixis drowsiness, lethargy, gross deficits in ability to perform mental tasks, obvious personality changes, inappropriate behavior, and intermittent disorientation, usually regarding time
Grade 3 Somnolent but can be aroused unable to perform mental tasks disorientation about time and place marked confusion amnesia occasional fits of rage present but incomprehensible speech
Grade 4 Coma with or without response to painful stimuli
In terms of the physical examination finding of asterixis, it must be emphasized that the flapping tremor of the extremities is also observed in patients with uremia, pulmonary insufficiency, and barbiturate toxicity.
Durability And Related Factors After Hbsag Clearance
When patients with HBeAg-positive CHB achieve a satisfactory antiviral treatment endpoint , the clinical recurrence is 2040%, and the virological recurrence can be as high as 8090% after drug withdrawal . Because the safety of drug withdrawal is uncertain, HBsAg clearance is recommended as the ideal treatment endpoint for CHB patients. The accessibility and rate of HBsAg clearance was mentioned above, but the durability of HBsAg clearance after treatment cessation remains controversial.
HBeAg status should also receive attention in the pursuit of HBsAg clearance. The clearance of HBsAg in most patients is based on HBV DNA suppression and HBeAg seroconversion, but a few patients exhibit different HBsAg response patterns, such as HBsAg clearance without HBeAg seroconversion. Only HBsAg clearance based on HBV DNA suppression and HBeAg seroconversion is safe for drug withdrawal .
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What Is Hepatitis A
Hepatitis A, also called hep A, is a contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus. Some people have only a mild illness that lasts a few weeks. Others have more severe problems that can last months. You usually get the disease when you eat or drink something contaminated by poop from a person who has the virus.
The hepatitis A virus usually isnât dangerous. Almost everyone who has it gets better. But because it can take a while to go away, youâll need to take care of yourself in the meantime.
Who Is At Risk For Infection
Anyone who is not immune to hepatitis A can get hepatitis A infection. Food-borne outbreaks occur sporadically throughout the USA. Certain groups of people do have a higher risk of developing HAV infection and should be vaccinated:
- Persons experiencing homelessness
- People who eat raw or under-cooked shellfish
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Can Hepatitis Be Prevented
There are different ways to prevent or lower your risk for hepatitis, depending on the type of hepatitis. For example, not drinking too much alcohol can prevent alcoholic hepatitis. There are vaccines to prevent hepatitis A and B. Autoimmune hepatitis cannot be prevented.
NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Who Should Get The Hepatitis A Vaccine
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that all children in the U.S. get vaccinated against hepatitis A at age 12 months. However, if an infant aged 6-11 months will be traveling to a country with a significant number of people with hepatitis A, the child should get one dose before leaving the U.S. The child should then get 2 doses separated by 6 to 18 months when the child is between 12 months and 23 months.
You should also get the hepatitis A vaccine if you fall into one of the following groups:
- Men who have sexual contact with other men.
- Users of any type of illegal drugs.
- People with blood clot disorders, such as hemophilia.
- People who have chronic liver disease.
- Homeless people.
- People who will be closely involved with a person being adopted from a country with high rates of hepatitis A infections.
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Hepatitis A Immunisation Is Recommended For High
In Victoria, the vaccine is recommended for:
- people travelling to places where hepatitis A is common
- people whose work puts them at increased risk of infection including:
- plumbers and sewage workers
- people who work with children
- people who work with people with developmental disabilities
Remember that immunisation against hepatitis A does not protect you against hepatitis B or hepatitis C.
How Is Hepatitis A Diagnosed
The health care professional will ask questions about the illness and symptoms, and about any possible exposures to other people diagnosed with hepatitis, especially the type of hepatitis .
If the healthcare professional determines that the patient may be at risk for contracting hepatitis, then it is likely the patient will undergo blood tests.
- The blood will be tested to determine how well the liver is functioning.
- A test will be ordered to detect antibody to hepatitis A. The results of this test will also determine if the patient has been recently exposed to HAV.
- Blood probably will be tested for the hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses, as well as others others. For example, if a patient has had a large amount of vomiting or has not been able to take in liquids, the blood electrolytes may be out of balance. Blood chemistry may be tested to check electrolytes.
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There are no specific medicines to cure infection with hepatitis A. Most people require no treatment except to relieve symptoms. However, if symptoms become severe or dehydration develops, the person should seek medical care emergently.
There is a vaccine for hepatitis A . If you have been exposed to someone who is infected with HAV, a treatment called immune serum globulin is available and may prevent you from becoming infected. Immune serum globulin is more likely to be effective when given within 2 weeks of exposure.
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Complications Of Hepatitis A
Around 10% of people who have had hepatitis A experience a relapse . Most people who have a relapse fully recover.
Hepatitis A does not cause chronic liver disease.
The severity of the disease is more severe in older age groups.
Complications of hepatitis A are rare, but the infection can lead to fulminant hepatitis. This is an acute form of hepatitis that can cause liver failure. The risk of death from fulminant hepatitis increases with age.
Emergency Hepatitis B Treatment
See your GP as soon as possible if you think you may have been exposed to the hepatitis B virus.
To help stop you becoming infected, they can give you:
- a dose of the hepatitis B vaccine youll also need 2 further doses over the next few months to give you long-term protection
- hepatitis B immunoglobulin a preparation of antibodies that work against the hepatitis B virus and can offer immediate but short-term protection until the vaccine starts to take effect
These are most effective if given within 48 hours after possible exposure to hepatitis B, but you can still have them up to a week after exposure.
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Are Hepatitis B And C Preventable
Hepatitis B is a vaccine-preventable disease.
There is a three-shot vaccination series that is very effective in protecting people against the virus if theyre exposed. In the United States, all newborns are vaccinated for hepatitis B and all pregnant women are screened for hepatitis B during pregnancy. This way, mothers infected with hepatitis B can take protective steps to decrease the risk of transmission of the virus to the child.
There is no vaccine for hepatitis C.