What Symptoms Should Parents Watch For
Hepatitis symptoms are wide-ranging and overlap with many common illnesses. A child with hepatitis may experience fever , fatigue, joint or muscle pain, loss of appetite or nausea, diarrhea and vomiting.
Children may also have abdominal pain or tenderness, particularly in the right upper abdomen, which is where the liver is located, Dr. Weymann said, and it is important to seek urgent medical attention any time a child shows sign of severe pain when their abdomen is touched. Doctors may consider other possible causes of abdominal pain, like appendicitis. Some children may have darker urine, or pale or clay-colored stools.
Jaundice, or yellowing of the skin and eyes, is a hallmark sign of hepatitis although it is possible to have significant liver inflammation and show no signs of jaundice.
The first change is in the eyes: The white part begins to look yellow, Dr. Weymann said.
He noted that it can be more difficult to detect jaundice in children who have darker skin, so parents should take even subtle changes in tone seriously.
Typically, one wont see dramatic jaundice until the inflammation or dysfunction of the liver has progressed quite far already, Dr. Weymann said.
Treating Hepatitis C Treats A Hepatitis Rash
Treating hepatitis C is often the only thing needed to clear up a rash associated with hepatitis C.
Previously, people were treated with interferon and another antiviral called ribavirin. The treatment combination has significant side effects, including skin rashes.
Therefore, newer agents called direct-acting antivirals are recommended. These newer agents are very well tolerated and have fewer side effects. Speaking with a healthcare provider to determine which therapies are best for you is essential.
When To Seek Medical Advice
See your GP if you persistently have any of the later symptoms listed, or if they keep returning. They may recommend having a blood test that can check for hepatitis C.
Read more about diagnosing hepatitis C
None of these symptoms mean you definitely have hepatitis C, but it’s important to get them checked out.
You should also speak to your GP about getting tested if there’s a risk you’re infected, even if you don’t have any symptoms. This particularly includes people who inject drugs or have done so in the past.
Read about the causes of hepatitis C for more information about who’s at risk of having the infection.
Page last reviewed: 27 October 2021 Next review due: 27 October 2024
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What Should You Know About Pregnancy And Hepatitis B
A pregnant woman who has hepatitis B can pass the infection to her baby at delivery. This is true for both vaginal and cesarean deliveries.
You should ask your healthcare provider to test you for hepatitis B when you find out you are pregnant. However, while it is important for you and your healthcare provider to know if you do have hepatitis B, the condition should not affect the way that your pregnancy progresses.
If you do test positive, your provider may suggest that you contact another healthcare provider, a liver doctor, who is skilled in managing people with hepatitis B infections. You may have a high viral load and may need treatment during the last 3 months of your pregnancy. A viral load is the term for how much of the infection you have inside of you.
You can prevent your infant from getting hepatitis B infection by making sure that your baby gets the hepatitis B vaccine in the hours after they are born along with the hepatitis B immunoglobulin. These two shots are given in two different locations on the baby. They are the first shots needed.
Depending on the type of vaccine used, two or three more doses must be given, usually when the baby is 1 month old and then 6 months old, with the last by the time the baby is 1 year old. It is critical that all newborns get the hepatitis B vaccination, but even more important if you have hepatitis B yourself.
What Are The Risks Of Having Hepatitis
A liver problem can be genetic. That means you may pass the disease to your child and vice versa. With this in mind, you may want to prevent having more health complications while undergoing blood infection. A doctor can also talk to you about the causes of hepatitis, such as sharing needles from tattooing to illegal drugs. Also, unhygienic food and sanitation may carry viral infections. Whatever the reason may be, it is recommended to get urgent help to stop the spreading.
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What Causes Hepatitis In A Child
Hepatitis in children can be caused by many things. Your child can get hepatitis by being exposed to a virus that causes it. These viruses can include:
Hepatitis viruses. There are 5 main types of the hepatitis virus: A, B, C, D, and E.
Cytomegalovirus. This virus is a part of the herpes virus family.
Epstein-Barr virus. The virus causes mononucleosis.
Herpes simplex virus. Herpes can affect the face, the skin above the waist, or the genitals.
Varicella zoster virus . A complication of this virus is hepatitis. But this happens very rarely in children.
Enteroviruses. This is a group of viruses often seen in children. They include coxsackie viruses and echoviruses.
Rubella. This is a mild disease that causes a rash.
Adenovirus. This is a group of viruses that causes colds, tonsillitis, and ear infections in children. They can also cause diarrhea.
Parvovirus. This virus causes fifth disease. Symptoms include a slapped-cheek rash on the face.
Conditions can also cause hepatitis in children. These can include autoimmune liver disease. For this disease, your childs immune system makes antibodies that attack the liver. This causes inflammation that leads to hepatitis.
Other Causes Of Jaundice
Less common causes of jaundice include hereditary disorders that interfere with how the body processes bilirubin. They include Gilbert syndrome and other, less common disorders such as Dubin-Johnson syndrome. In Gilbert syndrome, bilirubin levels are slightly increased but usually not enough to cause jaundice. This disorder is most often detected during routine screening tests in young adults. It causes no other symptoms and no problems.
In people with jaundice, the following symptoms are cause for concern:
Severe abdominal pain and tenderness
Changes in mental function, such as drowsiness, agitation, or confusion
Blood in stool or tarry black stool
A tendency to bruise or to bleed easily, sometimes resulting in a reddish purple rash of tiny dots or larger splotches
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How Does Hepatitis Get Diagnosed
Several blood tests and examinations can determine which hepatitis an individual has. Since hepatitis is usually a viral infection, HBV and HCV can spread through contaminated blood. On the contrary, hepatitis A may be tested by using antibodies in the blood produced by the immune system in response to a hepatitis A infection. Hepatitis A and E are both curable on its own but still may become chronic, depending on the risk factors.
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Can Hepatitis A Be Prevented
The following will help keep people safe from hepatitis A:
- regular hand washing, especially after going to the bathroom or diapering a baby, and before eating
- washing fruits and vegetables before eating them
- not eating raw shellfish, such as raw oysters
- getting the vaccine for hep A
Getting vaccinated helps a person’s body make antibodies that protect against hepatitis infection. The hepatitis A vaccine is now given to all kids when they’re between 1 and 2 years old, and to people who are traveling to countries where the virus could get into the food and water supply.
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Which Hepatitis Type Gets Skin Rash The Most
According to studies, any hepatitis may get skin rash. However, hepatitis skin rash occurs often in Hepatitis B and C. Abnormal pigmentation, itching, darkening , or fading are also present during the hepatitis skin rash. A dermatologist may give tips and details about what to do to relieve skin rash and itches.
What Does A Hepatitis Rash Look Like
Acute and chronic infection with hepatitis C leads to liver damage and can also cause other health problems called extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C infection. Extrahepatic means apart from the liver. People with hepatitis C can develop blood, immune system, kidney, and skin problems.
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Does Purpura Look Like A Bruise Or A Rash
It can look like both. If youre bleeding under your skin, it can appear as one larger patch or several smaller dots . Its common for petechiae to resemble a rash because the dots are tiny and tend to cluster.
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Purpura on your skin can be a sign of a more serious condition. Contact your healthcare provider if you notice any discolored patches, spots or bruises on your skin. Treating purpura involves finding the cause and treating that condition or disease. Certain conditions may make you more prone to purpura such as low platelet counts or a blood clotting disorder. In most cases, purpura isnt serious and goes away with treatment.
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Ask Your Doctor About Skin Symptoms
First, consider scheduling an appointment with your doctor or dermatologist. Not every skin rash is indicative of a hepatitis C infection or of liver damage. Your physician will be able to identify your rash and either explain why it is occurring or order tests to verify or rule out other illnesses, including hepatitis C. If you are diagnosed with hepatitis C, your physician will be able to provide you with both the test results and the information so you can begin to understand what happens next to rid your body of the virus. Together, you and your doctor will plan a course of action that fits with your insurance, your budget, and your individual medical needs.
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What Does A Liver Spot Look Like
The condition involves the appearance of pale brown to dark brown spots on the skin called solar lentigines, liver spots, or age spots. Age spots are flat, usually oval areas of the skin that have increased pigmentation. In other words, theyre darker than the surrounding skin. They may be brown, black, or gray.
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Can Hepatitis Be Treated
Today, hepatitis management is applicable through different medications and the blood product intravenous immunoglobulin for temporary immunity. However, specific antiviral effects like a nucleotide polymerase inhibitor work in slowing down the virus. Although there are famous names like Ledipasvir with sofosbuvir and Pegylated interferon and ribavirin, some of these medications arent prescribed anymore. However, modern medical technology is changing chronic liver diseases using oral tablets taken every day for at least two to six months.
Ask your pharmacist or your current liver doctor to know if certain drugs arent verified with FDA or harmful to your health status.
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What Are Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C
Although hep A is a short-term illness that goes away completely, hepatitis B and hepatitis C can turn into serious long-term illnesses for some people. Teens and young adults are most at risk for getting these two viruses.
Hep B and C get passed from person to person the same ways that HIV does through direct contact with infected body fluids. Hepatitis B and C are even more easily passed in fluids and needles than HIV. This can happen through sexual contact and by sharing needles that have been contaminated with infected blood. Even when infected people don’t have any symptoms, they can still pass the disease on to others.
Sometimes mothers with hep B or C pass the virus along to their babies when they’re born. Hep B and C also can get passed in ways you might not expect such as getting a manicure or pedicure with unsterilized nail clippers or other dirty instruments. Getting a tattoo, if dirty needles are used, is another way someone can get hep B or C.
How Is Purpura Treated
Treating purpura involves identifying and stopping the underlying cause of the bleeding. Sometimes, treatment isnt needed and the purpura goes away on its own. Once your healthcare provider determines the cause, they can:
- Change medications causing purpura.
- Manage or treat the underlying disease causing the purpura.
- Discuss ways to help you cope with purpura .
Some common treatments for purpura are:
- Corticosteroids to stop platelets from being destroyed.
- Intravenous immunoglobin treatments to raise platelet levels fast.
- Immunosuppressive medicines to stop your immune system from destroying platelets.
- Thrombopoietin receptor agonists to increase platelet levels.
- Blood transfusion to add platelets directly into your blood.
As with most treatments, there are potential side effects. Discuss these with your healthcare provider to make sure you know what to expect.
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How Is Autoimmune Hepatitis Treated
Treatment works best when autoimmune hepatitis is found early. The goal of treatment is to control the disease and to reduce or get rid of any symptoms .
To do this, medicines are used to help slow down or suppress your overactive immune system. They also stop your body from attacking your liver.
Once you have started treatment, it can take 6 months to a few years for the disease to go into remission. Some people can stop taking medicine, but often the disease comes back. You may need treatment now and then for the rest of your life. Some people need to remain on treatment if they have relapsed many times or if their disease is severe.
In some cases autoimmune hepatitis may go away without taking any medicines. But for most people, autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic disease.
It can lead to scarring of the liver . The liver can become so badly damaged that it no longer works. This is called liver failure.
If you have liver failure, a liver transplant may be needed.
Be sure to ask your healthcare provider about recommended vaccines. These include vaccines for viruses that can cause liver disease.
Who Is At Risk Of Hepatitis B
Anyone can get hepatitis B if not vaccinated. However, in the U.S., you may be at a higher risk if you:
- Have sex partners that have hepatitis B
- Have HIV or another STD
- Inject drugs or share needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment
- Live with someone who has hepatitis B
- Are undergoing dialysis
- Travel to areas that have moderate to high rates of hepatitis B
- Work in health care or public safety and are exposed to blood or body fluids on the job
- Are an infant born to an infected mother
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Viral Hepatitis And Hepatitis A Outbreak
Southeast Michigan is experiencing an outbreak of hepatitis A. Information about this outbreak is at the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services website. Vaccination is recommended to prevent hepatitis A.
if you are concerned about symptoms or risk for viral hepatitis, and you are a U-M student or other UHS patient, you may call for Nurse Advice by Phone.
Prevent Hepatitis B Infections In Newborns
If you are pregnant and have hepatitis B, talk with your doctor about lowering the risk that the infection will spread to your baby. Your doctor will check your virus levels during pregnancy. If virus levels are high, your doctor may recommend treatment during pregnancy to lower virus levels and reduce the chance that hepatitis B will spread to your baby. Your doctor may refer you to a liver specialist to find out if you need hepatitis B treatment and to check for liver damage.
When it is time to give birth, tell the doctor and staff who deliver your baby that you have hepatitis B. A health care professional should give your baby the hepatitis B vaccine and HBIG right after birth. The vaccine and HBIG will greatly reduce the chance of your baby getting the infection.
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Key Points About Hepatitis In Children
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. It can damage and destroy liver cells.
Hepatitis in children can be caused by many things. Your child can get hepatitis by being exposed to a virus that causes it.
There are 5 main types of the hepatitis virus: A, B, C, D, and E.
The most common symptoms of hepatitis include a yellowish color to the skin and whites of the eyes and flu-like symptoms.
Some children don’t have any symptoms.
Getting vaccinated and having good hygiene can prevent hepatitis.
What Are The Symptoms Of Hepatitis A
Children who become infected with hepatitis A before age 6 usually have no symptoms or mild illness, and if they do become ill, they usually get better in under 2 months. Adults and older children who become infected with hepatitis A can have no symptoms or very mild illness , but most develop jaundice and other symptoms . Mild illness can resolve in 1-2 weeks, but more severe illness can last for months. Common symptoms of HAV infection include:
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Easy Bleeding And Bruising
Tell your dentist or other doctors before you have any medical procedure. Treat cuts with pressure bandages and get to the doctor right away. In an emergency, youâll get platelets to replace what you lost and Vitamin K to help your blood clot. View a slideshow on the basics of bruises.