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Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Normal Range

Question 5 What Is The Natural History Of Hepatitis B Surface Antibody During Acute Hepatitis B Infection And Convalescence

Understanding Hepatitis B Serology Results

HBsAg can be detected in the blood 4 to 10 weeks after exposure. This corresponds to onset of symptoms and viremia detectable by nucleic acid amplification methods. Most hepatitis B infections are self-limited and are associated with disappearance of HBsAg within 4 weeks of onset of symptoms. The anti-HBs then appears and increases to a plateau level that persists indefinitely.2

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Whats The Hepatitis B Titer Test Used For

A hepatitis B titer test measures antibodies in your blood to see if youre immune either due to vaccination or previous infection.

Hepatitis B is a viral infection that targets your liver. It can be transmitted by coming into contact with the bodily fluids of an infected person. A person with the virus can also infect their child during birth.

Hepatitis B can develop into a chronic infection. Chronic infection occurs when your body cant fight off the virus within six months. Chronic hepatitis B infections most commonly develop less than six years old, especially in infants.

Hepatitis B titer tests can be used to evaluate:

  • whether a high-risk person is immune to hepatitis B
  • whether hepatitis B immunoglobulin is needed after a needle prick
  • men who have sex with men
  • people born in countries with a hepatitis B prevalence greater than 2 percent
  • people born in the United States not vaccinated as children and with parents born in regions with more than 8 percent hepatitis B prevalence

You may need your titer test results as proof of hepatitis B immunity in order to get into healthcare programs at many schools for example, the nursing program at Lone Star College. In the United States, employers are not allowed to withdraw a job offer if they learn you have hepatitis B.

Discusses Physiology Pathophysiology And General Clinical Aspects As They Relate To A Laboratory Test

Hepatitis B virus infection, also known as serum hepatitis, is endemic throughout the world. The infection is spread primarily through blood transfusion or percutaneous contact with infected blood products, such as sharing of needles among injection drug users. The virus is also found in virtually every type of human body fluid and has been known to be spread through oral and genital contact. HBV can be transmitted from mother to child during delivery through contact with blood and vaginal secretions, but it is not commonly transmitted via the transplacental route.

The incubation period for HBV infection averages 60 to 90 days . Common symptoms include malaise, fever, gastroenteritis, and jaundice . After acute infection, HBV infection becomes chronic in 30% to 90% of infected children younger than 5 years of age and in 5% to 10% of infected individuals age 5 or older. Some of these chronic carriers are asymptomatic, while others progress to chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Hepatitis B surface antigen is the first serologic marker, appearing in the serum 6 to 16 weeks following HBV infection. In acute cases, HBsAg usually disappears 1 to 2 months after the onset of symptoms with the appearance of hepatitis B surface antibody . Anti-HBs also appears as the immune response following hepatitis B vaccination.

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How Much Does A Hepatitis B Titer Test Cost

The cost of a hepatitis B test varies based on where you get the test. Prices range from roughly $24 to $110.

Your insurance may cover some or all of the cost. Under the Affordable Care Act, all new health plans must cover preventative services including hepatitis B vaccination and testing without a deductible or copay.

How Much Does The Test Cost

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The cost of hepatitis B testing depends on the tests that are performed, where the test is conducted, and a patientâs health insurance coverage. When testing is ordered by a doctor, patients with health insurance may find it helpful to discuss the cost of testing with their health insurance company as they may be responsible for testing costs as well as other out-of-pocket costs such as copays and deductibles.

For patients without health insurance or for whom insurance doesnât cover the cost of testing, it may be helpful to discuss the cost of hepatitis B testing with a doctor or hospital administrator.

The cost of at-home hepatitis B testing starts around $45. At-home test kits may also test for additional types of viral hepatitis in the same sample. The cost of test panels that look for more than one type of viral hepatitis start around $80.

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Surface Antigen And Antibody

Hepatitis B surface antigen

The hepatitis B surface antigen is a protein found on the surface of HBV it is the firstserum to be detected following initial infection. Whilst it is the first antigen to appear, it is important to note, there is a window period of up to 200 days between the first exposure to HBV and the detection of HBsAg in the serum.2

HBsAgseroconversion is the development of antibodies against HBsAg it indicates the clearance of HBsAg and the resolution of infection.5 The presence of HBsAg always implies activeinfection, whilst persistence of HBsAg for more than six months indicates chronic infection.5

Antibody to Hepatitis B surface antigen

Anti-HBs is the antibody produced by the host in response to HBsAg . The presence of anti-HBs without HBsAg indicates two possible scenarios: either previous, cleared infection or vaccination against hepatitis B virus distinguishing between these two scenarios is possible with further serological testing. Anti-HBs remains in serum for life and indicates immunity to HBV.

Interpreting The Hepatitis B Serologic Panel

The hepatitis B blood tests are collectively known as the serologic panel. This set of tests can accurately diagnose current and past hepatitis B infection. Since there are a number of markers and at least six interpretations of the various results, determining their meaning can be challenging. To help clarify, below are the six interpretations organized in a table from these hepatitis B markers.

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Understanding Your Test Results

Understanding your hepatitis B blood tests can be confusing. It is important to talk to your health care provider so you understand your test results and your hepatitis B status. Are you infected? Protected? Or at risk? The Hepatitis B Panel of blood tests includes 3 tests and all three results must be known in order to confirm your status.

Below is a chart with the most common explanation of the test results, but unusual test results can occur. Please note that this chart is not intended as medical advice, so be sure to talk to your health care provider for a full explanation and obtain a printed copy of your test results. In some cases, a person could be referred to a liver specialist for further evaluation.

More Detailed Information About Hepatitis B Blood Tests

An acute hepatitis B infection follows a relatively long incubation period – from 60 to 150 days with an average of 90 days. It can take up to six months, however, for a person to get rid of the hepatitis B virus. And it can take up to six months for a hepatitis B blood test to show whether as person has recovered from an acute infection or has become chronically infected .

The following graphic from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention represents the typical course of an acute hepatitis B infection from first exposure to recovery.

According to the CDC, a hepatitis B blood test result varies depending on whether the infection is a new acute infection or a chronic infection.

Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Igg

Hepatitis B Serology: Surface Antigen (HBsAg), Surface Antibody (anti-HBs), Core Antibody (anti-HBc)

Test Number: 3611850 Test Description

The reported index results are traceable to the World Health Organization Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin 1st International Reference Preparation. An Index value of 1.00 is equivalent to 10mIU/mL of HBsAb. The CDC guidelines indicate that an accepted criteria for immunity to HBV is HBsAb activity of > /= 10mIU/mL :1-26) or an index value of > /= 1.00. The system reports the HBsAb antibody activity as reactive or non-reactive along with the Index value.

Reactive > /= 1.00 Index Value or > /= 10 mIU/mL Have Protective Immunity < 1.00 Index Value or < 10 mIU/mL Does Not Have Protective Immunity) Test Notes It should be noted that the assay performance characteristics of the HBsAb assay has not been established for either immunocompromised, immunosuppressed patients or on cord blood specimens from neonates, infants, or children less than 12 years age.

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Whats The Procedure For A Hepatitis B Titer Test

A hepatitis titer test requires a healthcare professional to draw a small amount of blood for testing.

No special preparation is needed beforehand. If needles or the sight of blood make you anxious, you may want to arrange a drive ahead of time in case you feel faint.

Heres what will typically happen during this test:

  • The person administering the test ties a band around your arm to make your veins easier to find.
  • The person sterilizes the injection site and inserts a small needle into your vein. You may feel a sharp pain, but it should quickly pass.
  • After the needle is removed, the test administrator asks you to apply a gentle pressure with a gauze or a cotton ball.
  • A bandage is applied to the area, and youre free to leave.
  • Home tests that require a fingerpick are also available. The results of your tests are generally available within 3 days.

    What Does The Test Measure

    Hepatitis B testing looks for antigens, antibodies, or the genetic material of the hepatitis B virus. HBV antigens are substances from the virus that cause a patientâs body to produce an immune response. Antibodies are substances made by the immune system in response to the hepatitis B virus.

    Initial tests for hepatitis B measure antibodies and antigens related to HBV including:

    If a patient is diagnosed with hepatitis B based on these initial tests, additional hepatitis B testing may be used to monitor the disease, guide treatment, and determine if a person can spread hepatitis B to others. These additional tests may include:

    • Hepatitis B e antigen : Hepatitis B e antigen is a protein from the hepatitis B virus found in some patients who are positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. Measuring this antigen can help doctors understand infectivity, which describes a personâs ability to spread HBV to others.

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    Negative But Other Hepatitis Tests Are Positive

    Your HBsAb test may be negative even when other hepatitis B tests are positive, showing active or chronic infection. Further testing is necessary, especially for the hepatitis B surface antigen , which shows that the virus itself is circulating in your bloodstream and that you have an active or chronic infection.

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    Question 1 What Is The Clinical Indication For Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Quantitation

    English

    Hepatitis B surface antibody quantitation is used to determine hepatitis B immune status, ie, to determine if the patient has developed immunity against the hepatitis B virus. Such immunity may develop following exposure to the hepatitis B virus or its vaccine.

    Patients at higher risk of exposure to the virus include:

    • Infants born to infected mothers
    • Sex partners of infected persons
    • People with more than 1 sex partner in the last 6 months
    • People with a history of sexually transmitted infection
    • Men who have sex with men
    • Injection drug users
    • Household contacts of an infected person
    • Healthcare and safety workers who have contact with blood and body fluids
    • People who have lived or traveled in an area in which hepatitis B is common
    • People who live or work in a prison

    Testing is not recommended routinely following vaccination. It is advised only for people whose subsequent clinical management depends on knowledge of their immune status. These people include:

    • Chronic hemodialysis patients
    • Immunocompromised people, including those with HIV infection, hematopoietic stem-cell transplant recipients, and people receiving chemotherapy
    • Infants born to women who test positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen
    • Sex partners of people who test positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen
    • Healthcare and public safety workers who have contact with blood or body fluids

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    Hepatitis B Surface Antigen

    Recent onset of hepatitis B infection. No evidence of recent hepatitis B infection. Test Notes It should be noted that the assay performance characteristics of the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen assay have not been established for either immunocompromised, immunosuppressed patients or on cord blood, neonatal sepecimens, infants, or children less than 12 years age.

    Hepatitis A Antibody Igm

    Order Name:HEP A M AB Test Number: 3603500 Recent onset of hepatitis A infection. No evidence of recent hepatitis A infection. Indicates that test should be repeated in 1-2 weeks. Test Notes It should be noted that the assay performance characteristics of the IgM anti-HAV assay have not been established for immunocompromised or immunosuppressed patients or on cord blood, neonatal specimens, infants or children less than 12 years age.

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    Can I Take The Test At Home

    Samples for hepatitis B testing can be collected at home. At-home hepatitis B testing requires a patient to collect a blood sample, typically from a fingerstick using a very small needle provided in the test kit. Once a blood sample is collected, it is prepared according to the instructions contained in the test kit and mailed to a laboratory for testing.

    Because there are numerous types of tests for HBV, it is important to look closely at the specific components of any at-home test kit. Many at-home test kits only look for hepatitis B surface antigen .

    Hepatitis B Immunization And Postimmunizationserology

    High Levels of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen…

    Michael John, MB, Ch.B., FRCP

    Before the introduction of avaccine, hepatitis B virus was a major occupational risk to health care workers.Some of the highest infection rates were found in dentists and surgeons.1Infected health care workers have a 5-10% risk of developing chronic hepatitis B. A numberof clusters of dentist-to-patient HBV transmissions have been reported over the years,although these have decreased since the introduction of universal precautions.2Recent guidelines from Health Canada recommend restriction of practice of health careworkers who test positive for hepatitis B e antigen.3

    The development of hepatitis vaccines in the 1980s has substantially decreased dentalworkers risk of acquiring HBV. A recent survey4 of dentists in Canadashowed that more than 90% had completed an immunization series and an additional 3% hadnatural immunity. However, rates of immunization among dental assistants and hygienistswas found to be much lower.

    Hepatitis B Vaccines

    The vaccine is administered intramuscularly into the deltoid muscle, as glutealinjection may result in decreased response rates. Response to vaccine following a 3-doseseries is typically greater than 95% in young, healthy people, although it decreases withage . Other factors such assmoking, obesity and chronic disease decrease vaccine efficacy and may be used to predictrisk of nonresponse.6 Adverse events are minimal, although mild injection-sitereactions may occur in 20% of recipients.

    References

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    Hep B Titer Test Required By Most Schools And Employers

    This assay is used to determine immune status for Hepatitis B.

    Hepatitis B Surface Antibody : The surface antibody is formed in response to the hepatitis B virus. Your body can make this antibody if you have been vaccinated, or if you have recovered from a hepatitis B infection. If this test is positive, then your immune system has successfully developed a protective antibody against the hepatitis B virus. This will provide long-term protection against future hepatitis B infection. Someone who is surface antibody positive is not infected, and cannot pass the virus on to others.

    This is a Quantitative test required by many schools and medical programs. Levels of anti-HBs will be provided.

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    Membranous Nephropathy And Hepatitis B

    Children with HBV-related MN show positivity of HbsAg and usually hepatitis B surface antibody is not detected. The hepatitis B early antigen can be detected in serum of 90% of patients.27 Hypocomplementemia is observed at the onset of disease , but titers of C3, C4 return to normal in the later part of disease.27 Circulatory immune complexes are detected in 80% of patients. Serum levels of transaminases may be raised on presentation.20,24 Liver biopsy shows evidence of chronic persistent hepatitis mainly in children, but chronic active hepatitis is seen in adults.

    David O. Freedman, … Elaine C. Jong, in, 2008

    What Are My Next Steps Once I Get My Results

    [Full text] Management of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Hepatitis C ...

    It can be difficult to understand what the results of your test mean. A healthcare provider can help you interpret your results and decide whether you need to take further action:

    • If your results suggest that youre already immune to hepatitis B and arent contagious, you likely wont need to do anything.
    • If your results suggest that youre not immune, a doctor may recommend vaccination, especially if youre somebody whos at a high risk of infection.

    You may also need additional testing if more information is needed to interpret your results.

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