Hepatitis A Immunisation Is Recommended For High
In Victoria, the vaccine is recommended for:
- people travelling to places where hepatitis A is common
- people whose work puts them at increased risk of infection including:
- plumbers and sewage workers
- people who work with children
- people who work with people with developmental disabilities
Remember that immunisation against hepatitis A does not protect you against hepatitis B or hepatitis C.
Guidance On Reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization
Vaccine providers are asked to report, through local public health officials, any serious or unexpected adverse event temporally related to vaccination. An unexpected AEFI is an event that is not listed in available product information but may be due to the immunization, or a change in the frequency of a known AEFI.
Refer to Reporting Adverse Events Following Immunization in Canada and Vaccine Safety and Pharmacovigilance in Part 2 for additional information about AEFI reporting.
Who Should Be Vaccinated Against Hepatitis A
Hepatitis A is uncommon in New Zealand but the vaccine is funded for people at risk of severe infection, such as:
- transplant patients
- children with chronic liver disease
- people who live in close contact with someone infected with hepatitis A.
Immunisation is recommended but not funded for the following groups:
- adults with chronic liver disease including chronic hepatitis B or chronic hepatitis C
- men who have sex with men
- some occupational groups
- food handlers during community outbreaks
- military personnel who are likely to be deployed to high-risk areas.
Vaccination can be considered in others at higher risk, such as injecting drug users. Hepatitis A vaccine is not routinely recommended for all children in New Zealand, although it may be considered during community outbreaks.
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Hepatitis B Is Found Throughout The World But Some Countries And Regions Present A Higher Risk Of Hepatitis B Transmission
Countries with a high prevalence of hepatitis B include Africa, Asia, the Pacific Islands, and certain parts of Central and South America. In these regions, hepatitis B is often spread through contact with contaminated blood or other body fluids. If you are planning to travel to any of these areas, it is important to get vaccinated against hepatitis B before you go.
If you are traveling to a country where hepatitis B is common, make sure to get vaccinated against the virus. The hepatitis B vaccine is safe and effective, and its the best way to prevent hepatitis B infection.
If you are travelling to any of these areas, it is important to talk to your health care provider about getting vaccinated against Hepatitis B. There are several options available for Hepatitis B vaccination through Swift Clinics, such as Twinrix or Engerix.
You can schedule your appointment online now by clicking here, or call us at our toll-free number.
Are There Any Dangers Or Side Effects Associated With The Vaccine
It’s good to know you cannot become infected by getting the hepatitis A vaccine. But in very rare cases, people can have a severe allergic reaction to the hepatitis A vaccine. This occurs within a few minutes to hours of getting the shot. In extremely rare cases, this reaction can be fatal. It’s important to remember that the risks from the disease are much greater than the risk from the vaccine itself.
Signs of a severe reaction to the hepatitis A vaccination include:
- High fever
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Persons New To Canada
Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals, as necessary. In many countries outside of Canada, HA vaccine is in limited use.
HA vaccination should be considered for all persons from HA-endemic countries. Individuals born in HA-endemic countries are more likely to be immune to HA therefore, serologic testing for immunity before HA immunization should be considered. If persons from HA-endemic countries are not immune, they should be offered HA immunization because they are at increased risk for HA exposure through visits to their country of origin, or when receiving friends and family from their country of origin.
In addition, persons new to Canada should be tested for hepatitis C antibody and susceptible persons chronically infected with hepatitis C should be vaccinated against HA and HB. Persons new to Canada should also be tested for HB and vaccinated against HA if found to be a HB carrier. Household or close contacts of children adopted from HA-endemic countries should be immunized with HA-containing vaccine. Adults travelling to pick up adopted children from HA-endemic countries should be vaccinated before departure.
Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people who are new to Canada.
Who Should Have The Vaccine
The risk of infection from hepatitis A is low for most people in the UK, so the vaccine is only available free of charge to people at high risk of hepatitis A disease. This includes:
- people planning to visit or live in parts of the world where hepatitis A is common
- close contacts of someone who has hepatitis A
- people with chronic liver disease
- people with blood clotting disorders
- men who have sex with men
- drug users who inject drugs
- people who may be exposed to hepatitis A through their job
In Europe and the UK there is currently an increase in the number of cases of hepatitis A, mainly among men who have sex with men. Most of the UK cases so far have been in London. Public Health England is encouraging gay and bisexual men to practice good personal hygiene and ask about hepatitis A vaccination at their sexual health clinic appointments.
Vaccines are available for adults and for children aged 1 year or older. However, combined hepatitis A and typhoid vaccines are not licensed for children under the age of 15. For some vaccines only one initial dose is needed, and for others two or three doses are needed. Booster doses may also be needed for long-term protection. For more information, ask for the Patient Information Leaflet for the vaccine you are offered.
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Are Infections Caused By Hepatitis A Virus Similar To Those Caused By Hepatitis B Virus
Although hepatitis A virus sounds like it would be similar to hepatitis B virus, the viral infections are really quite different. Hepatitis B virus can cause long-term problems, such as cirrhosis and liver cancer. On the other hand, hepatitis A virus doesn’t cause long-term problems. Also, hepatitis B virus kills about 750 people every year, whereas hepatitis A virus kills about 75 people every year. Finally, hepatitis B virus is transmitted by coming in contact with someone who is infected, but hepatitis A virus is typically transmitted in contaminated food or water.
How Hepatitis Is Spread
Hepatitis A: About 20,000 people in the U.S. contract hepatitis A each year. The hepatitis A virus is found in the stool of the infected person. It is spread through contaminated food or water or by certain types of sexual contact.
Children who get hepatitis A often don’t have symptoms, so they can have the virus and not know it. However, they can still spread it easily. Fortunately, children are now routinely vaccinated against hepatitis A.
Most people who get hepatitis A recover completely within two weeks to six months and don’t have any liver damage. In rare cases, hepatitis A can cause liver failure and even death in older adults or people with underlying liver disease.
Hepatitis B: Every year, about 40,000 people in the U.S. become infected with hepatitis B. Acute hepatitis lasts from a few weeks to several months. Many infected people are able to clear the virus and remain virus-free after the acute stage. However, for others, the virus remains in the body, and they develop chronic hepatitis B infection, which is a serious, lifelong condition. About 1.2 million people in the U.S. have chronic hepatitis B. Of these, 15% to 25% will develop more serious health problems, such as liver damage, cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer, and some people die as a result of hepatitis B-related disease.
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Liver Anatomy And Function
Main Function of the Liver
The liver is an essential organ that has many functions in the body. The liver plays an important role in detoxifying the body by converting ammonia, a byproduct of metabolism in the body, into urea that is excreted in the urine by the kidneys. The liver also breaks down medications and drugs, including alcohol, and is responsible for breaking down insulin and other hormones in the body. The liver also stores vitamins and chemicals that the body requires as building blocks.
Many different disease processes can occur in the liver, including infections such as hepatitis, cirrhosis , cancers, and damage by medications or toxins.
Symptoms of liver disease can include:
Pregnancy And Hepatitis A Immunisation
Hepatitis A immunisation is not usually recommended for women who are pregnant although vaccination might be recommended in some situations.
Speak with your doctor if you are not immune to hepatitis A and you are at increased risk of infection or if you have a pre-existing medical condition such as liver disease.
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Safety Following Hepa Vaccination
Excellent safety has been documented for HepA-I and HepA-L in both children and adults. Most of adverse events following HepA vaccination are mild. The incidence of both solicit and unsolicited adverse events was reported to be slightly higher following the first dose of HepA-I than following the second dose. The Chinese National Adverse Events Following Immunization information System , which was developed in 2005, suggested that the incidence of adverse events following HepA-L and HepA-I were similar in 2016 . According to the CNAEFIS, the incidence of AEFI following HepA was much lower compared with most of other vaccines in childhood routine vaccination , but was higher compared with hepatitis B vaccine . In the US, after reviewing the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System data reported in 19962013, no concerning pattern of pregnancy-specific outcomes was identified among pregnant women or their infants who received HepA or Hep AB.
Are There Any Adults Who Should Not Get The Vaccine
Do not get the hepatitis vaccine if you:
- Have ever had a severe allergic reaction to a hepatitis A vaccine or to any vaccine component hepatitis A vaccines contain alum and some contain 2-phenoxyethanol.
- Are ill, unless it is a mild illness
- Are pregnant, unless you are at greater risk for contracting hepatitis A
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What Happens If I Miss A Dose
Contact your doctor if you miss a booster dose or if you get behind schedule. The next dose should be given as soon as possible. There is no need to start over.
Be sure you receive all recommended doses of this vaccine. You may not be fully protected against disease if you do not receive the full series.
How And When Should You Receive The Hepatitis A Vaccine
You receive the injection of the hepatitis A vaccine in the muscle of your upper arm. Start the vaccine series when you are at risk of infection and at least one month before traveling. You need two doses six to twelve months apart.
There are also combination vaccines for adults that protect against both hepatitis A and hepatitis B. However, these have a different dosing schedule. Ask your doctor for details. You might prefer this option if, for example, you are traveling to countries with high rates of both diseases.
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How Is Hepatitis B Transmitted
Hepatitis B is most commonly transmitted through contact with blood or other body fluids from an infected person. This can happen through:
- Sexual contact with an infected person
- Sharing needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment
- Being born to a mother who has hepatitis B
- Direct exposure to blood or body fluids of an infected person, such as through a cut or open wound
It is important to note that hepatitis B can also be spread indirectly, for example, by sharing objects that have come into contact with blood from an infected person .
Should I Get The Hepatitis A Vaccine
Hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for:
- Travelers to countries that have high rates of hepatitis A
- Family members or caregivers of a recent adoptee from countries where hepatitis A is common
- Men who have sex with men
- People who use injection and non-injection drugs
- People with chronic liver diseases, such as hepatitis B or hepatitis C
- People who are teated with clotting-factor concentrates
- People who work with hepatitis A infected animals or in a hepatitis A research laboratory
- People who are experiencing homelessness
- People age 40 and older at increased risk for hepatitis A infection, or who are at increased risk for severe disease from hepatitis A infection who also have other risk factors
- People age 19 or older at increased risk for hepatitis A infection, or who are at increased risk for severe disease from hepatitis A infection who also have other risk factors
Health care providers recommend that all children receive a hepatitis A vaccination at around 1 year of age, but many adults have never received the vaccine because it only became available in 1995.
Health care personnel and patients with the following conditions should discuss the hepatitis A vaccination with their health care provider: pregnancy, immunocompromising conditions, HIV infection, heart disease, chronic lung disease, chronic alcoholism, asplenia, kidney failure.
You should NOT get the hepatitis A vaccination or you should wait, if you:
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Hepatitis Vaccine: What You Need To Know
Hepatitis is an inflammatory liver condition. There are five types of viral hepatitis: A, B, C,D, and E. Most cases are caused by a hepatitis virus. The condition can also be a result of excessive alcohol or drug use or a faulty inflammatory immune response that occurs when the immune system mistakes the liver as a threat to the body and begins to attack it.
There are two hepatitis vaccines that can help prevent hepatitis A and B infections. A third vaccine, developed for hepatitis E, is only permitted for use in China. This article discusses the types of hepatitis that can be prevented with a vaccine and what you need to know before getting one.
How Long Before Travel Should I Get Vaccinated For Hepatitis B
If you are planning to travel to a country where Hepatitis B is common or you will likely be exposed due to a high risk activity, you should get vaccinated at least four weeks before your trip. This will give the vaccine time to become effective. If you cannot get vaccinated four weeks before your trip, you should still get vaccinated as soon as possible. Even if you dont have time to get the full series of shots, getting even one shot can help protect you from hepatitis B. The hepatitis B vaccine is safe and effective, and its the best way to prevent hepatitis B infection.
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Who Should Get A Hepatitis A Vaccine
The hepatitis A vaccine is recommended for everyone over the age of 1 year. The PHAC highly recommends vaccination for individuals in the following groups:
- Work or travel to countries with hepatitis A
- Live in an area where hepatitis A is present
- Are homosexual and identify as male
- Use street drugs
- Work with hepatitis A samples or patients
Many older adults have not been vaccinated against hepatitis A. Make sure youre protected with a visit to Passport Health.
Vaccines For Hepatitis A And B
Our immune system battles foreign invaders every day, such as when we get a cold virus. When this happens, we develop immunity to that specific virus. This means that our body will fight off the virus if it is ever exposed to it again.
The same protection happens with vaccines. However, the benefit of a vaccination is that you don’t have to go through being sick to enable your body to fight off disease.
Gregory Poland, MD, director of the Mayo Clinic’s Vaccine Research Group, explains that hepatitis vaccinations contain a small amount of the inactive virus. When you get a dose of the vaccine, he says, your immune cells respond by developing immunity against the virus. This immunity lasts over a long period of time.
“So if I get these two doses of hepatitis A vaccine, and then I get exposed 30 years from now, my body will remember that immunity to the vaccine and rapidly start producing antibodies again,” says Poland.
Due to the way hepatitis vaccinations are developed, it is impossible to contract the virus from the vaccine itself, according to Poland.
The hepatitis A vaccine is usually given in two shots and the hepatitis B vaccine is administered as a series of three shots. The most common side effects are redness, pain, and tenderness where the shots are given.
To get long-term protection from these viruses, it’s important to receive all the shots as scheduled. However, if you received one shot and never went back for the others, it’s not too late to catch up.
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