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The Cause Of Hepatitis C

Can Hepatitis C Be Cured

Why are hepatitis C infections an increasing cause for concern?

Unlike Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B, a vaccine for Hepatitis C is not available.

However, treatment options are available and Hepatitis C may be cured .

Learn more about your treatment options and speak to your healthcare provider today.

The Hepatitis C virus is considered cured if the virus is not detected in your blood when measured with a blood test 3 months after treatment is completed. This is called a sustained virologic response and data suggest that you will stay virus free indefinitely.

Try to keep yourself as healthy as possible, keep your medical appointments and get regular check-ups. Remember that you could become re-infected if you expose yourself to high-risk situations such as injection drug use, and so do everything possible to avoid these situations. Speak with a substance abuse counselor if needed.

How Is It Treated

Experts recommend that nearly everyone who has hepatitis C receive treatment. Talk with your doctor about whether you should get treatment. Current treatments for hepatitis C almost always work.

Taking care of yourself is an important part of the treatment for hepatitis C. Some people with hepatitis C dont notice a change in the way they feel. Others feel tired, sick, or depressed. You may feel better if you exercise and eat healthy foods. To help prevent further liver damage, avoid alcohol and illegal drugs and certain medicines that can be hard on your liver.

What If I Am Pregnant And I Have Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C can be passed from a mother to her child during pregnancy and during delivery. Per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , approximately 6 of every 100 infants born to HCV-infected mothers become infected with the virus. The risk is 2-3 times greater when the mother has HIV as well.

You and your doctor should discuss and decide if you should receive treatment for hepatitis C during your pregnancy.

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How Is It Spread

Hepatitis A is spread when a person ingests fecal mattereven in microscopic amountsfrom contact with objects, food, or drinks contaminated by feces or stool from an infected person.

  • Birth to an infected mother
  • Sex with an infected person
  • Sharing equipment that has been contaminated with blood from an infected person, such as needles, syringes, and even medical equipment, such as glucose monitors
  • Sharing personal items such as toothbrushes or razors
  • Poor infection control has resulted in outbreaks in health care facilities

Hepatitis C is spread when blood from a person infected with the Hepatitis C virus even in microscopic amounts enters the body of someone who is not infected. The hepatitis C virus can also be transmitted from:

  • Sharing equipment that has been contaminated with blood from an infected person, such as needles and syringes
  • Receiving a blood transfusion or organ transplant before 1992
  • Poor infection control has resulted in outbreaks in health care facilities
  • Birth to an infected mother

Treatment For Chronic Hbv Infection

Causes Of Hepatitis C World Hepatitis Day Infographics Vector ...

For chronic HBV infection, antiviral medications are available.

This is not a cure for chronic HBV. However, it can stop the virus from replicating and prevent its progression into advanced liver disease.

A person with a chronic HBV infection can develop cirrhosis or liver cancer rapidly and without warning. If a person does not have access to adequate treatment or facilities, liver cancer can be fatal within months of diagnosis.

People with a chronic HBV infection require ongoing medical evaluation and an ultrasound of the liver

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Hepatitis A: How Does It Spread

It usually spreads through food or water. Food can be tainted when its touched by a person with hepatitis who did not wash their hands after using the bathroom. This transfers tiny amounts of infected stool to the food. Raw shellfish, fruits, vegetables, and undercooked foods are common culprits in hepatitis A outbreaks. The virus can also spread in daycare centers if employees arent careful about washing hands after changing diapers.

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Hair Loss As A Medication Side Effect

In the past, HIV medications commonly resulted in hair loss. But newer HIV drugs known as antiretroviral therapy do not usually lead to thinning hair. ART typically causes fewer side effects overall and can prevent the symptoms, progression, and transmission of HIV.

However, other medications that people with HIV may need to take for co-occurring conditions may result in hair loss. For example, acyclovir for genital herpes lists hair loss as a side effect.

People who experience side effects from any medicines should discuss their concerns with a doctor. Often, the benefits of taking the medication outweigh the discomfort of side effects, but a doctor may also be able to prescribe an alternative.

HIV symptoms differ from person-to-person and between phases of the infection. In general, symptoms of the three phases may include:

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How Is Hepatitis C Diagnosed

New infections of hepatitis C are asymptomatic, meaning the person does not show any symptoms. Hence few people get diagnosed when the condition is in the early stage. Even people who develop chronic hepatitis C infection remain asymptomatic until liver damage occurs. Two types of laboratory tests are most common for diagnosing Hepatitis C:

  • Serological tests. First, serological tests for anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies identify people who have had exposure to hepatitis C.
  • Nucleic acid test for HCV ribonucleic acid . NAT testing confirms the presence of the virus in those with a positive serological test. This test helps identify chronic infection since acute infections generally are cleared by the body’s immune system without treatment. Some people can still test positive for antiâHCV antibodies from previous exposures, even if they are not currently infected.
  • When chronic infections are confirmed, a liver biopsy or a nonâinvasive test determines the extent of damage to the liver . That will help to determine the best treatment and management.

    Early diagnosis is vital for the successful treatment of hepatitis C. If you get tested and diagnosed in the early stages, you can get treatment and recover within eight to twelve weeks.

    Diagnosis Of Hepatitis B

    What is Hepatitis C and Why Should You Care?

    Blood tests are available to determine if you are or have been infected with hepatitis B. It may take 6 months from the time of infection before a blood test can detect antibodies to hepatitis B, so follow-up testing may be required. During this 6-month period, until you know whether you are infected or not, take action to prevent potential infection of other people.

    There are also tests that can assess liver damage from hepatitis B. The interpretation of these tests can be complicated and specialist advice is needed, so talk to your doctor.

    All pregnant women are tested for hepatitis B. If you are found to have chronic hepatitis B, your doctor can help reduce the risk of transferring the infection to your newborn child.

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    Skin Rash During Chronic Hepatitis C Therapy

    Hepatitis C virus infection remains a significant clinical and public health challenge, with approximately 4.1 million individuals infected in the United States. The World Health Organization estimates that 34 million individuals are infected each year worldwide, with a global 170 million chronic HCV carriers at risk of developing liver cirrhosis and/or liver cancer. Various types of skin rash have been reported due to HCV infection, as well as anti-HCV treatment. Some skin rashes improve with anti-HCV treatment, whereas others worsen, necessitating the discontinuation of the treatment and the initiation of therapy targeted toward the rash itself. We describe 3 cases that illustrate the therapeutic dilemmas that can arise when a patient develops a skin rash during treatment with pegylated interferon alfa-2a with ribavirin.

    Early Symptoms Of Hep C

    In its later stages, hepatitis C can lead to liver failure, which can be fatal. It also significantly increases the risk of liver cancer. Symptoms in the later stages may include:

    • Bleeding or bruising easily
    • Fluid buildup in the abdomen
    • Swelling of the legs

    These are symptoms of liver failure, and they indicate that the virus has caused severe damage to the liver. People who have had chronic viral hepatitis C for years often end up with these symptoms.

    Up until the point where it causes liver failure, hepatitis C is often a silent infection. Up to half of all people with the virus dont even realize that theyre infected. However, when you first get the virus, there can sometimes be symptoms, including:

    These symptoms can occur anywhere from 2 to 12 weeks after you get infected. However, not everyone experiences these symptoms. Many people dont feel sick at all when they first get hepatitis C. Infectious disease causes of liver damage also include hepatitis B, which causes the same symptoms.

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    What Is The Prognosis For Someone Who Has Hepatitis C

    You can continue to lead an active life even if you are diagnosed with hepatitis C. People with the disease can work and continue their regular daily activities. However, it is very important that you see a specialist as soon as you are diagnosed with hepatitis C. There are many treatments available that can cure the virus.

    To maintain a healthy lifestyle, patients should:

    Who Is At Risk For Hepatitis C

    2021 Hepatitis C (Hep C/HCV) Cure, Clinical Trials and Research

    You are more likely to get hepatitis C if you:

    • Have injected drugs

    If you have chronic hepatitis C, you probably will not have symptoms until it causes complications. This can happen decades after you were infected. For this reason, hepatitis C screening is important, even if you have no symptoms.

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    What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Hcv Infection

    Most people with HCV have no symptoms. But even without symptoms, they can develop health problems decades later and can still pass the disease to others.

    If symptoms do happen, it’s usually when the disease is very advanced. Symptoms can be similar to those of hepatitis A and hepatitis B and include:

    • nausea, vomiting, and lack of appetite

    What To Think About

    There is no vaccine for hepatitis C, but there are vaccines for hepatitis A and hepatitis B. Your doctor may recommend that you have these vaccines to help protect you from more liver problems.

    Researchers are working to develop other treatments, including gene therapy and medicines that help control the immune system.

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    What Is Chronic Hepatitis C

    Doctors refer to hepatitis C infections as either acute or chronic:

    • An acute HCV infection is a short-term illness that clears within 6 months of when a person is exposed to the virus.
    • A person who still has HCV after 6 months is said to have a chronic hepatitis C infection. This is a long-term illness, meaning the virus stays in the body and can cause lifelong illness. An estimated 3.2 million people in the U.S. have chronic HCV.

    What Is Viral Hepatitis

    Hepatitis: biggest cause of liver diseases

    Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. The liver is a vital organ that processes nutrients, filters the blood, and fights infections. When the liver is inflamed or damaged, its function can be affected. Heavy alcohol use, toxins, some medications, and certain medical conditions can cause hepatitis. However, hepatitis is often caused by a virus. In the United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C.

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    References

    Dhawan, V. K. . Hepatitis C. Medscape .

    Pawlotsky. . Pathophysiology of hepatitis C virus infection and related liver disease. Pubmed .

    Samji, N. S. . Viral Hepatitis. Medscape .

    Hiv And Hepatitis C Coinfection

    HCV infection is common among people with HIV who also inject drugs. Nearly 75% of people living with HIV who report a history of injection drug use are co-infected with HCV. All people who are diagnosed with HIV are recommended to be tested for HCV at least once. People living with HIV are at greater risk for complications and death from HCV infection. Fortunately, direct acting antivirals that are used to treat HCV work equally well in people with and without HIV infection. For more information about HIV and HCV coinfection, visit the HIV.govs pages about hepatitis C and HIV coinfection.

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    What Causes Skin Changes With Viral Hepatitis

    Skin changes in acute viral hepatitis can be nonspecific such as the itch secondary to jaundice. Chronic viral hepatitis can cause progressive liver failure and skin changes due to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Skin changes seen with viral hepatitis can be due to:

    • Direct viral infection of skin cells with viral particles detected in keratinocytes and lymphocytes
    • Autoimmune origin as HCV is lymphotropic promoting B-cell proliferation and circulating autoantibodies can be detected
    • Effects on the liver seen in acute viral hepatitis and subsequent chronic liver disease.

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    How Do Doctors Treat Hepatitis C

    How Hepatitis C Virus Is Diagnosed

    Doctors treat hepatitis C with antiviral medicines that attack the virus and can cure the disease in most cases.

    Several newer medicines, called direct-acting antiviral medicines, have been approved to treat hepatitis C since 2013. Studies show that these medicines can cure chronic hepatitis C in most people with this disease. These medicines can also cure acute hepatitis C. In some cases, doctors recommend waiting to see if an acute infection becomes chronic before starting treatment.

    Your doctor may prescribe one or more of these newer, direct-acting antiviral medicines to treat hepatitis C:

    You may need to take medicines for 8 to 24 weeks to cure hepatitis C. Your doctor will prescribe medicines and recommend a length of treatment based on

    • which hepatitis C genotype you have
    • how much liver damage you have
    • whether you have been treated for hepatitis C in the past

    Your doctor may order blood tests during and after your treatment. Blood tests can show whether the treatment is working. Hepatitis C medicines cure the infection in most people who complete treatment.

    Hepatitis C medicines may cause side effects. Talk with your doctor about the side effects of treatment. Check with your doctor before taking any other prescription or over-the-counter medicines.

    For safety reasons, talk with your doctor before using dietary supplements, such as vitamins, or any complementary or alternative medicines or medical practices.

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    Stages Of Hepatitis C

    The hepatitis C virus affects people in different ways and has several stages:

    • Incubation period. This is the time between first exposure to the start of the disease. It can last anywhere from 14 to 80 days, but the average is 45
    • Acute hepatitis C. This is a short-term illness that lasts for the first 6 months after the virus enters your body. After that, some people who have it will get rid of, or clear, the virus on their own.
    • Chronic hepatitis C. For most people who get hepatitis C — up to 85% — the illness moves into a long-lasting stage . This is called a chronic hepatitis C infection and can lead to serious health problems like liver cancer or cirrhosis.
    • Cirrhosis. This disease leads to inflammation that, over time, replaces your healthy liver cells with scar tissue. It usually takes about 20 to 30 years for this to happen, though it can be faster if you drink alcohol or have HIV.
    • Liver cancer. Cirrhosis makes liver cancer more likely. Your doctor will make sure you get regular tests because there are usually no symptoms in the early stages.

    Learn more about the stages and progression of hepatitis C.

    How Do Doctors Treat Hepatitis B

    Doctors typically dont treat hepatitis B unless it becomes chronic. Doctors may treat chronic hepatitis B with antiviral medicines that attack the virus.

    Not everyone with chronic hepatitis B needs treatment. If blood tests show that hepatitis B could be damaging a persons liver, a doctor may prescribe antiviral medicines to lower the chances of liver damage and complications.

    Medicines that you take by mouth include

    A medicine that doctors can give as a shot is peginterferon alfa-2a .

    The length of treatment varies. Hepatitis B medicines may cause side effects. Talk with your doctor about the side effects of treatment. Tell your doctor before taking any other prescription or over-the-counter medicines.

    For safety reasons, you also should talk with your doctor before using dietary supplements, such as vitamins, or any complementary or alternative medicines or medical practices.

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    Staying Healthy With Hepatitis

    Not everyone needs treatment right away, but its important to be monitored regularly by an experienced doctor and discuss treatment options of the best way to keep you healthy.

    • Get vaccinated against Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B
    • Avoid alcohol and drugs
    • Eat a healthy & balanced diet. Include a lot of vegetables and fruits try to stay away from too much salt, sugar and fat.
    • Exercise regularly. Walking is one of the best exercises, and it helps to make you feel less tired.
    • Check with a health professional before taking any prescription pills, supplements, or over-the-counter medications.
    • Do not share razors, nail clippers, needles or other items that come in contact with blood with other people.

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