Wednesday, September 21, 2022

What Is The Blood Test For Hepatitis C

Are There Home Tests For Hepatitis C

NY Cures Hep C Campaign: âLearn about Hepatitis C Testingâ? Animated Video

Yes. For example, the OraQuick HCV Rapid Antibody Test was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2011 for at-home screening for HCV for people showing signs or symptoms of HCV infection or who are at high risk for infection.It involves taking a sample of blood from a fingertip, mixing it with a special solution, and then using a device similar to a pregnancy test stick that detects the presence of HCV antibodies. The test is 98% accurate.

Why The Test Is Performed

Your provider may order this test if you have signs of hepatitis. It is used to:

  • Detect current or previous hepatitis infection
  • Determine how contagious a person with hepatitis is
  • Monitor a person who is being treated for hepatitis

The test may be performed for other conditions, such as:

  • Chronic persistent hepatitis

Specific Hcv Rna Assays And Range Of Detectable Virus

HCV RNA tests use target amplification techniques. Several assays exist for HCV RNA testing. Methods include polymerase chain reaction , transcription mediated amplification , and branched chain DNA tests. Results are expressed as international units/mL . The different methods and different commercial assays each have a lower limit of quantification and lower limit of detection , therefore a patient’s results could be reported differently depending on the assay used. HCV RNA tests must have an LLOQ of 25 IU/mL or lower when used to assess treatment response with DAAs.

LLOQ = the lowest HCV RNA level that is within the linear and analytically acceptable range of the assay.

LLOD = the lowest level of HCV RNA that is detected 95% of the time.

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Will I Need Any Other Tests Along With The Hepatitis Panel

Apart from the tests for hepatitis viruses, your doctor may want to know the impact of disease or medical conditions on your liver. Your healthcare provider may recommend liver enzyme tests such as alkaline phosphatase aminotransferase , and aspartate alanine aminotransferase . Further, you may also be asked to undergo a test for prothrombin time and bilirubin to ascertain the extent of liver damage.

How The Test Is Performed

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Blood is most often drawn from a vein from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. The site is cleaned with germ-killing medicine . The health care provider wraps an elastic band around the upper arm to apply pressure to the area and make the vein swell with blood.

Next, the provider gently inserts a needle into the vein. The blood collects into an airtight tube attached to the needle. The elastic band is removed from your arm. Once the blood has been collected, the needle is removed. The puncture site is covered to stop any bleeding.

In infants or young children, a sharp tool called a lancet may be used to puncture the skin and make it bleed. The blood collects into a small glass tube, or onto a slide or test strip. A bandage may be placed over the area if there is any bleeding.

The blood sample is sent to a lab to be examined. Blood tests are used to check for antibodies to each of the hepatitis viruses.

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Explanation Of Test Results:

If this test result is positive, it means your body was exposed to the hepatitis C virus and made antibodies . However, it does not tell you whether you are still infected with hepatitis C. If the antibody test result is positive, you should be tested for hepatitis C RNA , which determines whether you are chronically infected. The lab will perform this RNA test automatically if your hepatitis C antibody test is positive.

If the antibody test result is negative, it means you have not been infected with the hepatitis C virus, and further testing for hepatitis C usually is not needed.

How To Test For Hep C

If you suspect you may have a hepatitis C infection, taking a hepatitis C test can be a great start in addition to consulting your healthcare provider for next steps. Our at-home hepatitis C test is a convenient way to check for this virus. To check for hepatitis C with this test, you just collect a small sample of blood with a simple finger prick, then ship the sample to a lab for testing with the prepaid shipping label that comes with the kit.

If your results from our hepatitis C test indicate that you do have this viral infection, share your results with your healthcare provider right away so you can take the next steps they recommend.

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Who Should Get A Hepatitis C Screening

If youre under 18, you may or may not need a parents or guardians consent to get tested. State laws on minor consent for medical care vary. If youve been exposed to hepatitis C or feel that you need a test for any reason, dont let your age stop you from getting the medical help you need.

If left untreated, hepatitis C can have serious consequences for your health. If you test positive, you can also pass the virus onto others.

The recommends universal hepatitis C screening for:

  • all adults aged 18 and over
  • pregnant people

Tests After The Diagnosis

Hepatitis C testing at Stoke-on-Trent Community Drug & Alcohol Service (video includes a blood test)

Once the doctor knows you have hep C, theyâll do tests to find out more about your condition. This will help determine your treatment. They could include:

  • Genotype tests to find out which of the six kinds of hepatitis C you have.
  • Liver function tests. They measure proteins and enzymes levels, which usually rise 7 to 8 weeks after youâre infected. As your liver gets damaged, enzymes leak into your bloodstream. But you can have normal enzyme levels and still have hepatitis C.
  • Tests to check for liver damage. You might get:
  • Elastography. Doctors use a special ultrasound machine to feel how stiff your liver is.
  • Liver biopsy. The doctor inserts a needle into your liver to take a tiny piece to examine in the lab.
  • Imaging tests. These use various methods to take pictures or show images of your insides. They include:

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Chronic Hepatitis C Infection

Approximately 25% of those infected with the HCV will spontaneously clear the virus within 6 months. However, in most cases , the infection will become chronic. Chronic hepatitis C is often asymptomatic.

Some individuals with chronic hepatitis C infection experience:

  • nausea
  • malaise
  • abdominal pain

Fluctuating alanine aminotransferase levels are characteristic. In addition, thrombocytopenia may be an indication of cirrhosis. Thrombocytopenia is known to increase with the severity of liver disease.

The late sequelae of chronic hepatitis C infection include:

  • liver fibrosis or cirrhosis
  • hepatocellular carcinoma

Cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma may develop over a period of 20 to 30 years depending on factors such as sex, age, and level of alcohol consumption. Approximately 1% to 5% of individuals with chronic hepatitis C infection will develop hepatocellular carcinoma.

If cirrhosis develops, individuals may experience:

  • ascites

The diagnosis of hepatitis C requires 2 types of tests:

  • hepatitis C antibody test
  • hepatitis C ribonucleic acid test
  • Recommendations Regarding Linkage To Care

    All persons identified with active hepatitis C infection should be linked to a medical provider who can provide competent and comprehensive management of HCV. Available data suggest that in the current era, nonspecialists can effectively manage HCV, especially with back up and consultation for more complicated issues. The management of patients with decompensated cirrhosis should always involve a hepatologist. In addition, persons with HCV who have renal insufficiency or extrahepatic complications of HCV infection will likely require referral to a specialist. An individual with a positive HCV antibody test but negative HCV RNA level does not require a referral for further evaluation and management of HCV infection.

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    How Can I Cover Medication Costs

    New therapies called direct-acting antivirals are effective and can achieve cures of over 90%. Because these new therapies are very new, they remain very expensive. As such, drug coverage from both government and private companies may require that your liver disease has progressed to a certain stage before they are willing to cover the cost of these drugs.

    Talk with your healthcare provider about financial support that may be available.

    Below are useful resources when looking for financial assistance:Private health insurance or drug plansIf you have private health insurance or a drug plan at work, you may be able to have the medication paid through your plan. Please consult your private health insurance or drug plan provider to see if your drug is covered.

    Publicly funded plansEach provincial and territorial government offers a drug benefit plan for eligible groups. Some are income-based universal programs. Most have specific programs for population groups that may require more enhanced coverage for high drug costs. These groups include seniors, recipients of social assistance, and individuals with diseases or conditions that are associated with high drug costs. For more details, please contact your provincial or territorial health care ministry, or click on the appropriate link below.

    Yukon

    Available Patient Assistance Programs for Hepatitis C treatment Holkira Pak Maviret

    MerckCare Hepatitis C Program 1 872-5773 Zepatier

    Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Test

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    This is a test to find out if you have a current infection. HBsAg is the earliest sign of the virus and disappears from your blood as the infection clears. A positive result indicates infection. If the antigen is not found , this shows that either you have never been exposed to hepatitis B or that you have recovered from infection and cleared the virus. The term surface refers to the outer surface of the virus itself.

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    Hepatitis C Testing Types

    Testing for hep C starts off with a hep C antibody test. This test looks for human antibodies something that your body produces to fight the virus. If your hep C antibody test result is positive, then it means you have been exposed to the hep C virus at some point.

    If you get a positive antibody result, then your sample of blood is tested again using a PCR test. This test looks for parts of the actual hep C virus. If the PCR test result is positive it means that you have hep C. Have a look at our Hep C Testing chart for more info on hep C tests.

    Are Test Results Accurate

    Although no test is perfect, hepatitis C testing is an important and accepted method of testing for HCV. In order to reduce the risk of inaccurate results, doctors take steps to verify a patients diagnosis. For example, a positive test result for hepatitis C antibody requires confirmation with HCV RNA testing.

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    What Does A Reactive Hcv Antibody Test Result Mean

    A reactive or positive antibody test means you have been infected with the hepatitis C virus at some point in time.

    Once people have been infected, they will always have antibodies in their blood. This is true if they have cleared the virus, have been cured, or still have the virus in their blood.

    A reactive antibody test does not necessarily mean that you currently have hepatitis C and a follow-up test is needed.

    Why It Is Done

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    Hepatitis C virus testing is done to:

    • Find out if a hepatitis C infection is the cause of abnormal liver function tests.
    • Screen people who have an increased chance of getting or spreading a hepatitis C infection.
    • Screen potential blood donors and donor organs to prevent the spread of hepatitis C.
    • Screen people born from 1945 to 1975. People in this age group are more likely to have hepatitis C and not know it.
    • Identify the type of hepatitis C virus causing the infection.

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    Can Other Medical Conditions Have Similar Symptoms Like Hepatitis

    Few viral infections also trigger similar symptoms like hepatitis. There are autoimmune conditions that may portray similar symptoms like hepatitis. In that case, the hepatitis panel test result may turn negative, which will prompt your doctor to order additional tests for you. Inherited disorders and drugs such as acetaminophen can cause hepatitis. Alcohol abuse can also result in this condition. Few viral infections such as Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus can cause hepatitis.

    This Hepatitis C Screening Test Checks Whether You Test Positive For Hepatitis C

    In the event that your test results are positive, an associate from our physician network will contact you directly to discuss your particular case as well as provide information on how to take the next steps to get treatment. We take customer privacy very seriously and will never share your information with a third-party with the exception of the lab we use to test your sample and our physician network.

    As is the case with all STD testing – whether through EverlyWell or your doctor â we may be required by law to report positive test results to certain state health departments. This is only done to track infection prevalence. In rare cases you may not receive a definitive result because of early infection or inadequate sampling and repeat testing is suggested. Know where you stand with our at-home Hepatitis C test.

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    How Does Hepatitis C Spread

    The most common way to contract Hepatitis C is through needles . Pregnant women infected with Hepatitis C can spread the virus to their children at the time of birth. Less common ways to spread Hepatitis C include sexual contact, sharing personal care items like razors, and getting body modification procedures, such as tattoos and piercings, in non-sterile environments.

    What To Think About

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    • There is no vaccine to prevent infections with the hepatitis C virus.
    • All donated blood and organs are tested for hepatitis C before being used.
    • Other tests that show how well the liver is working are usually done if your doctor thinks you may have hepatitis C. These may include blood tests for bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase.
    • Aspartate Aminotransferase
  • Provinces require that some types of hepatitis infections be reported to the local health unit. The health unit can then send out a warning to other people who may have been infected with the hepatitis virus, such as those who are close contacts of someone who has hepatitis C.
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    Positive Hcv Antibody And Negative Hcv Rna

    Individuals with a positive HCV antibody test and a negative HCV RNA should be informed they do not have evidence of current hepatitis C infection. It should be explained to the patient that most likely they were infected at some time with HCV, but cleared the infection on their own and they do not have current infection. They do not need further follow-up HCV testing, unless they had recent exposure to HCV. A single negative HCV RNA value does not prove that a patient is not infected, given the potential fluctuations of the viral level early in HCV infection a follow-up HCV RNA level would be indicated depending on the clinical case. Patients should be reevaluated if they have exposure to HCV in the future. In addition, they should receive counseling that prior infection does not make them immune to reinfection with HCV.

    How Is The Test Used

    The various hepatitis C tests have different uses:

  • An HCV antibody test is used to screen for past exposure and current infection. It detects the presence of antibodies to the virus in your blood that are produced by the immune system in response to infection. This test cannot distinguish whether you have an active or a previous HCV infection. There is some evidence that if your test is “weakly positive,” it may be a false positive. The CDC recommends that all positive antibody tests be followed by an HCV RNA test to determine whether or not you have an active infection.

    The HCV antibody test may be performed as part of an acute viral hepatitis panel to determine which of the most common hepatitis viruses is causing your symptoms.

  • HCV RNA test, Quantitative detects and measures the amount of viral RNA in your blood. This test may be used:
  • In follow up to a positive HCV antibody test to confirm the presence of the virus and diagnose an active infection
  • As an initial test for early, acute HCV infection or as follow-up to a negative antibody test if recent exposure is strongly suspected this is because HCV antibodies may not develop for two months after exposure.
  • To help determine your response to therapy by comparing the amount of virus before, during, and after treatment
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    Can This Test Be Done At My Healthcare Practitioners Office

    Maybe. There are rapid HCV antibody tests available that can be done at the point of care , in settings such as your healthcare practitioners office, community health clinics, and emergency rooms. They provide results in about 20 minutes. However, a positive result requires confirmation of active disease with an HCV RNA test, which is performed in a laboratory.

    Do I Need A Hepatitis Panel

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    Few reasons that have prompted your healthcare provider to order the hepatitis panel for you are: You have exhibited some acute symptoms of hepatitis and the type of virus A, B, or C is not known. You carry an elevated risk of hepatitis infection due to recent exposure and a hepatitis panel may be recommended to determine the type of virus behind the hepatitis infection. Your doctor may ask you to undergo the test even in the absence of symptoms. If you show signs of liver damage, then the hepatitis panel test is a must for you. Some of the overriding symptoms that prompt a hepatitis panel test are: Loss of appetite Illegal drugs

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