If I Have Hepatitis B What Does This Mean For My Newborn
If you have hepatitis B, your baby will receive an injection of hepatitis B immunoglobulin shortly after they are born. They will then need to be screened for immunity at 9 months of age. Around 95% of babies born to mothers with hepatitis B will not become infected.
In addition, all babies born in Australia receive 4 doses of the hepatitis B vaccine as part of the National Immunisation Program. You will be able to care for your baby normally at home.
Human Herpesvirus 6 And Human Herpesvirus 7
Human herpesvirus 6 is a cause of exanthema subitum and is associated with febrile seizures. HHV-6 appears to be most similar to CMV based on genetic analysis. No obvious congenital syndrome of HHV-6 infection has been identified, although prenatal infection has been reported. Seroepidemiologic studies show that most adults have already been infected by HHV-6. Therefore primary infection during pregnancy is unlikely, but reactivation of latent HHV-6 infection may be more common. No case of symptomatic HHV-6 prenatal infection has been reported. The significance of reactivation of HHV-6 in a pregnant woman and the production of infection and disease in the fetus and infant remains to be determined. Primary infection in children occurs most often between 6 and 12 months of age, when maternally acquired passive antibodies against HHV-6 are waning. Febrile illnesses in infants younger than 3 months of age have been described with HHV-6 infection, but infection before 3 months or after 3 years is uncommon.
Various studies involving serology and restriction enzyme analysis of HHV-6 isolates from mother/infant pairs support the idea that postnatal transmission and perhaps perinatal transmission from the mothers are common sources of infection. One study was unable to detect HHV-6 in breast milk by PCR analysis in 120 samples, although positive control samples seeded with HHV-6-infected cells did test positive.
Nipple Cracks Or Bleeding
Its not certain that breastfeeding with cracked or bleeding nipples can spread the hepatitis C virus, according to the CDC.
However, hepatitis C can be transmitted through contact with infected blood, so the CDC advises against breastfeeding if you have cracked or bleeding nipples.
The organization suggests that mothers should discard their breast milk until nipples are completely healed.
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What Happens If My Baby Is Born With Hep C
If a baby is born with hep C, it will have a 50% chance of clearing their infection naturally. This will happen within the first 12 months of their lives.
Children with chronic hep C will benefit from seeing a paediatrician who can monitor their hep C. Childhood hep C appears to be mild with very little liver inflammation.
There is no need to tell other people about your childs hep C status. This means you are not required to tell other family members, childcare staff, schools, baby sitters, friends of the child or sports and activity groups
For more information, call the Clinical Nurse Specialist in the Department of Gastroenterology, The Childrens Hospital at Westmead on 9845 3999 > >
Misadministration Of Breast Milk
Misadministration of breast milk, also known as misappropriation, breast milk exposure, and accidental ingestion of breast milk, and other terms, is a medical-legal issue when it occurs in a hospital. This scenario occurs when one infant receives breast milk from another mother by mistake. This occurrence can be very distressing to the families and medical staff involved. The actual risk for transmission of an infectious agent to an infant via a single ingestion of expressed breast milk from another mother is exceedingly low. In this scenario, the CDC recommends treating this as an accidental exposure to a body fluid, which could be infectious. Bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infection from the one exposure is highly unlikely. The concern is about viral pathogens, known to be blood-borne pathogens, which have been identified in breast milk and include but are not limited to hepatitis B virus , hepatitis C virus , cytomegalovirus , West Nile virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus , and HIV.
Additional important components of the hospital-based protocols for managing accidental expressed breast milk exposure include ongoing psychosocial support for the families and staff, documentation of medical discussions with the families, investigative steps, consents and interventions, and the demonstration of ongoing infection control efforts to prevent additional events of misadministration of breast milk.
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Are There Supplements That Are Bad For My Liver
Taking too many vitamin and mineral supplements may do more harm than good to a damaged liver.
What Are The Long
A child with chronic HCV infection should visit the healthcare provider regularly. This way, the healthcare provider can watch for liver damage. Tests will be done to monitor the health of your childs liver. Hepatitis C causes damage over many years. A child with hepatitis C may develop cirrhosis as an adult. This can lead to problems, and possibly the need for a liver transplant. This is why treatment should be discussed with your healthcare provider.
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Is There A Way To Protect Your Unborn Baby
Currently, there isnt a vaccine or medication to protect an unborn baby from getting hepatitis C. The best thing you can do is know your own hepatitis C status and get treated before conceiving, says Adalja. And if youre coinfected with both the human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C, it is important to control HIV, not only to prevent HIV transmission but to prevent hepatitis C transmission, he says.
Also, if you decide to become pregnant, speak with your doctor and know the risks. Hepatitis C during pregnancy is more likely to cause cholestasis of pregnancy, in which bile acids accumulate and lead to itching and sometimes adverse fetal outcomes. And if you have HCV and cirrhosis, complications like low birth weight, preterm delivery, and fetal malformations are likely to occur, warns Adalja.
Its important to note that it is possible to safely breastfeed with hepatitis C. Researchers dont believe that the virus spreads through milk. As a precaution, though, dont breastfeed if your nipples are cracked or bleeding, according to the AASLD.
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What Is Chronic Hepatitis C
Doctors refer to hepatitis C infections as either acute or chronic:
- An acute HCV infection is a short-term illness that clears within 6 months of when a person is exposed to the virus.
- A person who still has HCV after 6 months is said to have a chronic hepatitis C infection. This is a long-term illness, meaning the virus stays in the body and can cause lifelong illness. An estimated 3.2 million people in the U.S. have chronic HCV.
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How Does Hepatitis C Progress
When someone is first infected with hepatitis C, most likely they have no symptoms and are unaware. Occasionally people experience fatigue, loss of appetite, weakness or sometimes having a yellow color in their skin or eyes. Although having any symptoms at all is rare, if they do occur, they usually go away within a few weeks.
Around 15-25% of people who are infected will spontaneously fight off the virus on their own and they will not have a chronic hepatitis C infection and no long term damage occurs.
But around 75-85% of people will develop chronic infection. Most of the time, people with chronic hepatitis C have no symptoms at the time of infection and no symptoms for years or even decades of chronic infection. The virus will be with them until they are successfully treated with hepatitis C medications.
Around 10-20% of people with chronic infection will slowly have gradual damage in the liver over years and will eventually develop cirrhosis . This can take 20 years or more from the time of the initial infection.
Cirrhosis is the replacement of liver cells with permanent scar tissue. Cirrhosis can lead to problems such as bleeding from veins in the esophagus, fluid buildup in the belly, and damaged brain function.Approximately 15% of people with cirrhosis will develop liver cancer during their lifetime. Drinking excessively can double the chance of liver cancer in people infected with HCV.
Can Hcv Pass On Through Sex
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report that HCV can pass on through sex but that this is an uncommon route of transmission. The older review, from 2004, suggests that 5% of HCV cases are sexually transmitted.
The chance of HCV transmitting through sex increases if a person has multiple partners, has a sexually transmitted infection, or engages in sexual behavior that exposes someone to blood. Men who have sex with men may be more likely to contract HCV through sex, the CDC suggest.
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How Can We Protect Newborns From Hepatitis C
From 2009 to 2014, the prevalence of HCV-infected women giving birth has nearly doubled, according to a 2017 report from the CDC.
Pregnant women who have risk factors for infection with the hepatitis C virus should speak to their doctor about having an HCV screening test, Graham says. In some obstetric practices, it may be best to test every woman, she believes, because it’s hard to know which risks apply to each individual.
An estimated 23,000 to 46,000 children in the United States have hepatitis C, Graham says, noting that the virus can be transmitted during childbirth if the newborn comes into contact with small amounts of the mothers blood. The odds that HCV will be transmitted to the baby increase if a woman also has HIV.
The risk of transmitting the viral infection to a newborn is not the same for every mother who has hepatitis C, though however, Graham says this area is controversial. High HCV viral load may increase the risk, she says. Women with HIV tend to have higher hepatitis C viral loads, which may partly explain the increased transmission risk with HIV coinfection.
Mothers who have had chronic hepatitis C but have no detectable virus in their blood cannot infect their newborn.
A baby born to a woman infected with hepatitis C virus should be tested at 18 months of age. Up to 40 percent of children with hepatitis C will clear the virus spontaneously without treatment, while others may need medical treatment but not until age 3.
What Is The Treatment
Hepatitis C doesnt always require treatment as the immune response will sometimes clear the infection. However, treatment may be required for chronic infections and will depend on multiple factors including your childs liver function and whether there are other complications from infection. Many adults are treated with oral medication and clinical trials are currently under way to test this medication for children.
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Can I Drink Alcohol Once In A While If I Have Hepatitis C
Alcohol can clearly contribute to worsening liver disease. You must discuss with your health care provider if any amount of alcohol is safe for you.
Alcohol can cause inflammation and scarring in the liver. If you have any underlying liver condition, such as hepatitis C or hepatitis B or damage from long-term alcohol use, your liver will be more sensitive to alcohol. When you have hepatitis C virus, alcohol on top of the hepatitis C can cause the inflammation and scarring to be worse, and overall damage to the liver may happen much faster when you drink alcohol.
Here is some helpful information about alcohol and hepatitis:
Contaminated Needles And Infected Blood
You can get hepatitis C from sharing contaminated needles, syringes and other injecting equipment during recreational drug use. Banknotes and straws used for snorting may also pass the virus on.
Being exposed to unsterilised tattoo and body piercing equipment can also pass hepatitis C on. Occasionally, you can get it from sharing a towel, razor blades or a toothbrush if there is infected blood on them.
Hepatitis C infection is also passed on in healthcare settings, from needle stick injuries or from medical and dental equipment that has not been properly sterilised. In countries where blood products are not routinely screened, you can also get hepatitis C by receiving a transfusion of unscreened blood and blood products.
You can prevent hepatitis C by:
- never sharing needles and syringes or other items that may be contaminated with infected blood
- only having tattoos, body piercings or acupuncture in a professional setting, where new, sterile needles are used
- following the standard infection control precautions, if youre working in a healthcare setting.
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What Can I Do To Manage My Child’s Hepatitis C
- Talk to your child’s healthcare provider about vaccines. He or she will need hepatitis A and B vaccines if he or she has not received them. He or she should also get the flu vaccine each year.
- Offer a variety of healthy foods. Healthy foods include fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, beans, and lean meats and fish. Ask if your child needs to be on a special diet.
- Have your child drink extra liquids. Liquids help the liver function properly. Ask your child’s healthcare provider how much liquid your child needs each day and which liquids are best for him or her.
- Help your child get more rest. Have your child slowly return to his or her normal activities when he or she feels better.
- Talk to your adolescent about not drinking alcohol. Alcohol can increase liver damage. Talk to your healthcare provider if your adolescent drinks alcohol and needs help to stop.
- Talk to your adolescent about not smoking. Nicotine can damage blood vessels and make it more difficult to manage hepatitis C. Smoking can also lead to more liver damage. Ask your healthcare provider for information if your adolescent currently smokes and needs help to quit. E-cigarettes or smokeless tobacco still contain nicotine. Talk to your healthcare provider before your adolescent uses these products.
How Can I Reduce My Risk Of Transmission
If the amount of virus in your blood is high, you can reduce the risk of transmitting the virus to your baby by taking medication. This, together with the injections your baby will receive shortly after they are born, will reduce the risk to just a 1 in 20 chance of transmission. It is also important that your baby receives all their usual hepatitis B vaccinations on time at 2, 4 and 6 months.
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What Are The Chances Of Getting Hepatitis C From Sex
Hepatitis C can spread through sexual intercourse, but it’s rare. And it’s extremely rare among monogamous couples. In fact, the CDC considers the risk of sexual transmission between monogamous couples so low that it doesn’t even recommend using condoms. Also, there’s no evidence that hepatitis C is spread by oral sex. But you should avoid sharing razors, toothbrushes, and nail clippers, and sex during menstruation.
If you have HIV or if you have multiple partners, you should take precautions. Using condoms will protect you and your partners.
Hepatitis C During Pregnancy: What You Need To Know
Hepatitis C is an infection that can affect unborn babies. Here’s what you need to know about this virus, including how to lower the chance of transmission to your fetus.
Hepatitis C is a chronic viral liver infection that can spread from person to person through contact with infected blood. This contact can happen if you use a contaminated needle to inject drugs, or if you get a tattoo or piercing with unsterilized equipment. Hepatitis C can also spread through unprotected sex, although this is rare, notes the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .
If youre pregnant, you may wonder how a diagnosis of this contagious disease may affect your growing baby. Common questions include: Will my baby have the disease? Is it safe for me to be pregnant? How can I prevent transmitting the virus?
Your concerns are only natural, given that hepatitis C can advance and cause liver damage, liver failure, and liver cancer, according to the Mayo Clinic. Spreading the virus to your baby may put them at risk for these complications, too.
Heres what you need to know about the hepatitis C virus if you’re pregnant or thinking about becoming pregnant.
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Will A Hepatitis C Infection Pass To An Unborn Baby
Because hepatitis C can spread between sexual partners, it seems logical that the virus would spread from mother to unborn child. But can it?
Theres good news and bad news. The bad is that, yes, the virus can pass to a baby during pregnancy, and theres no way to guarantee your baby wont get it, according to the Canadian Pediatric Society . The good news is that transmission by pregnancy is unlikely, says Amesh A. Adalja, MD, a board-certified infectious disease physician based in Pittsburgh and a senior scholar with Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security.
According to research published in September 2014 in the Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Disease Society, theres an 8 to 15 percent risk of a mother transmitting hepatitis C to her infant. Pregnant women with a coinfection of hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus are at a higher risk of transmitting hepatitis C to their babies, says Dr. Adalja. In fact, the aforementioned research suggests the risk of transmission with this coinfection is fourfold higher than in those women with only hepatitis C. You can reduce your babys risk of infection by treating the HIV, notes the CPS.