Which Adults Should Be Vaccinated Against Hepatitis B
According to CDC recommendations, adults in the following groups are recommended to receive hepatitis B vaccine:
- All people age 18 years and younger.
- Anyone 19 years and older who wants to be protected from hepatitis B.
People at risk for infection by sexual exposure
- Sex partners of people who are hepatitis B surface antigen -positive.
- Sexually active people who are not in long-term, mutually monogamous relationships.
- People seeking evaluation or treatment for a sexually transmitted disease.
- Men who have sex with men.
People at risk for infection by percutaneous or permucosal exposure to blood or body fluids
- Current or recent illegal injection drug users.
- Household contacts of people who are HBsAg-positive.
- Residents and staff of facilities for developmentally challenged people.
- Healthcare and public safety workers with reasonably anticipated risk for exposure to blood or blood-contaminated body fluids.
- People with end-stage renal disease, including predialysis, hemo-, peritoneal- and home-dialysis patients.
- International travelers to regions with intermediate or high levels of endemic HBV infection.
- People with chronic liver disease.
- People with HIV infection.
- People with diabetes who are age 19 through 59 years. For those age 60 and older, clinicians should make a determination of need for
- vaccination based on their patients’ situation.
In a future issue, we will review the various hepatitis B serologic tests, who needs testing, and when they need it .
Intradermal Vaccination In Non
Intradermal vaccination in non-responders
Some small observational studies report that some non-responders may respond to intradermal vaccination against hepatitis B.30-32 These results apply to hepatitis B surface antigennegative healthcare workers who are non-responders to a 3-dose course of vaccination and to subsequent additional intramuscular doses .
These studies used up to 4 doses of Engerix-B .30 Younger age and longer duration since the last intramuscular dose may be associated with a better chance of responding.31
If a person receives an intradermal dose, it is recommended that the anti-HBs levels are measured before each subsequent dose to check for seroconversion.
Why Do You Need A Hepatitis B Shot
Hepatitis B is a viral infection that cant be transferred person-to-person unless you have contact with an infected persons bodily fluids. Annual infection rates of HBV are going down in the United States thanks to vaccines. So you might be wondering if you or your child needs a shot to protect against hepatitis B.
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Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedule: Standard Accelerated And Combination
Getting poked with a needle is never fun, but its an extremely important part of protecting yourself and others from infectious diseases! The hepatitis B vaccine is known to be one of the most effective vaccines in the world and very safe too! As a blood-borne disease that typically has no symptoms, hepatitis B can easily be spread by accident simply because people are unaware that they have it! Modes of transmission include mother-to-child during birth, unprotected sex, injection drug use, unsafe medical procedures, and the sharing of personal items that may contain blood remnants, such as body jewelry, razors, and toothbrushes. Although certain precautions can be taken to prevent transmission, the only way to completely protect yourself is to get vaccinated. Once you have been vaccinated, you are protected for life!
There are a few options for receiving the hepatitis B vaccination. In most countries, the vaccine is available through a doctors office or a health clinic. The most common option is the standard three-dose vaccine. This consists of three separate doses of the vaccine given through intramuscular injections. In order for the vaccine to be effective, there must be a minimum amount of time between doses. If the minimum amount of time is not followed, the vaccine will not provide full, long term protection from the infection.
3 Dose Schedule:
2-Dose Schedule :
- 1st shot At any given time
- 2nd shot At least 28 days after the first shot.
Transmission Symptoms And Treatment
How is HBV transmitted?
HBV is transmitted through activities that involve percutaneous or mucosal contact with infectious blood or body fluids , including
- sex with a partner who has HBV infection
- injection drug use that involves sharing needles, syringes, or drug-preparation equipment
- birth to a person who has HBV infection
- contact with blood from or open sores on a person who has HBV infection
- exposures to needle sticks or sharp instruments and
- sharing certain items with a person who has HBV infection that can break the skin or mucous membranes , potentially resulting in exposure to blood.
How long does HBV survive outside the body?
HBV can survive outside the body and remains infectious for at least 7 days .
What should be used to clean environmental surfaces potentially contaminated with HBV?
Any blood spills should be disinfected using a 1:10 dilution of one part household bleach to 9 parts water. Gloves should be worn when cleaning up any blood spills.
Who is at risk for HBV infection?
The following populations are at increased risk for becoming infected with HBV:
- Infants born to people with HBV infection
- Sex partners of people with HBV infection
- Men who have sex with men
- People who inject drugs
- Household contacts or sexual partners of known people with chronic HBV infection
- Health care and public safety workers at risk for occupational exposure to blood or blood-contaminated body fluids
- Patients on hemodialysis
Who should be screened for HBV?
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Who Should Receive The Hepatitis B Vaccine
For most people, the hepatitis B vaccine is safe and effective. About 90% of people who receive three vaccine doses are protected against hepatitis B for over 30 years.
The CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends the hepatitis B vaccine for the following groups:
- All babies, starting just after birth
- Children and adolescents under 19 years old
- Adults ages 1959 who have not previously completed vaccination
- Adults ages 60 and over with a high risk of contracting HBV
Adults ages 60 and over who do not have any hepatitis B risk factors can receive the hepatitis B vaccine, but it is optional.
Hepatitis B spreads when the bodily fluids of an infected person enter another person’s body. Sexual contact is one way it can be spread. A person with HBV can spread it to their baby during childbirth. Other ways in which HBV may be transmitted include:
- Sharing medical equipment, whether at home or in a hospital setting, with a person who has an HBV infection
- Sharing syringes with a person who has hepatitis B, such as during injection drug use or at-home piercing or tattooing
- Sharing personal items, such as razors or toothbrushes, with someone who has hepatitis B
- Coming into contact with the sores or blood of a person who has hepatitis B
Eligible Adults Aged 18 Years And Older
0, 1 and 6 months
Adult dialysis or adult liver or kidney transplant patients
These adults may have a reduced response to HepB, so three higher doses are recommended and funded.
See section 9.5.7 for information about post-vaccination serology.
Adult HIV patients
Adult HIV patients should receive four doses of HepB at 0, 1, 2 and 12 months.
Other eligible adults
The optimal dosing regime is three doses of 20 µg HepB given at 0, 1 and 6 months. See the manufacturers data sheet for sub-optimal accelerated HepB schedules if dosing is time constrained. For other eligible adults, see Table 4.8, Other special groups in section 4.6.
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Before Taking This Medicine
Engerix-B will not protect against infection with hepatitis A, C, and E, or other viruses that affect the liver. It may also not protect against hepatitis B if you are already infected with the virus, even if you do not yet show symptoms.
You should not receive Engerix-B if you have ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction to any vaccine containing hepatitis B, or if you are allergic to yeast.
If you have any of these other conditions, your vaccine may need to be postponed or not given at all:
a bleeding or blood clotting disorder such as hemophilia or easy bruising
weak immune system
an allergy to latex or
a neurologic disorder or disease affecting the brain .
You can still receive a vaccine if you have a minor cold. If you have a more severe illness with a fever or any type of infection, your doctor may recommend waiting until you get better before you receive Engerix-B.
It is not known whether Engerix-B will harm an unborn baby. However, if you are at a high risk for infection with hepatitis B during pregnancy, your doctor should determine whether you need a hepatitis b vaccination.
If you are pregnant, your name may be listed on a pregnancy registry to track the effects of this vaccine on the baby.
It may not be safe to breastfeed while receiving hepatitis b vaccine. Ask your doctor about any risk.
A Note About Sex And Gender
Sex and gender exist on spectrums. This article will use the terms, male, female, or both to refer to sex assigned at birth. .
It is important that infants who are born to females with hepatitis B receive accurate doses of the hepatitis B vaccine. They may also be required to receive hepatitis B immunoglobulin if it is available.
The WHO also recommends using antiviral prophylaxis to help prevent hepatitis B transmission.
The table below outlines the two recommended hepatitis B vaccine schedules for infants born to those who have hepatitis B:
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Common And Local Adverse Events
HB vaccine is well tolerated. Reactions are generally mild and transient, and include: irritability, headache, fatigue and injection site reactions in 10% or more of recipients.
There is no increase in adverse events when HAHB vaccine is compared with HA vaccine given alone or concomitantly with HB vaccine at a different injection site. When the adult formulation of HAHB vaccine is given to children in the 2 dose schedule, there is no increase in adverse events compared with those occurring after administration of the pediatric formulation of HAHB vaccine.
Reactions are usually mild and transient, and include fever, irritability, restlessness and injection site reactions .
Headache, diarrhea, fever, urticaria, angioedema and injection site reactions may occur.
Dose And Administration Of Hepatitis B Vaccine
The dose for Engerix-B® and Recombivax HB® is 0.5 mL IM up to age 20 years or 1 mL IM for adults . The dose for Heplisav-B® is 0.5 mL IM for adults 18 years.
The vaccine is typically given to children in a 3-dose series at age 0 months, at 1 to 2 months, and at 6 to 18 months.
Infants who did not receive a dose a birth should begin the series as soon as feasible.
All children not previously vaccinated with HepB vaccine should be vaccinated at age 11 or 12 years. A 3-dose schedule is used the 1st and 2nd doses are separated by 4 weeks, and the 3rd dose is given 4 to 6 months after the 2nd dose. However, a 2-dose schedule using Recombivax HB® can be used the 2nd dose is given 4 to 6 months after the first.
The usual schedule for adults using Engerix-B® or Recombivax HB® is a 3-dose series with 2 doses separated by 4 weeks, and a 3rd dose 4 to 6 months after the 2nd dose. Heplisav-B® is given in 2 doses at least 4 weeks apart and can be given as a substitute in a 3-dose series with a different HepB vaccine. Heplisav-B® should not be given during pregnancy because safety data are not available on its use during pregnancy.
Unvaccinated adults who are being treated with hemodialysis or who are immunocompromised should be given 1 dose of Recombivax HB® 40 mcg/mL in a 3-dose schedule at 0, 1, and 6 months or 2 doses of Engerix-B® 20 mcg/mL given simultaneously in a 4-dose schedule at 0, 1, 2, and 6 months.
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When To Delay Or Avoid Hepb Immunization
Doctors delay giving the vaccine to babies who weigh less than 4 pounds, 7 ounces at birth whose mothers do not have the virus in their blood. The baby will get the first dose at 1 month of age or when the baby is discharged from the hospital.
The vaccine is not recommended if your child:
- is currently sick, although simple colds or other minor illnesses should not prevent immunization
- had a serious allergic reaction after an earlier dose of the vaccine or is allergic to baker’s yeast
Many People With Hbv Dont Know They Have It
HBV infections are becoming less common in the United States. But HBV is still widespread in other parts of the world. Around 257 million people living around the world currently have HBV, and many of them dont know it. Chronic HBV is often asymptomatic, and even when it isnt, it can take months for symptoms to show up.
HBV can be transmitted through sexual contact and the use of IV drugs , and other risk factors. Although rare, there
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Hepatitis A Vaccine: Canadian Immunization Guide
For health professionals
Last partial chapter update
: The immunoglobulin dosage for Hepatitis A pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylaxis was increased based on the Product Monograph update for GamaSTAN®, which is available on Health Canada’s Drug Product Database.
Last complete chapter revision: March 2018
Other Reported Adverse Events And Conditions
While serious events and chronic illnesses such as chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and sudden infant death syndrome have been alleged or reported following HB vaccination, no evidence of a causal association has been demonstrated in a number of studies.
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Concurrent Administration Of Vaccines
HB-containing vaccines may be administered concomitantly with other vaccines or with HBIg. Different injection sites and separate needles and syringes must be used for concurrent parenteral injections.
Refer to Timing of Vaccine Administration in Part 1 for additional information about concurrent administration of vaccines.
How To Get Vaccinated Against Hepatitis B
All babies in the UK born on or after 1 August 2017 are given 3 doses of hepatitis B-containing vaccine as part of the NHS routine vaccination schedule.
These doses are given at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age.
Babies at high risk of developing hepatitis B infection from infected mothers are given extra doses of the hepatitis B vaccine at birth, 4 weeks and 1 year of age.
If you think you’re at risk and need the hepatitis B vaccine, ask your GP to vaccinate you, or visit any sexual health or genitourinary medicine clinic.
If your job places you at risk of hepatitis B infection, it’s your employer’s responsibility to arrange vaccination for you, rather than your GP. Contact your occupational health department.
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Recommended Adult Dosing Volume Of Monovalent Hepatitis B Vaccine
- Age 19 years and younger: Use 0.5 mL per dose .
- Age 20 years and older: 1.0 mL per dose .
For a one-page sheet reviewing the hepatitis B dosing schedule for children and adults, consult IACs Hepatitis A and B Vaccines: Be Sure Your Patients Get the Correct Dose. For complete dosing information, consult the ACIP hepatitis B vaccine recommendations for adults.
Variations From The Vaccine Data Sheet
See section 15.9 for variations from the DTaP-IPV-HepB/Hib data sheet.
Ministry of Health advises that two doses Engerix-B 20 µg, given four to six months apart, may be given to adolescents aged 1115 years. The manufacturers data sheet recommends three doses of 10 µg given at 0, 1 and 6 months, but in circumstances where compliance may not be assured, giving 20 µg per dose increases the proportion of recipients protected after the first and second doses.
Although the Ministry of Health and the data sheet recommend 0.5 ml Engerix-B 10 µg for neonates born to HBV infected mothers, where the paediatric presentation is unavailable, the data sheet advises that Engerix-B 20 µg can be given to children from birth up to the age of 10 years.
The Ministry of Health recommends giving three doses of 40 ug HepB to be given 0, 1, and 6 months for adult renal dialysis patients, liver or kidney transplant patients. For adults with HIV, four doses of Engerix-B 20 µg is recommended given at 0, 1, 2 and 12 months. The data sheet advises four doses of 40 µg given at 0, 1, 2 and 6 months for chronic haemodialysis patients and other individuals who have an impairment of their immune system.
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Compliance With Accelerated Vs Standard Vaccination Schedules In Different Populations
Table 2Overview of hepatitis B vaccine uptake according to vaccination schedule, in different atrisk populations
|Prisoners with intravenous drug use||0 1 6 7|
|Prisoners with intravenous drug use||0 1/4 3/4 7|
|Prisoners with intravenous drug use||0 1/4 3/4 7|
|MSM, IVDU, CSW and STI||0 1 6|
*Schedule expressed in months 0 1/4 3/4 therefore corresponds to 0.7.21days type of vaccination schedule: coded as S , SS , A or SA parentheses indicate schedules without the final dose numbers and percentages either reported in the paper, or calculated from the reported values
SW/MSM/Multiple partners/STI clinic attendants
Several studies have reported being able to administer three doses of hepatitis B vaccine to a higher proportion of the population targeted, when an accelerated or a superaccelerated schedule was used, at least the primary part of it. Unfortunately, few of these studies report immunogenicity data this is mainly due to the difficulties to administer three vaccine doses, and thus the low proportion that can actually be tested afterwards.39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46
A recent paper that did report immunogenicity data studied a shortened standard schedule as an alternative option, in a setting where other strategies are used to improve the compliance. Even if the 0.1.4months schedule failed to significantly improve the compliance, it offered equal protection within a shorter interval.47