Who Should Get A Hepatitis B Vaccine
Vaccination against hepatitis B is recommended for everyone. But, some groups are at an increased risk. These include the following individuals:
- Men who have sex with men
- Inject drugs or share needles
- Live with a person with chronic hepatitis B
- Hemodialysis patients
- Travellers to regions with hepatitis B transmission.
Those who are allergic to products within the vaccine and some individuals with certain health conditions. Consult with a travel health specialist to learn if the vaccine is right for you and your situation.
Where Can I Get Vaccinated
The best place to go for vaccinations is your family medical clinic. They have your medical records and can check to see if youve already had a particular vaccination. Either your doctor or a nurse can give the vaccination.If you dont have a family doctor, you can go to one of the after-hour medical clinics. Ring them first to make sure they can help you with the vaccination you need.You can find a clinic near you on the Healthpoint website. Put in your address and region, and under Select a service, click on GPs/Accident & Urgent Medical Care.Vaccines on the National Immunisation Schedule are free. Other vaccines are funded only for people at particular risk of disease. You can choose to pay for vaccines that you are not eligible to receive for free.
Hav Hazards In The Workplace
Pupils with mental or physical disabilities are diapered, washed, fed, probed and catheterized by the staff. The regular performance of these activities entails a risk of infection for pathogens that are excreted via the stool. Possible contact can occur here, for example, during assisted toilet use, incontinence care or intimate hygiene. Nevertheless, contact can also occur with nasal secretions, saliva or infected blood during wound care. Claus et al. showed that many pupils at special schools with focus on mental or physical disabilities could not follow elementary hygiene rules, so that body excretions remain on hands, body and objects. There would therefore be an uncontrollable, increased risk of both contact and smear infections and those transmitted via droplet infection.
In the context of the present survey, about 10% of the employees at special schools with a focus on mental or physical disabilities perform catheterization, predominantly by educational specialists. In contrast, 26% of the respondents in the study of Claus et al. stated that they catheterized pupils. This difference could be caused by the fact that the study by Claus et al. was based on a self-selective sample of special schools, resulting in the participation of schools mainly for pupils with severe disabilities.
Don’t Miss: How Did I Get Hepatitis B
Infants Born To Mothers Who Have Hepatitis B: Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedules
*Please note that the first dose should be given as soon as possible. Additional doses require minimum time intervals between doses in order for the vaccine to be effective.
Protecting Your Baby
Infants born to women with hepatitis B must receive accurate doses of hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin to ensure complete protection. In order to protect these infants, medications should be given immediately after birth in the delivery room or within the first 12-24 hours of life*.
* See Testing and Treatment During Pregnancy section for details. Please note that testing of all pregnant women for hepatitis B is a global recommendation.
3-Dose Vaccine Series for Infants
The World Health Organization recommends that infants born to hepatitis B positive mothers receive the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth, and ideally a dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin . These shots must be followed by the additional vaccine doses given on the recommended schedule. In the U.S., infants should follow a 1 month and 6-month schedule for the additional two doses.
4-Dose Combination Vaccine Series for Infants
What Is Hepatitis B Virus
Hepatitis B virus attacks the liver. Hepatitis B virus infections are known as the “silent epidemic” because many infected people don’t experience symptoms until decades later when they develop hepatitis , cirrhosis , or cancer of the liver . Every year in the United States about 22,000 new hepatitis B infections occur and about 2,000 people die from their infections.
Don’t Miss: What Does Hepatitis B Non Reactive Mean
What Is The Selected Safety Information For Recombivax Hb
Do not administer RECOMBIVAX HB to individuals with a history of severe allergic or hypersensitivity reactions after a previous dose of any hepatitis B-containing vaccine or to any component of RECOMBIVAX HB, including yeast.
The vial stopper and the syringe plunger stopper and tip cap contain dry natural latex rubber, which may cause allergic reactions in latex-sensitive individuals.
Apnea following intramuscular vaccination has been observed in some infants born prematurely. Decisions about when to administer an intramuscular vaccine, including RECOMBIVAX HB, to infants born prematurely should be based on consideration of the individual infants medical status and the potential benefits and possible risks of vaccination. For RECOMBIVAX HB, this assessment should include consideration of the mothers hepatitis B antigen status and high probability of maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus to infants born to mothers who are HBsAg positive if vaccination is delayed.
Hepatitis B vaccination should be delayed until 1 month of age or hospital discharge in infants weighing < 2000 g if the mother is documented to be HBsAg negative at the time of the infants birth. Infants weighing < 2000 g born to HBsAg positive or HBsAg unknown mothers should receive vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin in accordance with ACIP recommendations if HBsAg status cannot be determined.
Vaccination with RECOMBIVAX HB may not protect all individuals.
Hbv Hazards In The Workplace
Various studies have previously investigated the prevalence of HBV infections or the seroprevalence of HBV in institutions for the disabled. Most studies found a higher proportion of post-infection conditions in mentally impaired residents compared to the general population,,,,. Increased HBV seroconversion rates among teachers have also been described previously, assuming the presence of HBV carriers among pupils,.
In 2015, the WHO estimated that 4% of the population worldwide live with chronic HBV infection. According to Poethko-Müller et al., the serostatus in a Germany-wide sample showed HBV infection in approximately 5% of adults. Similar studies from other countries presented comparable information,. In the present study, 1% and 2% of the respondents stated that they had had HBV and HAV respectively. This discrepancy could be due to the limitation of this study, namely that only self-reports are available but no serological evidence is. In addition, HBV may have a subclinical course.
Read Also: Hepatitis B Symptoms For Males
Emergency Hepatitis B Vaccination
If you have been exposed to the hepatitis B virus and have not been vaccinated before, you should get immediate medical advice, as you may benefit from having the hepatitis B vaccine.
In some situations, you may also need to have an injection of antibodies, called specific hepatitis B immunoglobulin , along with the hepatitis B vaccine.
HBIG should ideally be given within 48 hours, but you can still have it up to a week after exposure.
Where Do I Go To Get Myself Or My Family Vaccinated
The best place to receive an HBV vaccine is at your doctors office. Many pharmacies can also administer many vaccines, including those for hepatitis B. Use the Adult Vaccine Finder for a list of pharmacies and providers near you. For people without insurance, there are many vaccination clinics in Alameda County.
Any time you receive a vaccine, be sure to keep your Immunization Record. If you are unsure of your vaccine history, here are Tips for Locating Old Immunization Records.
You May Like: Hepatitis A Virus Ab Positive
People With Diabetes Have Twice The Chance Of Becoming Infected With This Liver Disease
by Michelle Crouch, AARP, Updated September 10, 2021
En español | Even though theres an effective vaccine to prevent it, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that about 862,000 Americans are living with chronic, long-term hepatitis B, with the infection causing thousands of of cases of liver failure, cirrhosis and liver cancer ever year.
The virus attacks the liver silently at first, so many people dont realize they are infected until decades later, when the virus has already done extensive damage or caused liver cancer, says John Scott, M.D., an infectious disease specialist and associate medical director of the Hepatitis and Liver Clinic at Harborview Medical Center in Seattle. Its a bad cancer, it can be very aggressive, Scott says.
While children are routinely vaccinated against hepatitis B, which can be spread from mother to baby at birth, its only recommended for certain groups of adults including diabetics and only 16 percent of Americans age 50 or older have received the vaccine.
Because children are vaccinated, the virus is more commonly spread through sexual contact or by sharing needles, syringes or other drug-injection equipment. The opioid epidemic has caused a spike in the number of cases.
Persons With Chronic Diseases
Refer to Immunization of Persons with Chronic Diseases in Part 3 for additional general information about vaccination of people with chronic diseases.
Chronic renal disease and patients on dialysis
People with chronic renal disease may respond sub-optimally to HB vaccine and experience more rapid decline of anti-HBs titres, and are therefore recommended immunization with a higher vaccine dose. Individuals undergoing chronic dialysis are also at increased risk for HB infection. In people with chronic renal disease anti-HBs titre should be evaluated annually and booster doses using a higher vaccine dose should be given as necessary.
People with conditions such as autism spectrum disorders or demyelinating disorders should receive all routinely recommended immunizations, including HB-containing vaccine.
Chronic liver disease
HB immunization is recommended for non-immune persons with chronic liver disease, including those infected with hepatitis C, because they are at risk of more severe disease if infection occurs. Vaccination should be completed early in the course of the disease, as the immune response to vaccine is suboptimal in advanced liver disease. Post-immunization serologic testing may be used to confirm vaccine response.
Non-malignant hematologic disorders
Persons with bleeding disorders and other people receiving repeated infusions of blood or blood products are considered to be at higher risk of contracting HB and should be offered HB vaccine.
Don’t Miss: Hepatitis C Virus Non Reactive Means
Active Vaccination To Prevent Infection
Hepatitis B vaccination is available for preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis and provides long-term protection. Hepatitis B vaccines are produced recombinantly in yeast cell systems. The vaccines contain noninfectious HBsAg , a small amount of yeast protein, and aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant. Pediatric formulations contain trace or no thimerosal. Administration is via the intramuscular route. Adverse effects are generally mild and mainly consist of local tenderness and low-grade fever. After a vaccine series, more than 95% seroconversion is achieved, which results in > 90% efficacy. Studies are ongoing to determine length of immunity, but it is at least 20 years.
Two hepatitis B single antigen vaccines are available in the United States: Recombivax from Merck & Co. and Engerix-B from GlaxoSmithKline. Both vaccines come in doses for pediatric and adult populations. High-dose vaccines are available for adult hemodialysis and immunocompromised patients. Both vaccines are given in a three-dose series and are generally interchangeable. A fourth dose may be given if a birth dose was administered. The birth dose must be a single antigen formulation.
Booster doses of hepatitis B vaccine beyond the initial series are generally not recommended. The long incubation period of hepatitis B theoretically allows for the development of a protective anamnestic immune response after exposure.
Fabrizio Fabrizi MD, … Paul Martin MD, in, 2017
What Is Hepatitis A
Hepatitis A is a contagious liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus and spread through contaminated food or drink, or through bodily contact where personal hygiene or sanitation is poor.
Hepatitis A has an incubation period of 14 to 28 days, and people whove had hepatitis A develop antibodies that prevent a second infection. The disease can be prevented by vaccination.
Read Also: Common Symptoms Of Hepatitis C
How To Get Vaccinated Against Hepatitis B
All babies in the UK born on or after 1 August 2017 are given 3 doses of hepatitis B-containing vaccine as part of the NHS routine vaccination schedule.
These doses are given at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age.
Babies at high risk of developing hepatitis B infection from infected mothers are given extra doses of the hepatitis B vaccine at birth, 4 weeks and 1 year of age.
If you think you’re at risk and need the hepatitis B vaccine, ask your GP to vaccinate you, or visit any sexual health or genitourinary medicine clinic.
If your job places you at risk of hepatitis B infection, it’s your employer’s responsibility to arrange vaccination for you, rather than your GP. Contact your occupational health department.
Adjuvants In Recombinant Hbv Vaccines
Modern recombinant vaccines are very refined and contain less antigenic components . As a result, adding adjuvants is essential to induce a better immune response. Among the adjuvants, aluminum salts are widely used. These salts can form insoluble particles, cause retention and release of vaccine antigens gradually like a depot, and thereby induce innate immunity.14 The various adjuvant systems used with recombinant HBV vaccines are AS01B , AS01E , AS02A , AS02B , AS02V , AS03 , AS04 , etc.14
Don’t Miss: How To Reduce Hepatitis B Viral Load Naturally
Hepatitis B Vaccine Side Effects
The hepatitis B vaccine is considered a very safe and effective vaccine. Its made with an inactivated virus, so most types of the vaccine are even safe for pregnant people.
The hepatitis B vaccine may cause some mild side effects. The most common symptom is redness, swelling, or soreness where the injection was given. Some people also experience headache or fever. These effects usually last a day or two .
Rarely, some people have a serious and potentially life threatening allergic reaction to the vaccine. Call 911 or get to a hospital immediately if you experience any of the following symptoms after vaccination:
Regulatory Recommendations For Clinical Development Of Recombinant Hbv Vaccines
The WHO guidelines on clinical investigation of HBV immunoglobulins recommends that new or significantly modified recombinant HBV vaccine formulations should have extensive product characterization, immunogenicity testing, safety testing and proof-of-concept studies in animals. Variations in manufacturing, alteration in vaccine formulation or change in the route of administration require immunogenicity studies together with adequate animal safety/toxicological studies.39,44 Pre-clinical investigation of HBV vaccines should follow WHO guidelines.39 As no effects, apart from those on immunity, are expected with sole HBV vaccines, safety pharmacological studies are also not required. Toxicology studies should be performed as per WHO guidelines.39 Such studies should also reflect the intended clinical use of the vaccine in special populations like neonates and children. The assessment of immune responses should rely on the anti-HBsAg antibody titer in serum, using a validated and standardized assay.
Ethics Approval And Consent To Participate
The present data were collected and analyzed anonymously by the Institute of Teachers Health in the course of fulfilling its legal mandate to carry out occupational health care for all employees in the state school service in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The Ethics Committee of the Rhineland-Palatinate State Medical Association, Germany, has given its approval and confirmed that no further measures are required for the evaluation of anonymized data collected as part of the fulfillment of the IfL’s statutory work mandate The data protection officer’s approval has been obtained.
Do The Benefits Of The Hepatitis B Vaccine Outweigh Its Risks
Every year in the United States about 2,000 people die following an overwhelming hepatitis B virus infection. In addition, every year about 22,000 people are infected with hepatitis B. Some of them will remain chronically infected, putting them at high risk of the long-term consequences of hepatitis B virus infection: cirrhosis and liver cancer. In fact, with the exception of influenza and COVID-19 viruses, hepatitis B virus causes more severe disease and death in the United States than any other vaccine-preventable disease. On the other hand, the hepatitis B vaccine is an extremely rare cause of a severe allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. To date, no one has died from this reaction, but it is theoretically possible that this could occur.
Because hepatitis B virus is a common cause of severe disease and death in the United States, and because the hepatitis B vaccine does not cause permanent damage or death, the benefits of the hepatitis B vaccine clearly outweigh its risks.
Also Check: Is Hepatitis B Bacterial Or Viral
If I Already Have Hepatitis B Can The Vaccine Treat It
No. The hepatitis vaccine prevents hepatitis, but doesnt cure it if you already have it. If you have hepatitis B, there are other treatment options.
However, if you recently got exposed to the hepatitis B virus and you havent had the vaccine yet, tell your doctor right away. The vaccine and possibly other treatment can reduce your chances of getting hepatitis B if you get it within 2 weeks after you came into contact with the virus. The sooner you seek care after being exposed to hepatitis B, the better, so try to get there right away.
Who Should Not Get The Hepatitis B Vaccine
Hepatitis B is a safe vaccine that does not contain a live virus.
However, there are some circumstances in which doctors advise against getting the HBV vaccine.
You should not receive the hepatitis B vaccine if:
- youve had a serious allergic reaction to a previous dose of the hepatitis B vaccine
- you have a history of hypersensitivity to yeast or any other HBV vaccine components
You May Like: What’s The Difference Between Hepatitis B And C