Thursday, June 23, 2022

Where Can I Get My Hepatitis A Vaccine

Hepatitis A In Australia

Tampa Bay-area doctor wants to make sure everyone can get a hepatitis A vaccine | 10News WTSP

In recent years, hepatitis A notifications and hospitalisations have been low and trending down.1An increasing proportion of cases relate to travel to countries where hepatitis A is endemic.12-14

Hepatitis A in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children

The hepatitis A vaccination program was initially established in north Queensland in 1999 for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 18 months.15 In 2005, it expanded to include all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 2 years in:

  • the Northern Territory
  • South Australia
  • Western Australia

Before the vaccination program, rates of hepatitis A in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities were very high. Factors associated with high rates were poor living conditions, overcrowding and poor sanitation.16 The hepatitis A vaccination program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in endemic areas substantially reduced hospitalisations and notifications for this population.17

Many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children > 2 years of age in states and territories targeted by the hepatitis A vaccination program have received hep A vaccine. However, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children remain at greater risk than non-Indigenous children of acquiring hepatitis A.17

See also Vaccination for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

History of hepatitis A in Australia

More recently, Hepatitis A outbreaks have been associated with a common food source.17,21,22

What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Hepatitis A And B Vaccine

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction:hives difficulty breathing swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Keep track of any and all side effects you have after receiving this vaccine. When you receive a booster dose, you will need to tell the doctor if the previous shot caused any side effects.

You should not receive a booster vaccine if you had a life-threatening allergic reaction after the first shot.

Becoming infected with hepatitis is much more dangerous to your health than receiving this vaccine. However, like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects but the risk of serious side effects is extremely low.

You may feel faint after receiving this vaccine. Some people have had seizure like reactions after receiving this vaccine. Your doctor may want you to remain under observation during the first 15 minutes after the injection.

  • numbness, tingling, or burning pain
  • red or blistering skin rash with burning or tingly feeling
  • easy bruising or bleeding or
  • unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness.

Common side effects include:

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report vaccine side effects to the US Department of Health and Human Services at 1-800-822-7967.

What Is Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is a virus affecting the liver. It usually spreads through contaminated food or water. Unlike other forms of hepatitis, A cannot become a chronic infection.

Symptoms often appear two to six weeks after exposure. This means a traveler can visit a country and return not knowing theyre infected.

Some common hepatitis A symptoms include:

  • Fatigue

These will persist for a few weeks, severe cases can last months. Death is rare.

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What Causes Hepatitis A

The hepatitis A virus causes this type of hepatitis and spreads through contact with an infected persons stool. Contact can occur by

  • eating food made by an infected person who did not wash his or her hands after using the bathroom
  • drinking untreated water or eating food washed in untreated water
  • placing a finger or an object in your mouth that came into contact with an infected persons stool
  • having close personal contact with an infected person, such as through sex or caring for someone who is ill

You cannot get hepatitis A from

  • being coughed on or sneezed on by an infected person
  • sitting next to an infected person
  • hugging an infected person

A baby cannot get hepatitis A from breast milk.4

Concurrent Administration Of Vaccines

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HA vaccine may be administered concomitantly with other vaccines or with Ig. Different injection sites and separate needles and syringes must be used for concurrent parenteral injections.

If concurrently providing HA-containing vaccine and Ig, separate anatomic injection sites should be used for each injection.

Passive immunization with human Ig preparations can interfere with the immune response to measles-mumps-rubella , measles-mumps-rubella-varicella and univalent varicella vaccines . These vaccines should be given at least 14 days prior to administration of a human Ig preparation, or delayed until the antibodies in the Ig preparation have degraded. Refer to Blood Products, Human Immunoglobulin and Timing of Immunization in Part 1 for additional information.

Refer to Timing of Vaccine Administration in Part 1 for additional information about concurrent administration of vaccines.

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What Other Drugs Will Affect Hepatitis A And B Vaccine

Before receiving this vaccine, tell the doctor about all other vaccines you have recently received.

Also tell the doctor if you have recently received drugs or treatments that can weaken the immune system, including:

If you are using any of these medications, you may not be able to receive the vaccine, or may need to wait until the other treatments are finished.

This list is not complete. Other drugs may interact with hepatitis A and B vaccine, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible interactions are listed in this medication guide.

Who Is At Risk For Infection

Anyone who is not immune to hepatitis A can get hepatitis A infection. Food-borne outbreaks occur sporadically throughout the USA. Certain groups of people do have a higher risk of developing HAV infection and should be vaccinated:

  • Persons experiencing homelessness
  • People who eat raw or under-cooked shellfish

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Why Is Hepa Recommended

The HepA vaccine not only protects the kids who get it. It also can help prevent outbreaks. An outbreak is when a disease happens in greater numbers than expected in a particular area.

Childcare centers are a common site of hepatitis A outbreaks. Some kids can be infected and not have symptoms. But they can still spread the virus to others. Having many young kids vaccinated against hepatitis A can stop it from spreading in a community.

Persons New To Canada

Hepatitis A vaccine in high demand

Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals, as necessary. In many countries outside of Canada, HA vaccine is in limited use.

HA vaccination should be considered for all persons from HA-endemic countries. Individuals born in HA-endemic countries are more likely to be immune to HA therefore, serologic testing for immunity before HA immunization should be considered. If persons from HA-endemic countries are not immune, they should be offered HA immunization because they are at increased risk for HA exposure through visits to their country of origin, or when receiving friends and family from their country of origin.

In addition, persons new to Canada should be tested for hepatitis C antibody and susceptible persons chronically infected with hepatitis C should be vaccinated against HA and HB. Persons new to Canada should also be tested for HB and vaccinated against HA if found to be a HB carrier. Household or close contacts of children adopted from HA-endemic countries should be immunized with HA-containing vaccine. Adults travelling to pick up adopted children from HA-endemic countries should be vaccinated before departure.

Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people who are new to Canada.

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What Is This Medicine

HEPATITIS A VACCINE HEPATITIS B VACCINE is a vaccine to protect from an infection with the hepatitis A and B virus. This vaccine does not contain the live viruses. It will not cause a hepatitis infection.

This medicine may be used for other purposes ask your health care provider or pharmacist if you have questions.

COMMON BRAND NAME: Twinrix

Who Should Get Immunised Against Hepatitis A

Anyone who wants to protect themselves against hepatitis A can talk to their doctor about getting immunised.

Hepatitis A immunisation is recommended for:

  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children who live in Queensland, the Northern Territory, Western Australia or South Australia, at 18 months and 4 years for free under the National Immunisation Program
  • People who regularly provide care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Queensland, the Northern Territory, Western Australia or South Australia
  • children at least 12 months old and adults who are travelling to areas where hepatitis A is common
  • people who live or work with rural or remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities
  • people who work in early childhood education and care
  • people with developmental disabilities, and their carers
  • plumbers and sewage workers

Your doctor can tell you which vaccine they will use for your hepatitis A immunisation.

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How Is This Vaccine Given

This vaccine is given as an injection into a muscle. You will receive this injection in a doctor’s office or other clinic setting.

The hepatitis A and B vaccine is given in a series of 3 shots. The booster shots are given 1 month and 6 months after the first shot.

If you have a high risk of hepatitis infection, you may be given 3 shots within 30 days, and a fourth shot 12 months after the first.

Your individual booster schedule may be different from these guidelines. Follow your doctor’s instructions or the schedule recommended by the health department of the state you live in.

People Whose Lifestyle Increases Their Risk Of Acquiring Hepatitis A

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Serological testing for hepatitis A immunity is not routinely recommended, but may be appropriate for some people

Serological testing for immunity to hepatitis A is not routinely recommended before receiving hepatitis A vaccine.

It is also inappropriate to test people who cannot remember whether they have ever had a hepatitis A vaccine. If a person is recommended for vaccination and has no records of previous vaccination, they should receive a vaccine.

However, certain groups of people should be screened for natural immunity to hepatitis A to avoid unnecessary vaccination:

  • people who were born before 1950
  • people who spent their early childhood in hepatitis Aendemic areas
  • people with an unexplained previous episode of hepatitis or jaundice

People with unexplained jaundice should also be tested for other causes of hepatitis, including hepatitis B.

These people may need to be tested for total hepatitis A antibodies or IgG antibodies against hepatitis A virus. A positive test indicates immunity to hepatitis A. People who are immune do not need hepatitis A vaccination.

To better interpret serological testing results, discuss them with the laboratory that performed the test. Ensure that the laboratory receives the relevant clinical information.

See also Vaccine information and Variations from product information for more details.

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How Common Is Hepatitis A

In the United States, hepatitis A has become relatively uncommon. After the hepatitis A vaccine became available in 1995, the rate of hepatitis A infections declined by 95 percent in the United States. The number of reported cases of hepatitis A fell to 1,239 in 2014, the lowest yearly number of cases reported since the disease could be tracked.1 However, the number of reported cases increased to 3,366 in 2017, almost 3 times higher, mostly due to outbreaks among people who use drugs and people experiencing homelessness.1 Early reports suggest that the numbers of cases and outbreaks of hepatitis A increased further during 2018 and continue at these higher rates in 2019.2

Hepatitis A is more common in developing countries where sanitation is poor and access to clean water is limited. Hepatitis A is more common in parts of Africa, Asia, Central and South America, and Eastern Europe than it is in the United States.

Hepatitis A Vaccine And International Travel

Who should get the hepatitis A vaccine before traveling internationally?

All unvaccinated people, along with those who have never had hepatitis A, should be vaccinated before traveling to countries where hepatitis A is common. Travelers to urban areas, resorts, and luxury hotels in countries where hepatitis A is common are still at risk. International travelers have been infected, even though they regularly washed their hands and were careful about what they drank and ate. Those who are too young or cant get vaccinated because of a previous, life-threatening reaction to the hepatitis A vaccine or vaccine component should receive immune globulin. Travelers to other countries where hepatitis A does not commonly occur are not recommended to receive hepatitis A vaccine before travel.

How soon before travel should I get the hepatitis A vaccine?

You should get the first dose of hepatitis A vaccine as soon as you plan international travel to a country where hepatitis A is common. The vaccine will provide some protection even if you get vaccinated closer to departure. For older adults , people who are immunocompromised, and people with chronic liver disease or other chronic medical conditions the health-care provider may consider, based on several factors, giving an injection of immune globulin at the same time in different limbs.

What should I do if I am traveling internationally but cannot receive hepatitis A vaccine?

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Hepatitis A And B Vaccine

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that can be deadly. There are five main hepatitis viruses, known as A, B, C, D and E. Hepatitis is most often caused by the A and B viruses.

Hepatitis A is commonly spread through infected food or water. It is more common in countries without safe water or sewage systems. Hepatitis B is spread through sexual contact or contact with blood. It can also be passed from mother to child.

Vaccines can prevent hepatitis A and hepatitis B. There is also a combination vaccine that protects against both viruses.

Complications Of Hepatitis A

Addressing Adult Patientsâ Hepatitis B Vaccine Concerns with Dr. Sandra Leal

Complications of hepatitis A are uncommon. Rarely, it may develop into fulminant hepatitis, for which mortality can be as high as 60%. 2,11 The case-fatality rate of hepatitis A increases with age and varies according to the population.2

Hepatitis A does not cause chronic liver disease. Relapse occurs in up to 10% of cases, but all relapsed cases recover.

Also Check: How To Treat Viral Hepatitis

What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Hepatitis A Immunisation

All medicines and vaccines can have side effects. Sometimes they are serious, most of the time theyre not.

For most people, the chance of having a serious side effect from a vaccine is much lower than the chance of serious harm if you caught the disease.

Talk to your doctor about possible side effects of hepatitis A vaccines, or if you or your child have possible side effects that worry you.

Common side effects of hepatitis A vaccines include:

  • headache
  • tiredness
  • pain where the needle went in.

Do I Need To Pay For Hepatitis A Immunisation

Vaccines covered by the NIP are free for people who are eligible. See the NIP Schedule to find out which vaccines you or your family are eligible to receive.

Eligible people get the vaccine for free, but your health care provider may charge a consultation fee for the visit. You can check this when you make your appointment.

If you are not eligible for free vaccine, you may need to pay for it. The cost depends on the type of vaccine, the formula and where you buy it from. Your immunisation provider can give you more information.

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What Are The Side Effects Of The Hepatitis A And B Vaccine

Possible side effects from hepatitis A and B vaccines are typically mild. They can include soreness at the site of the shot, headache, fever or tiredness.

Any vaccine carries a very small risk of severe allergic reaction. Go to the ER if you experience difficulty breathing, dizziness or swelling in the face.

Why Should My Child Get The Hepatitis A Shot

Vaccine (Shot) for Hepatitis B
  • Protects your child from hepatitis A, a potentially serious disease.
  • Protects other people from the disease because children under 6 years old with hepatitis A usually dont have symptoms, but they often pass the disease to others without anyone knowing they were infected.
  • Keeps your child from missing school or childcare and you from missing work.

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People Whose Occupation Increases Their Risk Of Acquiring Hepatitis A

People who live or work in rural and remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia or Western Australia are recommended to receive hepatitis A vaccine.

2 doses are required, with a recommended interval between doses of 6 months.

People who regularly provide care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia are recommended to receive hepatitis A vaccine.

2 doses are required, with a recommended interval between doses of 6 months.

Early childhood educators and carers are recommended to receive hepatitis A vaccine.

2 doses are required, with a recommended interval between doses of 6 months.

Carers of people with developmental disabilities are recommended to receive hepatitis A vaccine.

2 doses are required, with a recommended interval between doses of 6 months.

Plumbers and sewage workers are recommended to receive hepatitis A vaccine.

2 doses are required, with a recommended interval between doses of 6 months.

What Happens If I Miss A Dose

Contact your doctor if you miss a booster dose or if you get behind schedule. The next dose should be given as soon as possible. There is no need to start over.

Be sure you receive all recommended doses of this vaccine. You may not be fully protected against disease if you do not receive the full series.

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