What Is A Bacterial Infection
Bacterial infection occurs when one or more bacteria have entered the body and begin to multiply. However, not all bacterial infections cause disease.
Bacteria have evolved to evade or manipulate the bodys immune system. So when pathogenic bacteria enter the body,
- Touch: If people do not wash their hands, they can transmit bacteria and viruses onto other surfaces, including food.
- Droplets: When a person sneezes or coughs, they create droplets that carry viruses and bacteria, which another person can inhale.
- Injury: Some bacteria and viruses enter the body through cuts and puncture wounds.
To determine if a person has a viral or bacterial infection, a doctor will usually ask questions about their symptoms and perform a physical exam.
To confirm a diagnosis, they may request tests, such as:
- Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay : This test can help to detect infection due to many viruses, including HIV and bacterial infections such as Lyme disease.
- Polymerase chain reaction : This test sequences the DNA of microorganisms, and can detect viral infections, such as HPV, in addition to bacterial infections including, Escherichia coli .
- Electron microscopy: This type of imaging can be used to identify rare viral and bacterial infections that require high resolution to detect. However, because electron microscopy is an expensive diagnostic tool, doctors rarely request it.
What Are The Treatments For Hepatitis B
If you think you may have been exposed to hepatitis B, its important to talk with a healthcare professional as soon as possible.
A doctor or other healthcare professional may administer the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine and a shot of hepatitis B immunoglobulin. This is a combination of antibodies that provide short-term protection against the virus.
Though both can be given up to a week after exposure, theyre most effective at preventing infection if administered within 48 hours.
If you receive a diagnosis of acute hepatitis B, a doctor may refer you to a specialist. They may advise you to get regular blood tests to ensure you dont develop chronic hepatitis.
Many people with acute hepatitis B dont experience serious symptoms. But if you do, it can help to:
- get plenty of rest
- take over-the-counter pain mediation, like naproxen, when needed
Other lifestyle changes may also be needed to manage your infection, such as:
- eating a nutritious, balanced diet
- avoiding substances that can harm your liver, such as:
- certain herbal supplements or medications, including acetaminophen
If blood tests show you still have an active infection after 6 months, your doctor may recommend further treatment, including medications to help control the virus and prevent liver damage.
Bacteriophages As Tools For Medical Purposes
Bacteriophages are naturally-occurring viruses that specifically infect bacterial cells. These prokaryotic viruses are the most abundant life forms in the biosphere. In comparison with bacterial cells, the number of phage virions is 10 fold higher and estimations of phage frequency approximate their number to 1030 particles. They can be tracked down in an innumerable variety of environments ranging from oceans depths to hot springs. One of the most attractive habitats of phages is the body of human and animals particularly their gastrointestinal tract. Digestive system of human is home to a huge number of phage particles. These phages, along with their bacterial hosts, hold a major role in forming the gut flora. Interestingly, phages exhibit tremendous diversity in a manner that a large number of newly sequenced phage genes are lacking recognized homologous counterparts deposited in databases. This is a reflection of the fact that the phage world is a terra incognita and many regions of this vast territory remain a mystery.
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Hbv Infection Delays The Development Of The Gut Microbiota
In this study, 16S rRNA sequencing was used to evaluate the gut microbiome community. A total of 39 23 860 reads were generated, and 19 61 930 sequences remained after quality filtering. The average sequencing depth was 53 025 per sample. The rarefaction curves illustrated that the bacterial OTUs obtained by the current sequencing depth were sufficient to represent the microbial communities . First, we analyzed the dynamic changes in the total observed bacterial OTU numbers in the feces of control mice and mice with acute or chronic HBV infection. We found that the gut microbiota OTU number before HI was comparable in all the three groups of mice. In the control mice, the gut microbiota OTU number was significantly increased by days 14 and 49 after HI. However, in mice HI with pSM2/HBV or pAAV/HBV1.2, the gut microbiota OTU number remained at comparable levels on days 0 and 14 after HI, but increased significantly by day 49 after HI .
Figure 3. Dynamic changes in the overall abundance and diversity of gut microbiota in the control, pSM2/HBV HI, and pAAV/HBV1.2 HI mice. The OTU count and ShannonWeaver index of the gut microbiota at different time points in the control, pSM2/HBV HI, and pAAV/HBV1.2 HI mice are shown. Control mice, n = 3 pSM2/HBV HI mice, n = 3 pAAV/HBV1.2 HI mice, n = 37. *p< 0.05, **p< 0.01, ***p< 0.001.
Cellular Isolation And Flow Cytometry
Lymphocytes in the liver were isolated as described in a previous study . Briefly, the mouse liver was perfused with PBS and then digested with an enzyme solution containing 0.05% collagenase type IV , 0.002% DNAase I , and 10% fetal bovine serum for 30 min. Lymphocytes in the homogenate were isolated using Percoll , following the manufacturer’s instructions and cultured in RPMI 1640 medium in 96-well plates and stimulated with CD8+ T cell epitope . For cell surface staining, the cells were stained with BV421-anti-CD8 . For intracellular cytokine staining, the cells were fixed and permeabilized using the Intracellular Fixation and Permeabilization Buffer Set , and then stained with the following antibodies: APC-anti-IFN-, PE-anti-IL-2, and FITC-anti-TNF- . All the samples were stained with Fixable Viability Dye eFluor 506 to exclude dead cells. The stained cells were analyzed using a BD FACSCanto II flow cytometer. Data were analyzed using FlowJo software .
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How Can You Avoid Hepatitis B
Getting the vaccine for hepatitis B is the best way toprevent hepatitis B. The hepatitis B vaccine is safe andeffective. It is usually given as 3-4 shots over a 6-monthperiod. You will not get hepatitis B from the vaccine.Ask your health care provider if you should get thisvaccine. It is recommended for:
- All infants, starting with the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine at birth
- Everyone under the age of 19 who has not been vaccinated
- People whose sex partners have hepatitis B
- Sexually active people who are not in a long-term, faithful relationship
- People with a sexually transmitted disease
- People who share needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment
- People who have close household contact with someone infected with the hepatitis B virus
- Health care and public safety workers at risk for exposure to blood or body fluids on the job
- People with kidney disease. This includes all those on dialysis and those being considered for dialysis.
- Adults with diabetes
- Before anal sex
- Before oral sex
- Have sex with only one partner who does not have sex with others and does not have hepatitis B.
- Sterile tools
For more information, see Safer Sex.
Who Is At Risk Of Hepatitis B
Anyone can get hepatitis B if not vaccinated. However, in the U.S., you may be at a higher risk if you:
- Have sex partners that have hepatitis B
- Have HIV or another STD
- Inject drugs or share needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment
- Live with someone who has hepatitis B
- Are undergoing dialysis
- Have diabetes
- Travel to areas that have moderate to high rates of hepatitis B
- Work in health care or public safety and are exposed to blood or body fluids on the job
- Are an infant born to an infected mother
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You Can Have It And Not Know It
What is hepatitis B?
Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis B virus . HBV is far more infectious than HIV and can be prevented by a vaccine. People who have not been vaccinated may be at risk of getting infected.
About 95 percent of adults will recover within 6 months of becoming infected and as a result will develop lifelong protection against it. The remaining 5 percent are unable to clear the virus and will become chronically infected. Chronic hepatitis B infection is treatable.
It is estimated that less than 1 percent of Canada’s population is infected with either acute or chronic HBV. People who are infected before the age of 7 are at a higher risk of developing chronic infection. In 2011, the overall reported rate of acute hepatitis B infection in Canada was 0.6 reported cases per 100,000 people living in Canada.
Why is hepatitis B a health concern?
Many people infected with HBV do not know they have the virus because symptoms can take two to six months to appear and only about 50 percent of people develop symptoms. During this time, they can spread the infection to others. You may not know you have this infection until damage has already been done to your liver. Potential complications from chronic HBV infection include cirrhosis of the liver, liver failure, liver cancer and premature death.
Why do I need my liver?
How is hepatitis B spread?
HBV is spread through contact with infected blood and body fluids including semen and vaginal fluid.
What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Hbv Infection
HBV can cause a wide range of symptoms, from a mild illness and general feeling of being unwell to more serious chronic liver disease that can lead to liver cancer.
Someone with hepatitis B may have symptoms similar to those caused by other viral infections, like the flu. The person might:
- be extra tired
- feel like throwing up or actually throw up
- not feel like eating
- have a mild fever
HBV also can cause darker than usual pee, jaundice , and belly pain.
People exposed to hepatitis B may start to have symptoms from 1 to 6 months later. Symptoms can last for weeks to months.
In some people, hepatitis B causes few or no symptoms. But even someone who doesn’t have any symptoms can still spread the disease to others.
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Is Hepatitis B Viral Or Bacterial
Hepatitis B is a viral infection. Similar to Hepatitis A, D, C,E. Hepatitis B is usually transmitted through blood contact, butcan also be transmitted on surfaces, through saliva, breast milkand sexual intercourse. There is no “antibiotic” that can treat avirus. You must prevent it with vaccinations.
Is My Stomach Bug Bacterial Or Viral
When you experience symptoms like nausea, diarrhea, or abdominal cramps, you likely have a stomach bug. But is it due to a viral or bacterial infection?
Stomach bugs generally fall into two categories based on how theyre acquired:
- Gastroenteritis is an infection of the digestive tract. Its caused by coming into contact with stool or vomit from a person with the infection, usually as a result of poor hand hygiene or hand-to-surface contact.
- Food poisoning is an infection of the digestive tract caused by consuming contaminated food or liquids.
However, symptoms that last longer than 3 days, cause bloody diarrhea, or lead to severe dehydration may indicate a more severe infection that requires prompt medical treatment.
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Diagnosis And Treatment Of Hepatitis B
The presence of HBV in the body results in the production of antibodies against the virus. Examples of antibodies that target HBV include HBsAG , anti-HBc , and HBeAg . Different blood tests have been designed to detect the different antibodies and thus are used to diagnose hepatitis B.
In acute HBV infection, treatment typically is supportive, centred primarily on adequate rest and fluid intake. Treatment for chronic HBV infection varies. Agents such as lamivudine and interferon alfa-2b disrupt viral reproduction, enabling the liver to recover some of its function. Some patients develop resistance to lamivudine, requiring the use of a different antiviral drug, such as adefovir or entecavir, alone or in combination with lamivudine. Liver transplantation may be considered in cases of chronic liver failure.
Demographic Characteristics Of The Study Subjects
A total of 134 individuals participated in the study. Faecal samples were collected from 114 subjects, of which 57 were healthy subjects and 57 were subjects with chronic HBV . We excluded 20 patients from the initial group of participants 14 of these had not sent in their stool samples three had incomplete information on HBV DNA, hepatitis B e antigen , or hepatitis B e antibody and three showed seroclearance of hepatitis B surface antigen . Group B was divided into two subgroups according to their HBV DNA loads: 40 patients were had a low viral load of HBV DNA and 17 had a high viral load of HBV DNA .
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Reducing The Risk Of Hepatitis B
Simple steps that everyone can take to protect themselves against hepatitis B include:
- Making sure you and your children are immunised this is the best protection.
- Using condoms every time you have anal or vaginal sex with new partners until you both get a check-up .
- Avoiding oral sex if you or your partner have herpes, ulcers or bleeding gums it is unlikely that you will contract hepatitis through oral sex unless blood is present.
- Choosing to have any body piercing or tattooing done by an experienced practitioner who follows good sterilisation and hygiene practices, and who works at premises registered by the local council.
- Wearing single-use gloves if you give someone first aid or need to clean up blood or body fluids.
- Never sharing needles and syringes or other equipment , if you inject drugs. Always use sterile needles and syringes. These are available from needle and syringe programs and some pharmacists. Always wash your hands before and after injecting.
If you have hepatitis B:
If you think you have been exposed to hepatitis B, see a doctor immediately. Your doctor can give you treatment in some instances, which greatly reduces the risk of you becoming infected with hepatitis B.
Adults Recommended To Receive Hepb Vaccine:
TheAdvisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that the following people should receive hepatitis B vaccination:
- All infants
- Unvaccinated children aged < 19 years
- Adults aged 19 through 59 years
- Adults aged 60 years and older with risk factors for hepatitis B
The following groups may receive hepatitis B vaccination:
- Adults aged 60 years and older without known risk factors for hepatitis B
Risk factors for hepatitis B
- Persons at risk for infection by sexual exposure
- Sex partners of persons who test positive for hepatitis B surface antigen
- Sexually active persons who are not in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship
- Persons seeking evaluation or treatment for a sexually transmitted infection
- Men who have sex with men
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History And Physical Exam
To diagnose all forms of hepatitis, your doctor will first take your history to determine any risk factors you may have.
During a physical examination, your doctor may press down gently on your abdomen to see if thereâs pain or tenderness. Your doctor may also check for any swelling of the liver and any yellow discoloration in your eyes or skin.
Other Body Fluids And Tissues
Hepatitis B is found in semen and vaginal secretions. The virus can be transmitted during unprotected sexual intercourse, and from mother to infant during birth.
Synovial fluid , amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, and peritoneal fluid can contain the hepatitis B virus, but the risk of transmission to workers is not known.
Feces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, urine, and vomit have not been implicated in the spread of hepatitis B. Unless they are visibly contaminated with blood, the risk of contracting hepatitis B from these fluids in the workplace is very low.
Hepatitis B is not transmitted by casual contact. For example, hospital employees who have no contact with blood, blood products, or blood-contaminated fluids are at no greater risk than the general public. However, the virus can spread through intimate contact with carriers in a household setting, possibly because of frequent physical contact with small cuts or skin rashes. The virus can also spread through biting and possibly by the sharing of toothbrushes or razors. It is not spread through sneezing, coughing, hand holding, hugging, kissing, breastfeeding, sharing eating utensils, water or food.
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