What Causes Hepatitis A
Hepatitis A is caused by the hepatitis A virus . The virus is spread when one person ingests tiny unseen pieces of fecal matter from an infected person. It takes about two to seven weeks after exposure to the virus for symptoms to start.
Water and ice can be contaminated with HAV. Raw shellfish from contaminated water can cause hepatitis A, as can other foods that are not cooked, such as fruits and vegetables.
Hbv Dna Extraction And Real
HBV DNA in serum was measured by COBAS TaqMan HBV DNA test, version 2.0 . HBV DNA was extracted from 200 µL of urine, using the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit . HBV DNA was extracted from saliva, tear, and sweat specimens that were spotted on FTA cards, using QIAamp DNA Mini kit . Three circles were punched from the FTA card by use of a single-hole paper puncher and were used for HBV DNA extraction. The extracted DNA was dissolved in 100 µL of elution buffer.
Quantification of HBV DNA in urine, saliva, tear, and sweat samples was performed using an in-house TaqMan real-time assay. The real-time PCR was performed using a genotype-independent method described previously . PCR was performed in an MX3000P , and the results were analyzed with MxPro software . The lower limit of detection was > 100 copies/mL. All assays were performed in duplicate with negative control samples. This assay was standardized using HBV DNA samples of known concentrations measured by the COBAS TaqMan HBV DNA test and recombinant plasmid controls. In this study, the standard of qualification is based on the result of COBAS TaqMan HBV DNA test. Therefore, the conversion factor between HBV copies/mL and HBV IU/mL is considered to be 5.82 copies/IU. Genotyping of HBV was determined by the PCR-Invader assay .
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Articles On Hepatitis C
If youve just been diagnosed with hepatitis C, you may wonder how you got it and worry about passing on the virus to a loved one. If youve had the disease for a long time without knowing it, you could dwell on every little incident in the past where you might have accidentally exposed a family member to the disease.
Its important to remember that hepatitis C isnt easy to catch. If you take a few precautions, its almost impossible to pass on the disease to someone else.
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Whos At Risk For Hepatitis C
You might be more likely to get it if you:
- Inject or have injected street drugs
- Were born between 1945 and 1965
- Got clotting factor concentrates made before 1987
- Received a blood transfusion or solid organ transplants before July 1992
- Got blood or organs from a donor who tested positive for hepatitis C
- Are on dialysis
How To Treat Hep C If You Are Infected
In fact, “can Hep C be transmitted through saliva?” is not a question to worry about. The treatment methods will be of great importance if you are infected. The first step to treating Hep C is to stop alcohol intake, which quickens the progression of liver disease. Next, antiviral medications and liver transplants can also be undertaken the infection with Hep C.
Antiviral medications help clear the Hep C virus from the body completely after at least 12 weeks. Although these medications have been available for decades and have been improved considerably throughout the years, they unfortunately still cause several side effects. These side effects include flu-like symptoms, depression, anemia and neutropenia. Because of these side effects, medications are often discontinued.
Fortunately, recent developments have produced better medications that have fewer side effects and require shorter treatment periods. The type of treatment, however, will vary greatly depending on the virus genotype, as well as the existence of other medical conditions, especially pre-existing liver damage and prior treatments. Talk to your doctor about your treatment options.
Meanwhile, liver transplants are recommended for patients with severely damaged livers. However, the transplant is not a cure and will still require treatment with antiviral medications, since there is a high chance of recurring infections in the new liver.
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Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Test
A hepatitis B surface antigen test shows if youre contagious. A positive result means you have hepatitis B and can spread the virus. A negative result means you dont currently have hepatitis B. This test doesnt distinguish between chronic and acute infection. This test is used together with other hepatitis B tests to determine the .
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How Is Hepatitis A Treated
Unlike other types of viral hepatitis, hepatitis A rarely causes long-term liver damage and doesnt become a long-term illness. There isnt a specific treatment for hepatitis A, and most people will recover fully within one to two months. Usually, symptoms are managed at home with plenty of rest and painkillers and/or medication to help with itchiness, nausea or vomiting may be prescribed.
Occasionally hepatitis A can last longer and, in rare cases, it can be life-threatening if it causes the liver to stop working properly .
Whether youve got symptoms or not, dont prepare food for others or have sex until a healthcare professional tells you that youre no longer infectious.
Once youve recovered from hepatitis A youre immune this means you cant get it again. But you can get other types of hepatitis.
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Does Hep A Go Away
No specific medicines are used to treat hepatitis A. The infection will go away on its own, usually within a few weeks or months. In rare cases, HAV can cause liver failure.
How long is hep a contagious?
You are most contagious soon after you are infected. Adults who are otherwise healthy are no longer contagious two weeks after the illness begins. Children and people with weak immune systems may be contagious for up to six months.
Prevention Of Infection While Kissing
There are a number of things you can do to reduce the risk of passing on, or catching, an infection while kissing. You should try to:
- Avoid kissing when you or the other person is sick.
- Avoid kissing anyone on the lips when you, or they, have an active cold sore, warts or ulcers around the lips or in the mouth.
- Maintain good oral hygiene.
- Cough and sneeze into a hanky if you have a cold.
- See your doctor about immunisations. Vaccines are available to prevent some infectious diseases, such as chickenpox, hepatitis B and group C meningococcal infection.
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Can Bleach Or Cleaner Kill Hepatitis A
Disinfectant that contains bleach can kill the hepatitis A virus on hard non-porous surfaces like toilet seats. However, freezing does not kill HAV.
If you cook food that is contaminated for one minute at cooking temperatures higher than 185ºF , it will kill HAV. However, food can be contaminated after cooking, so it is very important to wash your hands well with soap and water.
A Closer Look At Hepatitis Transmission
Here’s a more detailed look at how different types of hepatitis are transmitted:
- Hepatitis A is transmitted by contaminated food and water and is thus fecal-oral.
- Hepatitis B is transmitted by blood, needles, and sex. Hepatitis B can also be passed along during delivery from a mother to her newborn.
- Hepatitis C is transmitted by needles and blood.
- Hepatitis E is transmitted by means of contaminated water. Like hepatitis A, hepatitis E is fecal-oral.
Like B and C, type D transmits to a person who already has hepatitis B and spreads by blood, needles, and sex. Hepatitis D can transmit during delivery from a mother to her newborn, but this is rare.
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Enteric Routes: Transmission Of Hepatitis A And Hepatitis E
The Hepatitis A and hepatitis E viruses are both transmitted by enteric, that is digestive or by fecal, routes. This is also known as the fecal-oral route. To be exposed to these viruses, you must ingest fecal matter that is infected with the virus. While there are several ways in which this fecal-oral route can be established, poor hygiene and poor sanitary conditions in some countries lead to higher rates of infection of these viruses.
As a result, some areas of the world, like India, Bangladesh, and Central and South America, are particularly prone to the hepatitis E virus. About one-third of people in the United States have been exposed to the hepatitis A virus.
It is believed that the hepatitis F virus may also be spread by enteric routes.
Is It Dangerous To Breastfeed With Hep C
You can typically safely breastfeed your baby, even if you have hepatitis C and they dont. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there is no evidence that breastfeeding spreads hep C. However, there isnt enough information on transmission rates when the nipples are cracked or bleeding, so if this happens to you, its best to take a break from nursing until your nipples are healed. In the meantime, pump and discard the milk, as theres a small chance blood could make its way in.
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Hcv Rna Detection In Saliva
HCV-RNA was amplified using a nested reverse transcription-PCR with the two sets of primers corresponding to the 5UTR, as reported previously . Reverse transcription and the first round of PCR were performed using One-Step RT-PCR with Platinum Taq . Program parameters were 55°C for 30 min, 94°C for 2 min, and 40 cycles of 94°C for 30 sec, 56°C for 30 sec, and 72°C for 30 sec. The second round of PCR was performed using BioMix and 2 l of first-round PCR product. Thermal cycler conditions were 94°C for 2 min and 40 cycles of 94°C for 30 sec, 60°C for 30 sec, and 72°C for 30 sec. The 305 and 251 bp PCR products were analyzed with 1% agarose gel electrophoresis. This technique has a detection limit of 50 IU/ml, comparable with commercial tests used for qualitative detection of HCV genome . A fragment of the housekeeping gene cyclophilin was amplified for each sample as internal control for RNA extraction and RT/PCR reaction, using primers and conditions previously published . In all test series, known HCV negative and positive serum controls were included and the samples were managed with the same precautions during taking, transport and processing.
How Big Is A Syphilis Sore
Syphilitic chancres and mucous patches usually are painless, unless they become secondarily infected. Both of these lesions are highly infectious. The chancre begins as a round papule that erodes into a painless ulcer with a smooth grayish surface . Size can range from a few millimeters to 2 to 3 cm.
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General Tips For Prevention
Refrain from engaging in IV drug use and be cautious with all procedures that involve needles.
For example, you shouldnt share needles used for tattooing, piercing, or acupuncture. The equipment should always be carefully sterilized for safety. If youre undergoing any of these procedures in another country, always make sure the equipment is sterilized.
Sterile equipment should also be used in a medical or dental setting.
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Symptoms Of Hepatitis B
Some people who are infected with the hepatitis B virus have mild, flu-like symptoms and some do not become sick at all. Children who are infected are less likely to have an illness or get sick after getting hepatitis B than adults.
In more severe cases, hepatitis B can cause:
- Loss of appetite.
- Pain in the joints.
- Jaundice .
Normally, these health problems disappear in a few weeks, but even when the person feels much better, they may still be infectious.
Most adults who become infected with the hepatitis B virus recover completely and do not become infected again. A few people become very ill in the time just after infection and need to go to hospital some may even die.
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What If Im Pregnant And Have Hepatitis B
Pregnant woman with hepatitis B can pass the virus on to their unborn baby. This is why women are tested for hepatitis B as part of prenatal care. In almost all cases, an infection can be prevented if the infant receives the recommended vaccinations in time.
Infants infected at birth are more likely to develop chronic hepatitis B and go on to develop liver complications. Itâs important to talk to your doctor if you have any questions and follow any advice they give.
How To Protect Yourself
Since there is still a chance that you could get infected with HIV through oral sex, you should always take precautions. Here is what you can do to lower your risk:
Do not let a male partner ejaculate in your mouth. You can do this if you remove your mouth from their penis before they ejaculate, or if you use a condom.
Use a condom or dental dam. A dental dam is a thin square piece of latex or silicone that you place over the vagina or anal area during oral sex. You can also cut a latex condom lengthwise and use it the same way.
Both of these barriers also lower the risk of infection from other STDs such as gonorrhea of the throat or hepatitis. Use a new one every time you have oral sex. Check the expiration date on the package, and make sure there are no tears or defects.
Donât use oil-based products like baby oil, lotion, petroleum jelly, or cooking oil on condoms or dental dams because that can cause them to break. If you need lubrication, use a water-based or silicone-based product instead. Always use a condom or dental dam during your period since the virus can be present in menstrual blood.
Donât brush your teeth just before oral sex. If you do, your mouth or gums may bleed, which raises chances of infection.
Skip oral sex during risky times. This includes a time when you have sores around your mouth, genitals, or anus , gum damage, a throat infection, or after dental work.
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How Do You Get Hepatitis A
Hepatitis A can be spread by sexual contact with an infected person or close personal contact . However, it is most often spread by what scientists call the fecal-oral route. This happens when one person eats or drinks something that has small amounts of fecal matter from another person who has hepatitis A. This can happen by touching something that has the virus on it and then putting your hands in your mouth. It can happen when food is grown, picked, processed or served. Water can also be contaminated.
Mothers do not pass on hepatitis A in breast milk. You cannot be infected with HAV by sitting near to or hugging someone with hepatitis A. It does not spread through coughs or sneezes.
Can You Get Hepatitis From Saliva
People with chronic Hepatitis C are advised not to share toothbrushes, razors, nail clippers or other personal articles that may have potentially been in contact with their blood.
While there is very little emphasis on saliva as a vehicle of Hepatitis C transmission, under the right circumstances there is some evidence to the contrary:
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The Types Of Viral Hepatitis
There are five main types of viral hepatitis known as hepatitis A , hepatitis B , hepatitis C , hepatitis D , and hepatitis E . That said, there have been cases of acute hepatitis that could not be attributed to one of these five types of hepatitis viruses, alcohol, drugs, or autoimmune disease, which lead researchers to try to find another cause.
Though the etiology of these viruses have not yet been fully established, researchers have identified three other types of viral hepatitis , which they have named hepatitis F , hepatitis G , and transfusions transmitted virus . As relatively new diseases and viral discoveries, information about them and how they work is relatively scarce. We do know, however, that cases of TTV have only been associated with hepatitis in people who have had a blood transfusion.
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What Is The Prognosis/outlook For Patients Who Have Hepatitis A
Most cases of hepatitis A are short-lived, but the disease doesnt always look the same for everyone. Some people have short illnesses that only last a few weeks and have mild symptoms. Others can be very ill for several months. Hepatitis A is rarely fatal, but death has happened due to liver failure brought on by HAV. This tends to happen more often in people who are over 50 years old or and in people who have another liver condition.
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