Tuesday, May 24, 2022

Hepatitis B Vs Hepatitis C

Hepatitis B And C Prevention Screening And Treatment

What is Hepatitis B and C? – Dr. Robert S. Brown

Hepatitis B is a potentially life-threatening liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus . It is a major global health problem. It can cause chronic infection and puts people at high risk of death from cirrhosis and liver cancer. Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus : the virus can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis, ranging in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness.

A vaccine against hepatitis B has been available since 1982. The vaccine is 95% effective in preventing infection and the development of chronic disease and liver cancer due to hepatitis B. Catch-up vaccination of older individuals and vaccination of groups of higher risk of infection have been implemented in many LAC countries. Groups at higher risk of infection include people who inject drugs, men who have sex with men, sexual partners of people living with HIV, prisoners, and others such as recipients of blood products and health-care workers.

There is currently no vaccine for HCV. Hence, there is an even greater need to intensify current efforts to screen for and prevent HCV transmission. WHO recommends a screening test for those considered at high risk of infection followed by another test for those who screen positive, to establish whether they have chronic hepatitis C infection.

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Eligibility For Treatment With Curative Intent

Eligibility for liver transplantation and surgical resection with expected favorable long-term survival, according to underlying viral hepatitis status, was determined by application of the Milan criteria . Patients with HBV-associated cancers were far less likely to meet these criteria upon initial HCC diagnosis than were those with HCV-associated cancers . This more commonly precluded treatment with expectation for cure in patients with HBV-associated HCC, when compared to patients with HCV.

What If You Test Positive

If a test says you have viral hepatitis, you can take steps to protect the ones you love. For hepatitis A, wash hands frequently. For hepatitis B and C, avoid sharing nail clippers, razors, or toothbrushes. Hepatitis B, and sometimes hepatitis C, can be passed through sexual contact. Make sure everyone in your household gets the hepatitis B vaccine. An important step is to see a specialist to discuss treatment options.

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Comparison Of Clinical Manifestations And Outcomes Between Hepatitis B Virus

  • Affiliation Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

  • Affiliation Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

  • Affiliations Department of Health Science and Technology, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Science and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Korea, Department of Health, Behavior and Society and Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, United States of America

  • Affiliation Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

How Are Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C Spread From Person To Person

Hepatitis B Reactivation with Hepatitis C Treatment

Like HIV, the hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses spread:

  • From mother to child: Pregnant women can pass these infections to their infants. HIV-HCV coinfection increases the risk of passing on hepatitis C to the baby.
  • Sexually: Both viruses can also be transmitted sexually, but HBV is much more likely than HCV to be transmitted sexually. Sexual transmission of HCV is most likely to happen among gay and bisexual men who are living with HIV.

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Hepatitis C: Who Is At Risk

People who have injected illegal drugs at any time, even one time, many years ago, could be walking around with chronic hepatitis C. Because there are often no symptoms, many former drug users may not realize they have the infection. People who received a blood transfusion before 1992 also have a higher risk. Before that year, donated blood was not screened for the hepatitis C virus.

Ongoing Research And Future Directions

Current treatment options have changed the prognosis for HBV patients, but have been limited by its low cure rates. Hence, other targets in the viral life cycle have been evaluated to improve HBsAg seroconversion and potential cure. For example, inhibition of the HBV entry into the uninfected hepatocytes by blockage of the sodium taurocholate co-transporting peptide receptor in the HBV capsid has been studied with three drugs in different trial stages. Bulevirtide is a NTCP antagonist found to inhibit infection in mice injected with HBV in a phase 1 study it showed to be safe without occurrence of serious side effects in 36 healthy subjects at a max dose of 20 mg. Subsequently, a multicenter phase 2b randomized trial in 60 HBV/HDV patients receiving PEG-interferon, bulevirtide 2 mg or both with bulevirtide at 2 mg and 5 mg dosing for 48 wk showed a higher proportion of HBsAg decline or loss in patients with combination therapy. Other potential NTCP inhibitor are the cyclosporin derivatives such as SCY450 and SCY995, which have been found to inhibit hepatocyte HBV entry in vitro without affecting bile acid uptake, opening a new therapeutic window. Other experimental medications from the cyclophilin inhibitor family like alisporivir and CRV431, have shown reduction of HBV DNA and HBsAg in lab models possibly through a similar mechanism with promising results.

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How Can I Protect Myself Against Viral Hepatitis

There are many ways you can reduce your chances of getting hepatitis:

  • Get the vaccines for hepatitis A and hepatitis B.
  • Use a condom during sex.
  • Don’t share needles to take drugs.
  • Practice good personal hygiene such as thorough hand-washing with soap and water.
  • Don’t use an infected person’s personal items.
  • Take precautions when getting any tattoos or body piercings.
  • Take precaution when traveling to areas of the world with poor sanitation.
  • Drink bottled water when traveling.

It is very important that you take these preventive measures if you participate in risky behaviors. Take preventive steps, too, if you work in places like a nursing homes, dormitories, daycare centers, or restaurants where there you have extended contact with other people and a risk of coming into contact with the disease.

What Is The Outlook For Hepatitis

Hepatitis B and C Case Discussions

Hepatitis A and E usually only cause short-term infections that your body can overcome. The others can also cause acute infections, but might also cause chronic infections. The chronic forms are more dangerous. Hepatitis non-E is usually acute, but can become chronic.

Most people recover fully from hepatitis even though it might take several months for the liver to heal. To help improve your health and to help speed up your recovery:

  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Practice good nutrition.
  • If you feel sick, rest.
  • Talk to your healthcare provider about your medicines, even over-the-counter drugs or vitamins and supplements, to know which ones you should take and which to avoid until you are recovered.

With hepatitis, your healthcare provider will also be looking for long-term damage to the liver in the forms of cirrhosis or liver failure. You may be asked to take other types of tests, such as liver function tests, imaging tests or possibly a liver biopsy.

If you have questions, new symptoms, or worsening of any existing symptoms, you should call the office of your healthcare provider.

In the U.S., A, B and C are the most common viral forms of hepatitis. It doesnt matter how you were infectedwhat matters is taking care of yourself once you have been diagnosed and taking care not to spread the infection to anyone else.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 01/06/2020.

References

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What Do Hepatitis B And C Have In Common

Hepatitis is a family of viruses that infect the liver. While hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C can all cause short-term infections, hepatitis B and C can also lead to chronic, long-term infections that severely damage the liver over time. This can cause cirrhosis or scarring of the liver, liver-related cancer, or complete liver failure, especially if you have hepatitis B.

Vaccines exist, but only for hepatitis A and B infections. There is no vaccine for hepatitis C.

Both the hepatitis B and C viruses can lead to mild infections that your immune system can fight off. But, in over half of all cases, the infection doesnt go away, and the virus remains in your body for a much longer period.

You might not experience any symptoms during a chronic hepatitis B or C infection. But because hepatitis is contagious, you may inadvertently transmit it to others. That’s why its very important to get tested if you think that you might have been exposed.

If you’ve had a long-term infection, the effects of hepatitis B or C may not surface until many years sometimes decades later. One of the first effects you might feel involve damage to your liver. Generally speaking, the younger you are at the time of a viral hepatitis infection, the more likely that it’ll become chronic.

Genotypic Distribution Of Hepatitis B Virus

Hepatitis B virus infection is distributed worldwide in the form of eight different genotypes . A newly described genotype I is also a pivot of interest for future researchers. There exists at least 8% nucleotide sequence dissimilarity among eight known HBV genotypes. In Pakistan genotype D is most prevalent with estimated prevalence rate of 63.71%. This genotype is usually less responsive towards interferon therapy. The prevalence of genotype A, C, B in Pakistan is 10.036%, 7.550% and 5.335% respectively. The reported prevalence of mixed genotypes and untypable genotypes is 9.93% and 2.37% respectively. According to the most recent study conducted by Awan et al. it has been reported that genotype C is most emerging genotype associated with more severe liver diseases . The approximate prevalence rate of this genotype is 27.7% which represents a major threat to future generations.

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What Are The Symptoms Of Hepatitis B And C

In most patients, hepatitis B develops slowly over the course of several decades, and thus most patients have no symptoms. People who have advanced liver disease such as cirrhosis of the liver may experience complications and symptoms that reflect liver failure. Other symptoms include:

  • A buildup of fluid within the abdominal cavity
  • Confusion and tremors , which are complications due to the inability of the liver to filter out toxins that are normally cleaned out by a healthy liver
  • Vomiting of blood, or blood within the stool . This is a complication in which enlarged veins within the esophagus or stomach bleed as a consequence of increased pressure around the diseased liver.

Most patients with chronic hepatitis C infection report no symptoms. But some patients may have very nonspecific symptoms related to fatigue and discomfort on the right side of the abdomen. Often, symptoms that lead to a diagnosis of hepatitis C are noticeable only at the end stage of liver disease, when the patient has developed liver cirrhosis and liver failure.

Because hepatitis B and C typically have no specific symptoms, many people who have the viruses dont even know it.

The Abcs Of Hepatitis B And C

Hepatitis B vs. hepatitis C: Differences and which is worse

Hepatitis is an infection or inflammation of the liver. It is most commonly caused by a viral infection. There are 6 types of hepatitis viruses types A, B, C, D, E and G.

Two types, hepatitis B and hepatitis C, are linked to cancer.

Hepatitis B is the most common type of hepatitis virus. It is very infectious and is spread mainly by being exposed to infected blood or other bodily fluids . HBV is more likely to cause symptoms than hepatitis C.

HBV infection can cause flu-like symptoms and yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes . Most people recover completely from HBV infection within a few months and develop lifelong protection against it. Only about 10% of people have an infection that lasts a long time.

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What Is Hepatitis

Hepatitis refers to inflammation of the liver. Inflammation is a tissues reaction to irritation or injury which generally results in swelling and can cause pain.

There are many causes of hepatitis. Viral hepatitis is caused by a virus and can either be acute or chronic . Viral hepatitis can be spread from person to person. Some types of viral hepatitis can be spread through sexual contact.

There are five known hepatitis viruses which are categorized by the letters A through E.

Several viruses are known to cause hepatitis. Common forms of viral hepatitis include:

Healthcare providers might not be able to identify the virus causing hepatitis as one of these. Other viruses, such as CMV, EBV, and HSV can also cause hepatitis.

Most people recover from hepatitis, and the disease is often preventable. However, it is still considered a serious health risk because it can:

  • Destroy liver tissue.
  • Being transferred from mother to unborn child.
  • Being in contact with an infected person’s body fluids.

An infected mother has a high chance of giving hepatitis B to her child during or after birth. All pregnant women should be tested for hepatitis B. Within 12 hours of birth, infants born to mothers with hepatitis B need to receive treatment with hepatitis B antibody and hepatitis B vaccine. This can prevent transmission of hepatitis B from mother to the baby.

A person can get hepatitis C from:

You can get hepatitis D from:

How Is It Spread

Hepatitis A is spread when a person ingests fecal mattereven in microscopic amountsfrom contact with objects, food, or drinks contaminated by feces or stool from an infected person.

Hepatitis B is primarily spread when blood, semen, or certain other body fluids- even in microscopic amounts from a person infected with the hepatitis B virus enters the body of someone who is not infected. The hepatitis B virus can also be transmitted from:

  • Birth to an infected mother
  • Sex with an infected person
  • Sharing equipment that has been contaminated with blood from an infected person, such as needles, syringes, and even medical equipment, such as glucose monitors
  • Sharing personal items such as toothbrushes or razors
  • Poor infection control has resulted in outbreaks in health care facilities

Hepatitis C is spread when blood from a person infected with the Hepatitis C virus even in microscopic amounts enters the body of someone who is not infected. The hepatitis C virus can also be transmitted from:

  • Sharing equipment that has been contaminated with blood from an infected person, such as needles and syringes
  • Receiving a blood transfusion or organ transplant before 1992
  • Poor infection control has resulted in outbreaks in health care facilities
  • Birth to an infected mother

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What Is Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is caused by a virus that infects the liver. It is one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases affecting travellers and can cause either acute or chronic infection.

About 90 to 95 percent of adults with acute hepatitis B infection will clear the virus on their own within six months, and develop lifelong protection against it.

Some people are unable to clear the virus, and develop chronic hepatitis B. Untreated chronic hepatitis B can later develop into serious health problems. Children under four years old are at particular risk of chronic hepatitis B, because only up to 10% will clear the virus.

What Are Hepatitis B And C

How is Hepatitis B & C transmitted? | Apollo Hospitals

Hepatitis B and C are diseases caused by the hepatitis B and C viruses.

Hepatitis B and C stop the liver from working properly. Both Hepatitis B and C begin as acute infections , but in some people, the virus remains in the body, resulting in chronic disease and longterm liver problems. Some people with chronic disease develop liver cancer, others might need a liver transplant.

In New Zealand, about 100,000 people are living with hepatitis B and about 50,000 are living with hepatitis C.

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What Is My Risk

Your risk depends of several factors: destination, length of stay, what you do when you are travelling and whether you have direct contact with blood or other body fluids. In certain destinations, your risk may be higher, as some areas have higher numbers of people with chronic hepatitis B in the general population.

The risk increases with certain activities, such as unprotected sex, sharing needles, tattooing and acupuncture.

Aid and health care workers and anyone who receives medical or dental care with unsterilized or contaminated equipment in a country where hepatitis B occurs are also at greater risk.

Is There A Vaccine For Hepatitis

There are vaccines for hepatitis A and hepatitis B that are available in the U.S. There is no vaccine for hepatitis C. Since you can only get hepatitis D if you have hepatitis B, getting the vaccine against B should protect you against hepatitis D. There is no FDA approved vaccine against hepatitis E, but vaccines against hepatitis E exist overseas .

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Cross References To Published Guidelines

The following published guidelines were reviewed and cross referenced with the recommendations made in this guideline.

Hiv And Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C Coinfection

Hepatitis C Testing

Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are liver infections caused by a virus. Because these infections can be spread in the same ways as HIV, people with HIV in the United States are often also affected by chronic viral hepatitis.

Viral hepatitis progresses faster and causes more liver-related health problems among people with HIV than among those who do not have HIV. Liver disease, much of which is related to HBV or HCV, is a major cause of non-AIDS-related deaths among people with HIV.

Given the risks of hepatitis B or hepatitis C coinfection to the health of people living with HIV, it is important to understand these risks, take steps to prevent infection, know your status, and, if necessary, get medical care from someone who is experienced in treating people who are coinfected with HIV and HBV, or HIV and HCV.

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