Thursday, October 6, 2022

What Are The Effects Of Hepatitis A

What Are The Side Effects Of Hepatitis B/hepatitis A Vaccine

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Side effects of hepatitis A/B vaccine are injection site soreness and pain, headache, fatigue, redness, diarrhea, nausea, and fainting. The tip caps of pre-filled syringes may contain latex which can cause allergicreactions in latex-sensitive people. Serious allergic reactions, abnormal heartbeats, and hair loss have also been reported.

Looking After Yourself When You Have Hepatitis A

AlcoholSome people with acute hepatitis develop an aversion to alcohol in the acute phase. Previously people with this condition were told to avoid alcohol for six months following the illness. This advice is no longer thought necessary.

SmokingSmoking is dangerous to everyones health. Smoking can increase the severity of liver damage. People with liver disease are more vulnerable to infection and to poor health overall, so smoking or exposure to passive smoking is not advisable.

DietIf you have a short-term hepatitis infection, for example hepatitis A, you should try to eat a normal diet. However, some people may need extra nutrition to prevent unplanned weight loss, and may benefit from a high-energy and high-protein diet. A dietitian can advise on this.

If you develop nausea and vomiting, our coping with eating difficulties may help. Read more here.

What Is Viral Hepatitis

Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. The liver is a vital organ that processes nutrients, filters the blood, and fights infections. When the liver is inflamed or damaged, its function can be affected. Heavy alcohol use, toxins, some medications, and certain medical conditions can cause hepatitis. However, hepatitis is often caused by a virus. In the United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C.

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Causes Of Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is caused by a virus. The virus can survive for several hours outside the body but persists on the hands and in food for even longer. It is resistant to heating and freezing.

The virus is spread when it enters the mouth, which can happen when hands, foods or other items are contaminated with the faeces of a person with hepatitis A. The disease can also be spread sexually by oral or anal contact.

A person with hepatitis A is infectious from 2 weeks before they show symptoms to one week after they become jaundiced .

If an infected person has no jaundice, they may pass on the virus until 2 weeks after they first have symptoms . Caution is advised beyond this period as the virus can be shed in stools for longer periods.

How Is Hepatitis A Treated

What Are The Long

There is no formal treatment for hepatitis A. Because its a short-term viral infection that goes away on its own, treatment is typically focused on reducing your symptoms.

After a few weeks of rest, the symptoms of hepatitis A usually begin to improve. To ease your symptoms, you should:

  • avoid alcohol

Read Also: How Can You Contract Hepatitis C

Who Is At Risk Of Getting Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is usually spread from person to person, making it highly contagious. However, certain factors can increase your risk of contracting it, including:

  • living in an area where hepatitis A is common, including most countries with low sanitation standards or a lack of safe water
  • injecting or using illegal drugs
  • living in the same household as someone who is hepatitis A-positive
  • having sexual activity with someone who is hepatitis A-positive
  • being HIV-positive

How Long Does It Last

Hepatitis A can last from a few weeks to several months.

Hepatitis B can range from a mild illness, lasting a few weeks, to a serious, life-long condition. More than 90% of unimmunized infants who get infected develop a chronic infection, but 6%10% of older children and adults who get infected develop chronic hepatitis B.

Hepatitis C can range from a mild illness, lasting a few weeks, to a serious, life-long infection. Most people who get infected with the hepatitis C virus develop chronic hepatitis C.

Read Also: How Soon Do Hepatitis C Symptoms Appear

How Do People Get Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A virus is found in the stool of people with HAV infection. It enters the body through the mouth after someone handles something contaminated with HAV, or eats or drinks something contaminated with HAV.

People usually get hepatitis A by having close contact with a person who is infected, from food or drinks prepared by someone who is infected, or by eating shellfish harvested from sewage-contaminated water. After the virus enters the body, there is an incubation period lasting 2 to 7 weeks until illness begins.

Side Effects Not Requiring Immediate Medical Attention

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Some side effects of hepatitis a adult vaccine may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects.

Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

More common

  • change in the amount of bleeding during periods
  • change in the pattern of monthly periods
  • lack or loss of strength
  • tenderness or warmth at the injection site
  • unusual stopping of menstrual bleeding

Rare

  • collection of blood under the skin
  • deep, dark purple bruise
  • feeling of constant movement of self or surroundings
  • increased sensitivity of the eyes to sunlight
  • loss of taste
  • welts

Incidence not known

  • Bleeding, blistering, burning, coldness, discoloration of the skin, feeling of pressure, hives, infection, inflammation, itching, lumps, numbness, pain, rash, redness, scarring, soreness, stinging, swelling, tenderness, tingling, ulceration, or warmth at the injection site
  • sleepiness or unusual drowsiness

Applies to hepatitis a adult vaccine: intramuscular suspension

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What Causes Hepatitis A And How Is It Contracted

People develop hepatitis A infection after contracting HAV. This virus is typically transmitted by ingesting food or liquid contaminated with fecal matter that contains the virus. Once transmitted, the virus spreads through the bloodstream to the liver, where it causes inflammation and swelling.

In addition to transmission from eating food or drinking water containing HAV, the virus can also be spread by close personal contact with an infected person. HAV is contagious, and a person who has hepatitis A can easily pass the disease to others living in the same household.

You can contract hepatitis A by:

  • eating food prepared by someone with the hepatitis A virus
  • eating food handled by preparers who dont follow strict hand-washing routines before touching food that you eat
  • eating sewage-contaminated raw shellfish
  • not using condoms when having sex with someone who has the hepatitis A virus
  • drinking polluted water
  • coming in contact with hepatitis A-infected fecal matter

If you contract the virus, you will be contagious two weeks before symptoms even appear. The contagious period will end about one week after symptoms appear.

Are There Complications From Hepatitis A

In extremely rare cases, hepatitis A can lead to acute liver failure. This complication is most common in older adults and people who already have chronic liver disease. If this occurs, you will be hospitalized. Even in cases of liver failure, a full recovery is likely. Very rarely is a liver transplant required.

Recommended Reading: How Do People Catch Hepatitis B

What Is Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A accounts for 20 percent to 25 percent of hepatitis cases in developed countries. Hepatitis A is usually transmitted through the fecal-oral route, meaning a person somehow ingests contaminated feces from an infected person. If an infected person did not wash his or her hands properly after using the bathroom, the disease may spread from the persons hands. The incubation period is two to six weeks, during which the infected individual is contagious.

Another cause of hepatitis A is eating shellfish harvested from contaminated water. Developing countries experience hepatitis A epidemics caused by drinking water contaminated with raw sewage.

The prognosis for hepatitis A patients is excellent with self-limiting course, and recovery is complete. About 85 percent of people with hepatitis A recover within three months, and almost all recover within six months. The disease does not become chronic, and there are no long-term health implications.

Who Is More Likely To Get Hepatitis A

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People more likely to get hepatitis A are those who

  • travel to developing countries
  • have sex with an infected person
  • are men who have sex with men
  • use illegal drugs, including drugs that are not injected
  • experience unstable housing or homelessness
  • live with or care for someone who has hepatitis A
  • live with or care for a child recently adopted from a country where hepatitis A is common

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Treatment For Hepatitis A

There is no specific treatment for hepatitis A. In most cases, your immune system will clear the infection and your liver will completely heal. Treatment aims to ease symptoms and reduce the risk of complications. Options may include:

  • Rest hepatitis A can make you tired and lacking in energy for day-to-day life, so rest when you can.
  • Eat small meals more often nausea can affect your ability to eat and can contribute to tiredness, so eat small amounts of high-calorie foods often if nausea is a problem.
  • Drink fluids.
  • Protect your liver the liver processes medication and alcohol, so avoid alcohol and review any medication with your doctor.

What Causes Hepatitis A

The hepatitis A virus causes this type of hepatitis and spreads through contact with an infected persons stool. Contact can occur by

  • eating food made by an infected person who did not wash his or her hands after using the bathroom
  • drinking untreated water or eating food washed in untreated water
  • placing a finger or an object in your mouth that came into contact with an infected persons stool
  • having close personal contact with an infected person, such as through sex or caring for someone who is ill

You cannot get hepatitis A from

  • being coughed on or sneezed on by an infected person
  • sitting next to an infected person
  • hugging an infected person

A baby cannot get hepatitis A from breast milk.4

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Is Hepatitis B/hepatitis A Vaccine Safe To Take If I’m Pregnant Or Breastfeeding

There are no adequate studies done on hepatitis A/B vaccine to determine safe and effective use in pregnant women. Hepatitis A/B vaccine should be given to pregnant women only if clearly needed.

NURSING MOTHERS: It is not known whether hepatitis A/B vaccine enters breast milk therefore, it is best to be cautious before using it in mothers who arebreastfeeding.

Which Adults Should Receive The Hepatitis A Vaccine

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The CDC recommends that adults have the hepatitis A vaccine if you:

  • Are traveling to or working in countries where hepatitis A is common this disease is much more common than cholera or typhoid among international travelers.
  • Will have close contact with an international adoptee from a country where hepatitis A is common
  • Are a man who has sex with men
  • Use street drugs
  • You are pregnant because it may affect the outcome of your pregnancy
  • Work with primates infected with hepatitis A or with the virus in a research lab

Also, if you work with food, you should consider getting the hepatitis A vaccine.

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How Cdc Monitors Vaccine Safety

CDC and FDA monitor the safety of vaccines after they are approved or authorized. If a problem is found with a vaccine, CDC and FDA will inform health officials, health care providers, and the public.

CDC uses 3 systems to monitor vaccine safety:

  • The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System : an early warning system, co-managed by CDC and FDA, to monitor for potential vaccine safety problems. Anyone can report possible vaccine side effects to VAERS.
  • The Vaccine Safety Datalink : a collaboration between CDC and 9 health care organizations that conducts vaccine safety monitoring and research.
  • The Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Project: a partnership between CDC and several medical research centers that provides expert consultation and conducts clinical research on vaccine-associated health risks.

Hepatitis A And Hepatitis B Vaccine Dosing Information

Usual Adult Dose for Hepatitis B Prophylaxis:

Primary immunization: 1 mL IM in the deltoid area at 0, 1 and 6 months.Alternatively, a 4 dose schedule given on days 0, 7, and 21 to 30 followed by a booster at month 12 may be used.

Usual Adult Dose for Hepatitis A Prophylaxis:

Primary immunization: 1 mL IM in the deltoid area at 0, 1 and 6 months.Alternatively, a 4 dose schedule given on days 0, 7, and 21 to 30 followed by a booster at month 12 may be used.

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Who Should Receive The Hepatitis A Vaccine

In general, CDC recommends the following groups be vaccinated for hepatitis A:

  • All children at age 1 year
  • Travelers to countries that have high rates of hepatitis A
  • Family members and caregivers of recent adoptees from countries where hepatitis A is common
  • Men who have unprotected sexual contact with other men
  • Users of injection and illegal drugs
  • People with chronic liver diseases, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C
  • People who are treated with clotting-factor concentrates
  • People who work with hepatitis A infected animals or in a hepatitis A research laboratory

Side Effects Of Immunisation Against Hepatitis A

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Immunisations against hepatitis A are effective and safe. All medications can have side effects.

For most people, the chance of a serious side effect from a vaccine is much lower than the chance of serious harm if you catch the disease.

Common side effects from the hepatitis A vaccine include:

  • localised pain, redness and swelling at the injection site
  • low-grade temperature
  • headache.

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Can You Prevent Getting Hepatitis A

If you are at risk of hepatitis A, it is recommended that you are vaccinated to lower your risk of becoming infected. The vaccine works by causing your body to make antibodies which will stop you becoming infected if you come into contact with the virus.

Hepatitis A can be given as a sole vaccine or in combination with other vaccines such as Typhoid fever and/or hepatitis B.

Please see the downloadable publication below for full information.

Immunisation is one way to protect yourself from getting hepatitis A, however no vaccine is 100% guaranteed. To protect yourself further you should:

  • make sure you practise good hygiene
  • avoid eating raw or not quite cooked shellfish, raw salads, vegetables and fruits that may have been washed in unclean water. Also avoid foods that may have been grown close to the ground, such as strawberries
  • avoid drinking untreated drinking water including ice cubes and only use treated or bottled water when brushing your teeth
  • avoid unpasteurised milk, cheese, ice cream and other dairy products
  • avoid pre-prepared foods such as buffets or foods from street vendors which you have not seen being cooked, foods which are served at room temperature or could have had flies on them
  • have safer sex use a condom or a dental dam
  • never share anything you use for injecting or snorting drugs and/or steroids.

If you have been diagnosed with hepatitis A, reducing the risk of spreading the infection is important. You should:

Side Effects Requiring Immediate Medical Attention

Along with its needed effects, hepatitis a adult vaccine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor or nurse immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking hepatitis a adult vaccine:

More common

  • Fever more than 99.5 degrees F
  • general feeling of discomfort or illness
  • unusual tiredness or weakness
  • difficulty with breathing or swallowing
  • dryness or soreness of the throat
  • ear congestion
  • itching, especially of the feet or hands
  • loss of voice
  • swelling of the eyes, face, or inside of the nose
  • swollen, painful, or tender lymph glands in the neck, armpit, or groin
  • tender, swollen glands in the neck
  • tightness in the chest
  • unusual tiredness or weakness
  • voice changes

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What Is The Hepatitis B/hepatitis A Vaccine What Is It For

Hepatitis A/B vaccine is a man-made combination vaccine containing inactivated hepatitis A virus strain and non-infectious hepatitis B virus surface antigen. Inactive Hepatitis A virus combined with hepatitis B antigens stimulates the immune system to develop immunity against hepatitis A and B virus infections. The FDA approved hepatitis A/B vaccine in May 2001.

What brand names are available for hepatitis B/hepatitis A vaccine?

Twinrix

Is hepatitis B/hepatitis A vaccine available as a generic drug?

Do I need a prescription for hepatitis B/hepatitis A vaccine?

How Can I Prevent Spreading Hepatits A To Others

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If you have hepatitis A, you can reduce your chance of spreading the infection by washing your hands with warm, soapy water after using the toilet and before fixing or eating food. While you are sick, avoid close contact with others, and donât prepare food or serve food to others. Also, tell your doctor, dentist, and other health care professionals that you have hepatitis A.

Talk with a blood donation center before you donate blood. If you had hepatitis A when you were younger than 11, you may be able to donate blood. If you had hepatitis A when you were age 11 or older, you should not donate blood.

You are most contagiousâable to spread the virus to othersâduring the 2 weeks before you have symptoms. You may be contagious for up to 3 weeks after you develop symptoms. Children are often contagious longer than adults.

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