Thursday, May 19, 2022

Can Hepatitis B Lead To Liver Cancer

What Is The Outlook For People With Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B Can Cause Liver Damage, Cancer

The outlook for people with HBV is better now than ever before. You are certainly able to live a full life and help yourself stay healthy. You should make sure to have regular check-ups with a healthcare provider who is qualified to treat hepatitis B, possibly a liver doctor.

Make sure you are vaccinated against hepatitis A. Check with your healthcare provider or pharmacist before taking other medications or over-the-counter products, including supplements and natural products. These could interfere with your medication or damage your liver. For instance, taking acetaminophen in large doses may harm your liver.

Follow the usual guidelines for living a healthy life:

  • Eat nutritious foods, choosing from a variety of vegetables, fruits and healthy proteins. It is said that cruciferous vegetables are especially good at protecting the liver.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Dont smoke and dont drink. Both tobacco and alcohol are bad for your liver.
  • Do things that help you cope with stress, like journaling, talking with others, meditating and doing yoga.
  • Avoid inhaling toxic fumes.

Avoiding Risk Factors And Increasing Protective Factors May Help Prevent Cancer

Avoiding cancerrisk factors may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk of cancer.

Being Infected With Certain Types Of The Hepatitis Virus Can Cause Hepatitis And May Lead To Liver Cancer

Hepatitis is most commonly caused by the hepatitis virus. Hepatitis is a disease that causes inflammation of the liver. Damage to the liver from hepatitis that lasts a long time can increase the risk of liver cancer.

Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are two types of the hepatitis virus. Chronic infection with HBV or HCV can increase the risk of liver cancer.

Hepatitis B

HBV is caused by contact with the blood, semen, or other body fluid of a person infected with HBV virus. The infection can be passed from mother to child during childbirth, through sexual contact, or by sharing needles that are used to injectdrugs. It can cause scarring of the liver that may lead to liver cancer.

Hepatitis C

HCV is caused by contact with the blood of a person infected with HCV virus. The infection can be spread by sharing needles that are used to inject drugs or, less often, through sexual contact. In the past, it was also spread during blood transfusions or organ transplants. Today, blood banks test all donated blood for HCV, which greatly lowers the risk of getting the virus from blood transfusions. It can cause scarring of the liver that may lead to liver cancer.

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What Should You Know About Hepatitis B Before You Travel

Hepatitis B is quite common in China and other Asian countries, where as many as 1 in 12 people have the virus, though many dont know it. Before traveling to those places, you should make sure youve been vaccinated against the virus.

In addition to getting the vaccine, you can take these additional precautions to reduce your risk of contracting the virus:

  • Refrain from taking illegal drugs.
  • Always use latex or polyurethane condoms during sex.
  • Make sure new, sterile needles are used during all piercings, tattoos and acupuncture sessions.
  • Avoid direct contact with blood and bodily fluids.
  • Know the HBV status of all your sexual partners.
  • Ask your doctor about possible vaccination before you travel to a place where hepatitis B is common.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Hepatitis B is a liver disease that can cause serious damage to your health. One reason that is dangerous is that it can easily go undetected for years while damaging your liver. Talk with your healthcare provider about being tested for hepatitis B if you have any reason to believe that you were not vaccinated or if you have engaged in risky behavior. If you do test positive, follow the directions from your healthcare provider so that you can live a longer, healthier and happier life.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 07/09/2020.

References

Keep Personal Items Personal

Liver cancer risk lingers after hepatitis B virus cleared

Any tools or implements that may have a bit of blood on them from infected people are potential sources of hepatitis B or C transmission. Toothbrushes, nail clippers, razors, needles, and washcloths may all contain trace amounts of blood that can transmit infection. Keep personal items such as these to yourself and never use personal items that belong to others.

Read Also: How Does A Person Contract Hepatitis

Evidence For A Role Of Hepatitis B Virus In The Aetiology Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

An aetiological association between cirrhosis and HCC was suspected as early as the beginning of the 20th Century . By the 1950s it was realized that it was posthepatitic cirrhosis that was most closely linked to tumour formation . Following the introduction of serological tests for HBV in the late 1960s it soon became evident that chronic HBV infection was a major risk factor for the development of HCC. Refinements of molecular techniques for identifying viral DNA, availability of HCC cell lines harbouring integrated HBV DNA, and a variety of animal models, either infected with viruses belonging to the same family as HBV or transgenically propagated with specific HBV genes, has made it possible to investigate in depth the role of chronic HBV infection in the pathogenesis of HCC.

Geographical correlation between the prevalence of hepatitis B virus carriage and hepatocellular carcinoma

Global maps showing the close similarity between the geographical distributions of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Hepatitis B virus markers in serum and tissues of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

Cohort studies

Hbv Cell Cycle And Hcc

The cellular mechanism underlying the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in HBV infected patients is likely to be multifactorial. An initiating oncogenic stimulus, which results in a number of changes within cell signalling pathways and cell cycle regulation, is tightly linked with an inflammatory and cytokine reaction driven by Kupffer cells in response to degradation products of apoptotic cells, chemical carcinogens and viral antigens .

The Wnt/-catenin pathway has also been shown to regulate G2 cell cycle arrest . Cell cycle arrest may be beneficial for HBV because it results in enhanced viral replication in both G1 and G2 phases of cell cycle. The reliance of HBV on cell cycle and signalling events means that modulation of these cellular events with small molecules could result in viral clearance. HBV modulates the regulation of cellular transcription to promote cell proliferation, cell growth, cell survival and cell metabolism, . Furthermore, HBV has been shown to promote HCC development by modulating the Wnt/-catenin pathway . It has also been demonstrated that HBV, through the inhibition of the Smc5/6 complex, is a critical regulator of cellular chromatin and this may thereby regulate HBV cccDNA transcriptional activity . The role of Wnt/-catenin signalling on the Smc5/6 complex and HBV cccDNA transcriptional activity has not yet been determined and warrants further investigation.

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What Are The Complications Of Liver Cancer

Liver cancer is a serious health problem that can be fatal. It can affect people of any age.

Symptoms of liver cancer usually dont appear until its advanced. When symptoms do appear, they may include:

  • Pain in the upper right side of the abdomen
  • Blood in the stool
  • Shortness of breath
  • Abdominal swelling

Liver cancer isnt caused by hepatitis. But it can spread to the liver if you have hepatitis. This means youre at an increased risk of developing liver cancer.

Risk Factors And Prevention Of Viral Hepatitis

Hepatitis and Liver Cancer Statistics | Did You Know?
  • 1Gastroenterology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China
  • 2The 3rd Clinical Department of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common cancer in the world, and its incidence is increasing yearly. Hepatitis B virus infection and hepatitis C virus infection are important causes of HCC. Liver cirrhosis, age, sex, smoking and drinking, and metabolic risk factors will increase the risk of cancer in HBV/HCV patients. And viral load, APRI, FIB-4, and liver stiffness can all predict the risk of HCC in patients with viral infection. In addition, effective prevention strategies are essential in reducing the risk of HCC. The prevention of HCC involves mainly tertiary prevention strategies, while the primary prevention is based on standardized vaccine injections to prevent the occurrence of HBV/HCV. Eliminating the route of transmission and vaccination will lead to a decrease in the incidence of HCC. Secondary prevention involves effective antiviral treatment of HBV/HCV to prevent the disease from progressing to HCC, and tertiary prevention is actively treating HCC to prevent its recurrence.

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Diagnosis Of Hepatitis B

Blood tests are available to determine if you are or have been infected with hepatitis B. It may take 6 months from the time of infection before a blood test can detect antibodies to hepatitis B, so follow-up testing may be required. During this 6-month period, until you know whether you are infected or not, take action to prevent potential infection of other people.

There are also tests that can assess liver damage from hepatitis B. The interpretation of these tests can be complicated and specialist advice is needed, so talk to your doctor.

All pregnant women are tested for hepatitis B. If you are found to have chronic hepatitis B, your doctor can help reduce the risk of transferring the infection to your newborn child.

What Should You Know About Pregnancy And Hepatitis B

A pregnant woman who has hepatitis B can pass the infection to her baby at delivery. This is true for both vaginal and cesarean deliveries.

You should ask your healthcare provider to test you for hepatitis B when you find out you are pregnant. However, while it is important for you and your healthcare provider to know if you do have hepatitis B, the condition should not affect the way that your pregnancy progresses.

If you do test positive, your provider may suggest that you contact another healthcare provider, a liver doctor, who is skilled in managing people with hepatitis B infections. You may have a high viral load and may need treatment during the last 3 months of your pregnancy. A viral load is the term for how much of the infection you have inside of you.

You can prevent your infant from getting hepatitis B infection by making sure that your baby gets the hepatitis B vaccine in the hours after they are born along with the hepatitis B immunoglobulin. These two shots are given in two different locations on the baby. They are the first shots needed.

Depending on the type of vaccine used, two or three more doses must be given, usually when the baby is 1 month old and then 6 months old, with the last by the time the baby is 1 year old. It is critical that all newborns get the hepatitis B vaccination, but even more important if you have hepatitis B yourself.

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Hepatitis B Vs Hepatitis C

Hepatitis has many different types. HBV and the hepatitis C virus have both acute and chronic forms.

The main difference between HBV and HCV is how they spread from person to person. Although HCV is transmissible via sexual activity, this is rare. HCV usually spreads when blood that carries the virus comes into contact with blood that does not.

Hbv And Immunosuppressive Microenvironment

Liver Cancer Treatment in Anchorage

Figure 4 Chronic HBV infection promotes the formation of immunosuppressive microenvironments and promotes the malignant transformation of liver cells. Long lines ending with arrows or bars indicate activating or inhibitory effects respectively. Short arrows pointing up or down indicate up-regulated or down-regulated.

Abbreviations: TAMs, tumor-associated macrophages NK cell, natural killer cell DCs, dendritic cells Treg, regulatory T cell HBV, hepatitis B virus.

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Can Hepatitis B Be Controlled By Eating Right And Exercising

It is important that people with liver disease follow a healthy, nutritious diet as outlined by Health Canada in Eating Well with Canadas Food Guide.

Alcohol can also damage the liver so it is best that people with hepatitis B do not drink. Following a healthy lifestyle may also prevent fatty liver disease, another liver disease highly prevalent in Canada.

However, hepatitis B cannot be controlled by healthy eating and exercise alone. Hepatitis B can only be controlled by currently available treatment as prescribed by your doctor. Your doctor will need to do regular blood tests to know how much of the active virus is in your blood . The viral load test is used to monitor and manage hepatitis B patients. Viral load can tell your doctor if you need treatment for hepatitis B and how well you are responding to treatment.

What Are The Risk Factors For Getting Hepatitis B

Due to the way that hepatitis B spreads, people most at risk for getting infected include:

  • Children whose mothers have been infected with hepatitis B.
  • Children who have been adopted from countries with high rates of hepatitis B infection.
  • People who have unprotected sex and/or have been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection.
  • People who live with or work in an institutional setting, such as prisons or group homes.
  • Healthcare providers and first responders.
  • People who share needles or syringes.
  • People who live in close quarters with a person with chronic hepatitis B infection.
  • People who are on dialysis.

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Hepatitis B And Pregnancy

If youâre pregnant, you might pass the virus to your baby at birth. Itâs less likely to happen during your pregnancy.

If your baby gets the virus and isnât treated, they could have long-term liver problems. All newborns with infected mothers should get hepatitis B immune globulin and the vaccine for hepatitis at birth and during their first year of life.

Hbv Associated Hcc Wnt/fzd/

Stanford’s Dr. Stephanie Chao Discusses Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer

Wnt/FZD/-catenin pathways

The Wnt cascade has emerged as a critical regulator of stem cells and activation of Wnt signalling has been associated with numerous cancers . Wnt signalling is activated by the binding of one of the 19 mammalian extracellular soluble secreted Wnt ligands to single or multiple members of 10 mammalian Frizzled receptors . Binding of Wnt to FZD can lead to activation of the canonical -catenin pathway or the non-canonical c-Jun N-terminal kinase and Ca++ pathways , however, here we limit our discussion to the canonical -catenin pathway as its role is best characterised in context of liver and liver cancer.

Fig. 2

Wnt/-catenin signal transduction pathway. Wnt binding to the FZD/LRP5/6 receptor complex leads to inhibition of GSK3 enzyme activity and the -catenin destruction complex, which allows newly synthesized -catenin to accumulate and translocate to the nucleus , where it binds with co-factors to form a transcriptionally active complex. Wnt signalling can be inhibited at the cell surface by various naturally occurring pathway inhibitors such as sFRPs and DKK, which bind to Wnt and LRP5/6 respectively.

Fig. 3

PI3K/AKT and Ras/ERK1/2 pathways

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Liver Cancer And Hepatitis B

    People with hepatitis B have an increased risk of liver cancer. Unlike hepatitis C, people with hep B are at risk for liver cancer even if they do not have cirrhosis. While the overall incidence of cancer has stabilized or decreased in the United States, the rate of liver cancer is increasing, making it the second deadliest cancer.

    There are two categories of liver cancerprimary and secondary. Primary refers to cancer that starts in the liver. The most common primary liver cancer in adults is hepatocellular carcinoma , sometimes called hepatoma. Hepatitis B causes 60 to 80 percent of primary liver cancer cases worldwide.

    Secondary or metastatic cancer, occurs when cancer starts in another part of the body and spreads to the liver. Colorectal cancer is known for this, with roughly half of all cases metastasizing to the liver. There are other types of benign and malignant tumors of the liver.

    Risk Factors The majority of HCC occurs in people with risk factors. The more risk factors, the greater the chances are for developing liver cancer. Chronic hepatitis B infection is a risk factor. Anything that leads to cirrhosis is a liver cancer risk. Cirrhosis is linked to more than 80 percent of all HCC. Other risk factors for HCC are:

    Signs and Symptoms

    One of the reasons that liver cancer is particularly life-threatening is because signs and symptoms often do not appear until it is in its later stages. Symptoms of liver cancer include:

    Last Reviewed: May 22, 2019

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    Hbv And Extracellular Vesicles

    Extracellular vesicles , as carriers and transporters, can directly transfer proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids between various cells in the microenvironment and play an important role in regulating the progression of malignant tumors. The level of miRNAs with negative immunologic modulation roles in EVs secreted by HBV-infected liver cells was increased. These EVs can be taken up by innate immune cells, inhibiting cellular function, and helping the virus resist the host immune response.138,139

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    Can Infections Like Ebv & Hiv Cause Cancer

    • Some infections increase the risk of cancer, including EBV, HIV, hepatitis, and certain parasites
    • In the UK, these infections are rare and cause very few cancer cases
    • There are lots of other things you can do to reduce your cancer risk, including stopping smoking

    On this page we cover some of the key infections linked to cancer: EBV, HIV, hepatitis, and certain parasites. We have separate pages with information on HPV and H. pylori infections.

    There are other infections that can cause cancer, but these dont have a large impact in the UK.

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