What Are The Side Effects Of Drug Treatment
Common side effects for some treatments for hepatitis C may include the following:
Side effects are usually worst during the first few weeks of treatment. They become less severe over time. If you are having trouble dealing with the side effects of your medicine, talk to your doctor. He or she can suggest ways to relieve some of the side effects. For example, if your medicine makes you feel nauseated, it may help to take it right before you go to sleep.
What Are The Symptoms Of Hepatitis
Some people with hepatitis do not have symptoms and do not know they are infected. If you do have symptoms, they may include:
- Joint pain
- Jaundice, yellowing of your skin and eyes
If you have an acute infection, your symptoms can start anywhere between 2 weeks to 6 months after you got infected. If you have a chronic infection, you may not have symptoms until many years later.
Hepatitis A And B Vaccine Side Effects
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction:hives difficulty breathing swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Keep track of any and all side effects you have after receiving this vaccine. When you receive a booster dose, you will need to tell the doctor if the previous shot caused any side effects.
You should not receive a booster vaccine if you had a life-threatening allergic reaction after the first shot.
Becoming infected with hepatitis is much more dangerous to your health than receiving this vaccine. However, like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects but the risk of serious side effects is extremely low.
You may feel faint after receiving this vaccine. Some people have had seizure like reactions after receiving this vaccine. Your doctor may want you to remain under observation during the first 15 minutes after the injection.
numbness, tingling, or burning pain
red or blistering skin rash with burning or tingly feeling
easy bruising or bleeding or
unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness.
Common side effects include:
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report vaccine side effects to the US Department of Health and Human Services at 1-800-822-7967.
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Xenograft Assay In Vivo
The animal protocol used in this study was reviewed and approved by the ethics committee of the Seoul National University . A mouse xenograft model using 6-week-old female BALB/c mice was established.
Tumor cells were suspended in 0.2 mL of serum-free DMEM and injected subcutaneously into the right flank of each nude mouse. When the tumor size reached approximately 100 mm3 , the mice were randomly divided into a vehicle-treated group, and 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg resveratrol-treated groups . For the two resveratrol-treated groups, the nude mice were injected intraperitoneally with resveratrol starting at 21 days after tumor cell inoculation. Intraperitoneal injections were given daily for 3 weeks. The vehicle-treated group was injected with normal saline. Body weight and tumor size were measured every 3 days during the 21 days of treatment. Tumor volume was calculated using the following formula:
where a and b represent the long diameter and perpendicular short diameter of the tumor, respectively.
After 21 days of treatment, the experiments were ended and the mice were sacrificed by using CO2. The tumors were sampled and weighed, and the tumor growth inhibition rate was calculated by using the following formula:
where W represents tumor weight.
What Happens If I Miss A Dose
Contact your doctor if you miss a booster dose or if you get behind schedule. The next dose should be given as soon as possible. There is no need to start over.
Be sure you receive all recommended doses of this vaccine. You may not be fully protected against disease if you do not receive the full series.
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How Is This Vaccine Given
This vaccine is given as an injection into a muscle. You will receive this injection in a doctor’s office or other clinic setting.
The hepatitis A and B vaccine is given in a series of 3 shots. The booster shots are given 1 month and 6 months after the first shot.
If you have a high risk of hepatitis infection, you may be given 3 shots within 30 days, and a fourth shot 12 months after the first.
Your individual booster schedule may be different from these guidelines. Follow your doctor’s instructions or the schedule recommended by the health department of the state you live in.
What Causes Hepatitis C
The hepatitis C virus causes hepatitis C. The hepatitis C virus spreads through contact with an infected persons blood. Contact can occur by
- sharing drug needles or other drug materials with an infected person
- getting an accidental stick with a needle that was used on an infected person
- being tattooed or pierced with tools or inks that were not kept sterilefree from all viruses and other microorganismsand were used on an infected person before they were used on you
- having contact with the blood or open sores of an infected person
- using an infected persons razor, toothbrush, or nail clippers
- being born to a mother with hepatitis C
- having unprotected sex with an infected person
You cant get hepatitis C from
- being coughed or sneezed on by an infected person
- drinking water or eating food
- hugging an infected person
- shaking hands or holding hands with an infected person
- sharing spoons, forks, and other eating utensils
- sitting next to an infected person
A baby cant get hepatitis C from breast milk.18
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What Is Involved In A Liver Transplant
A liver transplant is considered necessary when the liver is damaged and cannot function or in some cases of liver cancer. Your liver is very important. It is responsible for many functions related to making sure that your body stays healthy and is able to digest foods.
You may be eligible for a transplant if you have chronic hepatitis B infection or some of the diseases that may result from it, including liver cancer and cirrhosis. You will have to complete testing and be evaluated before being approved for a transplant. It is likely that you will be placed on a waiting list while an appropriate organ is found.
Donated livers come from two types of donors: living and deceased. Because the liver can regenerate, it is possible to use part of a liver for transplant. The remaining sections in both the donor and the receiver will grow into livers of adequate size.
People who get liver transplants must take anti-rejection drugs for the rest of their lives. These drugs make you more susceptible to infection. However, liver transplants have become more successful over time and continue to improve.
Who Should Get Tested
You should consider getting tested for hepatitis C if you’re worried you could have been infected or you fall into one of the groups at an increased risk of being infected.
- Hepatitis C often has no symptoms, so you may still be infected if you feel healthy.
- The following groups of people are at an increased risk of hepatitis C:
- ex-drug users and current drug users, particularly users of injected drugs
- people who received blood transfusions before September 1991
- recipients of organ or tissue transplants before 1992
- people who have lived or had medical treatment in an area where hepatitis C is common high risk areas include North Africa, the Middle East and Central and East Asia
- babies and children whose mothers have hepatitis C
- anyone accidentally exposed to the virus, such as health workers
- people who have received a tattoo or piercing where equipment may not have been properly sterilised
- sexual partners of people with hepatitis C
If you continue to engage in high-risk activities, such as injecting drugs frequently, regular testing may be recommended. Your doctor will be able to advise you about this.
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Hepatitis A Vaccine And International Travel
Who should get the hepatitis A vaccine before traveling internationally?
All unvaccinated people, along with those who have never had hepatitis A, should be vaccinated before traveling to countries where hepatitis A is common. Travelers to urban areas, resorts, and luxury hotels in countries where hepatitis A is common are still at risk. International travelers have been infected, even though they regularly washed their hands and were careful about what they drank and ate. Those who are too young or cant get vaccinated because of a previous, life-threatening reaction to the hepatitis A vaccine or vaccine component should receive immune globulin. Travelers to other countries where hepatitis A does not commonly occur are not recommended to receive hepatitis A vaccine before travel.
How soon before travel should I get the hepatitis A vaccine?
You should get the first dose of hepatitis A vaccine as soon as you plan international travel to a country where hepatitis A is common. The vaccine will provide some protection even if you get vaccinated closer to departure. For older adults , people who are immunocompromised, and people with chronic liver disease or other chronic medical conditions the health-care provider may consider, based on several factors, giving an injection of immune globulin at the same time in different limbs.
What should I do if I am traveling internationally but cannot receive hepatitis A vaccine?
Symptoms Of Hepatitis C
Hepatitis C often doesn’t have any noticeable symptoms until the liver has been significantly damaged. This means many people have the infection without realising it.
When symptoms do occur, they can be mistaken for another condition. Symptoms can include:
- flu-like symptoms, such as muscle aches and a high temperature
- feeling tired all the time
- loss of appetite
Read more about the complications of hepatitis C.
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Stages Of Hepatitis C
The hepatitis C virus affects people in different ways and has several stages:
- Incubation period. This is the time between first exposure to the start of the disease. It can last anywhere from 14 to 80 days, but the average is 45
- Acute hepatitis C. This is a short-term illness that lasts for the first 6 months after the virus enters your body. After that, some people who have it will get rid of, or clear, the virus on their own.
- Chronic hepatitis C. For most people who get hepatitis C — up to 85% — the illness moves into a long-lasting stage . This is called a chronic hepatitis C infection and can lead to serious health problems like liver cancer or cirrhosis.
- Cirrhosis. This disease leads to inflammation that, over time, replaces your healthy liver cells with scar tissue. It usually takes about 20 to 30 years for this to happen, though it can be faster if you drink alcohol or have HIV.
- Liver cancer. Cirrhosis makes liver cancer more likely. Your doctor will make sure you get regular tests because there are usually no symptoms in the early stages.
Learn more about the stages and progression of hepatitis C.
What Is Hepatitis A And B Vaccine
Hepatitis A and B are serious diseases caused by virus.
Hepatitis A is spread through contact with the stool of a person infected with the hepatitis A virus. This usually occurs by eating food or drinking water that has become contaminated as a result of handling by an infected person.
Hepatitis B is spread through blood or bodily fluids, sexual contact or sharing IV drug needles with an infected person, or during childbirth when a baby is born to a mother who is infected.
The hepatitis A and B vaccine is used to help prevent these diseases in adults. The vaccine works by exposing you to a small dose of the virus, which causes the body to develop immunity to the disease. This vaccine will not treat an active infection that has already developed in the body.
This vaccine is recommended for adults with risk factors for getting hepatitis A or B, including:
Like any vaccine, the hepatitis A and B vaccine may not provide protection from disease in every person.
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The Deadly Effects Of Viral Hepatitis
Hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver chiefly caused by viruses but may be caused by other factors like alcohol, drugs, toxins, malaria, yellow fever and autoimmune disease. The liver is the largest organ in the body. It helps digest food, store energy and removes poisons.
Viruses that cause hepatitis are named from A to G. Hepatitis is usually lifelong with possible progression to cirrhosis or liver cancer. It is often silent and can become an epidemic.
The five main hepatitis viruses, types A, B, C, D and E, can cause severe illness, death and outbreaks. Viral hepatitis affects 325 million people globally and around 20 million Nigerians, leading to 1.34 million deaths every year.
About 85% of people living with hepatitis globally are unaware of their status. This results in fatal liver disease, cancer or the transmission of the infection to others.
Hepatitis A virus.Photo: WVLT
Hepatitis A Virus is present in the faeces of infected people. It is most often transmitted through consumption of contaminated water or food. It is commonest in children and people in areas of the world with poor sanitation.
Symptoms seen may include fever, malaise, anorexia, nausea, joint pains and abdominal swelling. The disease may resolve in a few days, but treatment is advised as it may be severe and life-threatening in some cases. Travellers heading into countries with Hepatitis A should be immunised.
Laboratory scientist. Photo: Animalia Life Club
What Is The Outlook For People With Hepatitis B
The outlook for people with HBV is better now than ever before. You are certainly able to live a full life and help yourself stay healthy. You should make sure to have regular check-ups with a healthcare provider who is qualified to treat hepatitis B, possibly a liver doctor.
Make sure you are vaccinated against hepatitis A. Check with your healthcare provider or pharmacist before taking other medications or over-the-counter products, including supplements and natural products. These could interfere with your medication or damage your liver. For instance, taking acetaminophen in large doses may harm your liver.
Follow the usual guidelines for living a healthy life:
- Eat nutritious foods, choosing from a variety of vegetables, fruits and healthy proteins. It is said that cruciferous vegetables are especially good at protecting the liver.
- Exercise regularly.
- Dont smoke and dont drink. Both tobacco and alcohol are bad for your liver.
- Do things that help you cope with stress, like journaling, talking with others, meditating and doing yoga.
- Avoid inhaling toxic fumes.
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Determinants Of Hrql Before Treatment
HRQL varied with age, participating center, severity of liver disease and income in Euros . As might be expected, younger patients had a better performance compared to older patients, especially on the physical components of HRQL. Surprisingly, cirrhotic patients had a better performance than non-cirrhotic patients, having significantly higher scores on several dimensions of the SF-36, mostly on mental components. Higher income in Euros had a weak positive effect on the physical component summary scale and role limitation because of physical health scale of HRQL, with a correlation coefficient of 0.30 and 0.23 respectively. Finally, HRQL differed among the different participating centers: the mental component summary scale and the dimensions physical functioning, role limitation because of physical health, general health, bodily pain, vitality, social functioning and mental health were all significantly different between the participating centers .
Table 1 Determinants of Health Related Quality of Life on t = 0 and course of Health Related Quality of Life
In the multivariate analysis, individualized treatment had a significantly negative influence on the course of HRQL on the dimensions physical component summary scale, bodily pain, vitality and social functioning, compared to patients treated with standard treatment .
The Effects Of Hepatitis C On Your Body
You may have seen numerous literature and commercials about chronic hepatitis C and for good reason. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , up to 3.9 million people in the United States may have the chronic form of this virus. According to the World Health Organization , over 70 million people are affected worldwide.
What exactly is chronic HCV? In a nutshell, it refers to ongoing inflammation of your liver. But it can lead to symptoms throughout your body. Over time, living with this condition can cause your body to be especially vulnerable to serious health complications.
HCV is transmitted through contact with the blood. Its rarely transmitted through sexual contact from someone infected with the virus. Ultimately, this infection leads to liver inflammation and a host of other issues that can severely damage your health.
The virus has two stages, acute and chronic. The acute stage happens within six months of being exposed to the virus. For some, this is a short-term illness. But according to the CDC, most people about 75 to 80 percent will develop chronic HCV. This means it can be lifelong. Most people dont realize they have the virus until other symptoms within their body start.
Although the hepatitis A, B, and C viruses all cause hepatitis, they are three different and distinct viruses.
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How Are Hepatitis B And C Treated
Hepatitis B: Not all patients with chronic hepatitis B infection require treatment. At Yale Medicine, specialists decide on an individual basis whether a patient is an appropriate candidate for treatment. Generally, patients require treatment when their hepatitis B virus level is high, and when laboratory tests demonstrate significant inflammation or injury to the liver.
There are currently seven approved drugs for hepatitis B, two of which are considered to be first-line treatments. These drugs are oral pills taken once daily, and while they’re very effective at suppressing the virus to very low or undetectable levels over the long term, they are not considered curative.
Therefore, the goal of treatment is to control the virus long-term and decrease the risk of hepatitis B related complications such as cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Hepatitis C: For the greater part of the last 20 years, treatment of hepatitis C required the use of a chemotherapy-like injection drug called interferon, which has been associated with serious side effects and a low cure rate. Fortunately, advances in hepatitis C treatments within the last three years now allow for the use of oral medications that are significant improvements in terms of safety and effectiveness.