Preventing The Spread Of Infection
While you’re ill, it’s also important to try to reduce the risk of spreading the infection to others.
- stay off work or school until at least a week after your jaundice or other symptoms started
- avoid preparing food for others if possible
- wash your hands with soap and water regularly, particularly after going to the toilet and before preparing food
- avoid sharing towels
- wash soiled laundry separately on a hot cycle
- clean the toilet, flush handles and taps more frequently than usual
- avoid having sex while you’re infectious hepatitis A is most infectious from around 2 weeks before the symptoms start until about a week after they first develop
Any close contacts, such as people who live in the same house as you, may be advised to have the hepatitis A vaccine to reduce their risk of becoming infected.
Page last reviewed: 11 March 2019 Next review due: 11 March 2022
Signs & Symptoms Of Hepatitis A
Hepatitis A symptoms range from mild to severe. Some infected people dont experience any noticeable symptoms, especially children under the age of six. The symptoms usually appear anywhere from two to six weeks after exposure to the virus. For some, the infection will last for a few weeks, but for others, the symptoms continue for months.
The most common symptoms of hepatitis A include :
- light-colored stool
- dark-colored urine
In older children and adults,jaundice occurs in more than 70 percent of cases. Jaundice causes a yellow discoloration to the skin and eyes. It can also darken your urine and lighten the color of your stool. This occurs in hepatitis A patients because their livers cannot metabolize red blood cells that are breaking down, which causes a buildup of bilirubin.
Study Design And Setting
The study was conducted within the gastroenterology clinic of Mulago hospital, a tertiary teaching and National Referral Hospital, in Kampala which handles up to 100 adult patients weekly on average with either luminal gastrointestinal issues or liver/pancreatic conditions. The study specifically targeted patients who had a known diagnosis of liver inflammation due to different causes such as hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, drug-induced and alcohol-induced inflammation as shown on their medical records. Data was collected using standardized questionnaires followed by focus group discussions on a sample of patients. The questionnaires used were modified from the International Questionnaire to Measure Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine .
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Antiviral Medication For Hepatitis C
For people with hepatitis C, the goal of treatment with antiviral medication is to prevent the virus from replicating, or copying itself, and to eliminate the virus from the bloodstream. If the hepatitis C virus has been in the body for more than six months, the infection is considered chronic. Without treatment, most people with acute hepatitis C develop the chronic form of the disease.
Your doctor decides which antiviral medicationor combination of medicationsto prescribe based on the results of a blood test called a genotype test. There are six genotypes, or strains, of the hepatitis C virus, and people with certain genotypes respond more quickly to medical treatment.
For many years, the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C consisted of the antiviral medications pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Ribavirin is taken by mouth every day, and interferon is an injection that you or a caregiver can administer once a week at home.
In 2013 and 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved a group of new medications for the treatment of hepatitis C. These medications, which include sofosbuvir, are very effective and have fewer side effects than older medications, particularly interferon.
Maoto Suppresses Extracellular Hepatitis B Virus Production In Hepad387 Cells
To confirm the effect of maoto, we evaluated it in HepAD38.7 cells in more detail . We first confirmed that the maoto extract did not show any cytotoxicity at a concentration of 100 µg/ml . Then, the effect of maoto on HBV production was evaluated at various concentrations under 100 µg/ml . Consistent with the results in Figure 1C, maoto inhibited extracellular HBV production in HepAD38.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner . Maoto did not affect HBeAg production, which is thought to correlate with HBV pgRNA production, in the tested concentration range . These results confirmed the inhibitory effect of maoto on extracellular HBV production without any cytotoxicity and suggest that maoto inhibits a step in the HBV production process after HBV pgRNA expression.
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Reasons For The Use Of Herbal Medicine
The main reasons given for use of herbal medicine in the group discussions were related to convenience, availability, cost, cultural norms and aggressive marketing strategies used by herbal medicine retailers. All these were seen to increase accessibility for the population to herbal medicine therefore leading to increased utilization.
One of the main reasons given as to why herbal medicine was used despite the availability of conventional treatment was the easy accessibility and availability of herbal therapies and herbal practitioners compared to conventional health facilities.
Those who sell herbal medicine are everywhere, they even come to ones door, even in the market. At least one does not get disappointed as it is in the hospital where one is told that the doctor has not yet come, yet one has come from afar and then has to wait the whole day. It is easier to find a herbalist nearby so I can get back home quickly… .
Several patients also noted that the cheaper cost of herbal therapies as a reason for use of herbal medicine in the group discussions however they concluded that whereas the cost of herbal treatment for simple ailments such as cough and malaria is cheap, herbal concoctions used to treat chronic diseases such as hepatitis end up being expensive due to the long-term use.
Help And Support For Hbv
Liver care is important: Avoid drinking alcohol and do not take prescription drugs without consulting your physician, get yourself tested for hepatitis A and C. vaccinated for hepatitis A if you are not exposed.
Be in touch with your family & friends: we can not get Hepatitis B through casual contact, so dont cut yourself off from people who can offer support.
Take of your health: Eat more fruits, and green vegetables, exercise, regularly, and sleep well at least 8 hours daily,
Do not share: Never share your personal belonging with anyone including grooming products such as razor blades and which might have a bloodstain on them.
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Ayurvedic Remedies For Autoimmune Hepatitis
Autoimmune hepatitis is a disease of the liver that attacks a person when their immune system turns against their liver cells. This condition leads to a dysfunctional liver, which may cause disorders related to the organ. It is not known as to what causes this disease but specific genes are believed to be the reason behind autoimmune hepatitis. Autoimmune hepatitis manifests in the form of necrosis , hepatocellular inflammation, and later on also culminates in cirrhosis .
A number of women than men are affected by autoimmune hepatitis. The signs and symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis include weakness, weight loss, fever, belly pain, diarrhea, skin rashes, edema, and yellowing of skin or eyes. There is no permanent cure for autoimmune hepatitis and it can be only managed with medicines. There are allopathic medicines to keep the disease under control but they have been found to have side effects. These side effects are not gentle on the body and if one wants to avoid them then Ayurvedic remedies come forward as the ideal option.
Concurrent Use Of Herbal Medicine With Conventional Prescription Treatment
Same-day use of both herbal and conventional treatment was reported by 39/143. Of these, 13/39 were using both forms of medicine concurrently to treat hepatitis.
The majority of herbal medicine users used their herbal therapies intermittently, and 91/143 of users reported using their herbal treatments more than once a week. The profile and patterns of herbal medicine use are further summarized in supplementary table 2. .
Majority of the group patients concluded that it is not safe to use both kinds of therapies concurrently because they might interact thereby harming the body and leading to side effects such as skin rashes, blindness and organ damage such as kidney and liver damage as exemplified in the statement,
Yes, it is not safe because one type of drug can reduce the strength of the other and the patient will end up not getting cured at all. It is better to first try one and then try the other. .
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Are There Home Remedies For Hepatitis A
The following measures can help you feel better while you are having symptoms.
- Take it easy curtail normal activities and spend time resting at home.
- Drink plenty of clear fluids to prevent dehydration.
- Avoid medicines and substances that can cause harm to the liver such as acetaminophen and preparations that contain acetaminophen.
- Avoid alcoholic beverages, as these can worsen the effects of HAV on the liver.
- Avoid prolonged, vigorous exercise until symptoms start to improve.
Be very careful about personal hygiene to avoid fecal-oral transmission to other members of the household.
Prognosis Improvement After Hbsag Clearance
These related studies provide clear recommendations that patients who achieve HBsAg clearance have favourable clinical outcomes compared to patients who achieve only HBV DNA suppression and HBeAg seroconversion. HBsAg clearance leads to biochemical, virological and liver histological improvements, and it significantly reduces the risk of HCC. However, HCC may occur after HBsAg seroclearance despite it being the ultimate treatment endpoint recommended by current guidelines. The risk factors associated with HCC include the presence of cirrhosis, male sex, and age50 years at the time of HBsAg clearance . Closer attention should be given to patients with one or more of these risk factors.
These high-risk patients should be re-examined in a timely manner even if HBsAg clearance is obtained. These results also suggest that achieving a functional cure early in the absence of cirrhosis results in a better prognosis .
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Immunisation Against Hepatitis A
Immunisation is the best protection against hepatitis A infection and is recommended for people in high-risk groups, and for unvaccinated people who have been in close contact with someone who has hepatitis A.
Immunisation against hepatitis A includes a course of injections over a 6 to 12-month period. Healthy people 12 months of age and over receive 2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine, or 3 doses if the hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccines are given as a combination.
You can complete any missed vaccine doses, even if the recommended time frame has passed. You do not need to start the vaccine course again.
If you are in close contact with someone who has hepatitis A be sure to have the hepatitis A vaccine if you have not already completed a vaccine course.
Babies under 12 months of age and people who have a weakened immune system who are also in close contact with a person with hepatitis A can have an injection of normal human immunoglobulin instead of the hepatitis A vaccine.
Protection against hepatitis A is available free of charge under the National Immunisation Program Schedule for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children who live in high-risk areas .
Did You Know That Sipping On Ginger Tea Can Help You To Prevent Hepatitis A
Written by Aishwarya Vaidya | Published : August 7, 2018 9:40 AM IST
A viral infection that affects the liver is known as Hepatitis A and unlike Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C, Hepatitis A is not life-threatening but it can make you feel sick for weeks or even months. Infected food handler or infected food sources are the reasons due to which Hepatitis A can spread and wreck your health. Nausea, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, joint soreness, jaundice, fatigue and so are few of the symptoms of Hepatitis A. Though, you can prevent Hepatitis A if you maintain good hygiene. 5 common myths about hepatitis busted!
Hepatitis A can spread if the infected person is preparing food with dirty hands.
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Patient Characteristics And Medical History
On May 7, 2019, a 39-year-old man visited Cheon-An Korean Medicine Hospital of Daejeon University with gastrointestinal symptoms including fatigue, abdominal pain, diarrhea, jaundice, nausea, vomiting, chills and fever more than 1 week. He had been diagnosed with hepatitis A on May 6, 2019, elsewhere one day before presenting to our hospital. He used to smoke a pack of cigarettes a day and drank 23 bottles of alcohol per day, at least 3days a week. In 2009, abnormal aminotransferase levels were detected in a physical examination and he had a family history of liver cirrhosis.
Profile And Patterns Of Herbal Medicine Use
The most commonly used herbal therapies have been described in Table . The majority of the patients reported that while they did know the types of herbal medicines which they picked themselves or get from friends or family members, they did not know which exact herbs are part of the herbal preparations obtained from herbalists and herbal medicine retailers.
Table 2 Commonly used herbs by patients diagnosed with viral and non-viral hepatitis in Kampala, Uganda
Majority of the patients reported using a liquid form of herbal medicine, with 100/143 patients reporting oral administration in form of teas or juices. Herbal medicine retailers and herbalists were reported as the more common sources of herbal medicine with each having 55/143 of herbal medicine users reporting them as their sources, 30/143 obtained the herbal medicine from friends and family members, and 18/143 reporting that they picked the herbal medicine themselves.
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Herbal Remedies For Hepatitis Endorsed
Nigeria on Tuesday July 28, 2015, joined the rest of the world to mark the World Hepatitis Day. However, scientists have demonstrated how extracts of bitter leaf, bitter kola, garlic, Phyllanthus amarus, avocado, and turmeric offer protection against hepatitis B and C. CHUKWUMA MUANYA writes.
Scientists have demonstrated how natural remedies provide cheaper route to prevention and treatment of hepatitis B and C, and indeed liver damage in the country. Top on the list are: bitter leaf, Phyllanthus amarus, avocado, turmeric, garlic, and bitter kola.
No fewer than 20 million Nigerians are reported to be living with hepatitis B and C , and over five million are already chronically ill with liver cirrhosis or cancer. The viral infections are said to be 100 times more infectious than Human Immuno-deficiency Virus /Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome .
Conventionally the virus can only be contained by vaccination, mass screening, and treatment. But the government is not forthcoming in performing these life saving measures probably because of the huge cost implication of screening over 100 million people and treating over 25 million that are infected.
Phyllanthus amarus belongs to the plant family Euphorbiaceae. To the Efik it is called oyomokeso amanke edem geeron-tsuntsaayee in Hausa Ibo buchi oro, Ibo ngwu iyeke in Urhobo and ehin olobe or eyin olobe in Yoruba.
Avocado PHOTO: Tampabay.com
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Hepatitis A
- Many people with HAV infection have no symptoms at all.
- Sometimes symptoms are so mild that they go unnoticed.
- Older people are more likely to have symptoms than children.
- People who do not have symptoms can still spread the virus so it is difficult to know when a person has been exposed to the virus.
Symptoms of hepatitis A usually develop between 2 and 6 weeks after infection. The symptoms are usually not too severe and go away on their own, over time. The most common hepatitis A symptoms are as follows:
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Herbal Remedies And Supplements
Many people are interested in using herbal remedies or supplements to boost their immune systems and help their livers. The problem though is that there is no regulation of companies manufacturing these produces, which means there is no rigorous testing for safety or purity. So the quality of the herbal remedy or vitamin supplement may be different from bottle to bottle. Also some herbal remedies could interfere with your prescription drugs for hepatitis B or other conditions some can even actually damage your liver.
There are many companies that make false promises on the Internet and through social media about their products. Online claims and patient testimonials on Facebook are fake and are used to trick people into buying expensive herbal remedies and supplements. Remember, if it sounds too good to be true, then its probably not true.
Below are reliable sources of information about herbs and alternative medicines. This information is based on scientific evidence, not false promises. Check whether the active ingredients in your herbal remedies or supplements are real and if it safe for your liver. The most important thing is to protect your liver from any additional injury or harm.
U.S. National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary Medicine and Integrative Health
How Do People Get Hepatitis A
Hepatitis A virus is found in the stool of people with HAV infection. It enters the body through the mouth after someone handles something contaminated with HAV, or eats or drinks something contaminated with HAV.
People usually get hepatitis A by having close contact with a person who is infected, from food or drinks prepared by someone who is infected, or by eating shellfish harvested from sewage-contaminated water. After the virus enters the body, there is an incubation period lasting 2 to 7 weeks until illness begins.
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