Thursday, October 6, 2022

What’s Hepatitis B Vaccine

What Is A Hepatitis B Vaccine

Does HepB Vaccine Cause Defects?

A hepatitis B vaccine prevents hepatitis B virus infection . Engerix-B, Heplisav-B, and Recombivax HB are examples of hepatitis B vaccines approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration . Engerix-B and Recombivax HB are both approved for use in people of all ages. Heplisav-B is approved for use in adults 18 years of age and older.HBV can be an opportunistic infection of HIV. An OI is an infection that occurs more frequently or is more severe in people with weakened immune systemssuch as people with HIVthan in people with healthy immune systems. To learn more about OIs, read the HIVinfo What is an Opportunistic Infection? fact sheet. To learn how HIV and HBV infection are connected, read the HIVinfo HIV and Hepatitis B fact sheet.

Persons With Chronic Diseases

Refer to Immunization of Persons with Chronic Diseases in Part 3 for additional general information about vaccination of people with chronic diseases.

Chronic renal disease and patients on dialysis

People with chronic renal disease may respond sub-optimally to HB vaccine and experience more rapid decline of anti-HBs titres, and are therefore recommended immunization with a higher vaccine dose. Individuals undergoing chronic dialysis are also at increased risk for HB infection. In people with chronic renal disease anti-HBs titre should be evaluated annually and booster doses using a higher vaccine dose should be given as necessary.

Neurologic disorders

People with conditions such as autism spectrum disorders or demyelinating disorders should receive all routinely recommended immunizations, including HB-containing vaccine.

Chronic liver disease

HB immunization is recommended for non-immune persons with chronic liver disease, including those infected with hepatitis C, because they are at risk of more severe disease if infection occurs. Vaccination should be completed early in the course of the disease, as the immune response to vaccine is suboptimal in advanced liver disease. Post-immunization serologic testing may be used to confirm vaccine response.

Non-malignant hematologic disorders

Persons with bleeding disorders and other people receiving repeated infusions of blood or blood products are considered to be at higher risk of contracting HB and should be offered HB vaccine.

Hepatitis B Vaccination In Pregnancy

Hepatitis B infection in pregnant women may result in severe disease for the mother and chronic infection for the baby.

This is why the hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for pregnant women who are in a high-risk category.

There’s no evidence of any risk from vaccinating pregnant or breastfeeding women against hepatitis B.

And, as it’s an inactivated vaccine, the risk to the unborn baby is likely to be negligible .

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The Hepatitis B Vaccine

The hepatitis B vaccine sometimes known by the trade name Recombivax HB is used to prevent this infection. The vaccine is provided in three doses.

The first dose can be taken on a date you choose. The second dose must be taken one month later. The third and final dose must be taken six months after the first dose.

Adolescents 11 to 15 years old may follow a two-dose regimen.

Babies And Hepatitis B Vaccination

Hepatitis B: Causes, symptoms, and treatment

Pregnant women have a routine blood test for hepatitis B as part of their antenatal care.

Babies born to mothers infected with hepatitis B need to be given a dose of the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of their birth, followed by further doses at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age, plus a final dose when they’re 1 year old.

Babies of mothers identified by the blood test as particularly infectious might also be given an injection of HBIG at birth on top of the hepatitis B vaccination to give them rapid protection against infection.

All babies born to mothers infected with hepatitis B should be tested at 1 year of age to check if they have become infected with the virus.

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What Should I Tell My Health Care Provider Before Receiving A Hepatitis B Vaccine

Before receiving a hepatitis B vaccine, tell your health care provider:

Ask your health care provider about possible side effects from getting a hepatitis B vaccine. Your health care provider will tell you what to do if you have side effects.

Common And Local Adverse Events

HB vaccine

HB vaccine is well tolerated. Reactions are generally mild and transient, and include: irritability, headache, fatigue and injection site reactions in 10% or more of recipients.

HAHB vaccine

There is no increase in adverse events when HAHB vaccine is compared with HA vaccine given alone or concomitantly with HB vaccine at a different injection site. When the adult formulation of HAHB vaccine is given to children in the 2 dose schedule, there is no increase in adverse events compared with those occurring after administration of the pediatric formulation of HAHB vaccine.

DTaP-HB-IPV-Hib vaccine

Reactions are usually mild and transient, and include fever, irritability, restlessness and injection site reactions .

HBIg

Headache, diarrhea, fever, urticaria, angioedema and injection site reactions may occur.

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Why Is The Hepb Vaccine Recommended

People who dont know they’re infected can spread the hepatitis B virus. So it cant be avoided just by being careful. That’s why health experts recommend that all babies get the vaccine right from birth.

The HepB injection usually creates long-term immunity. Most infants who get the HepB series are protected from hepatitis B infection beyond childhood, into their adult years.

Eliminating the risk of infection also decreases risk for cirrhosis of the liver, chronic liver disease, and liver cancer.

What Is Hepatitis B Virus

Hepatitis B Vaccination in Younger Diabetes Patients

Hepatitis B virus attacks the liver. Hepatitis B virus infections are known as the “silent epidemic” because many infected people don’t experience symptoms until decades later when they develop hepatitis , cirrhosis , or cancer of the liver . Every year in the United States about 22,000 new hepatitis B infections occur and about 2,000 people die from their infections.

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What Other Drugs Interact With Hepatitis B Vaccine

If your doctor has directed you to use this medication, your doctor or pharmacist may already be aware of any possible drug interactions and may be monitoring you for them. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicine before checking with your doctor, health care provider, or pharmacist first.

  • Severe Interactions of Hepatitis B Vaccine include:
  • belimumab
  • Hepatitis B Vaccine has serious interactions with at least 37 different drugs.
  • Moderate Interactions of Hepatitis B Vaccine include:
  • daclizumab
  • chloroquine
  • This information does not contain all possible interactions or adverse effects. Therefore, before using this product, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all the products you use. Keep a list of all your medications with you, and share this information with your doctor and pharmacist. Check with your health care professional or doctor for additional medical advice, or if you have health questions, concerns, or for more information about this medicine.

    Interchangeability Of Hepatitis B Vaccines

    The Engerix-B and H-B-Vax II vaccines are manufactured by different processes, and the hepatitis B surface antigen content of an equivalent dose of these vaccines is different. Switching vaccine brands is not recommended.

    If the brand of vaccine used for previous doses is not known, use another age-appropriate equivalent dose brand. See:

    For example, a study in healthy neonates showed comparable high levels of immunogenicity between 2 different mixed regimens that used 2 monovalent hepatitis B vaccines from different manufacturers.33

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    Immunisation Against Hepatitis B For Children

    Immunisation is the best protection against hepatitis B infection and is recommended for all infants and young children, adolescents and those in high-risk groups. Immunisation can be with a vaccine against hepatitis B alone or with a combination vaccine.

    Protection against hepatitis B is available free of charge under the National Immunisation Program Schedule.

    In Victoria, immunisation against hepatitis B is free for all babies and children including:

    • Babies at birth immunisation against hepatitis B alone as soon as possible after birth.
    • Babies at 2, 4 and 6 months immunisation in the form of a diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, hepatitis B, polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine .
    • Premature babies at 12 months premature babies born under 32 weeks gestation or under 2,000g birth weight receive a single booster dose.
    • Children up to and including 9 years of age.

    Who Should Not Get The Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Delaying second COVID

    Generally seen as a safe vaccine, there are some circumstances in which doctors advise against receiving the HBV vaccine. You shouldnt have the hepatitis B vaccine if:

    • youve had a serious allergic reaction to a previous dose of the hepatitis B vaccine
    • you have a history of hypersensitivity to yeast or to any other vaccine components
    • youre experiencing a moderate or severe acute illness

    If youre currently experiencing an illness, you should postpone receiving the vaccine until your condition has improved.

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    Hepatitis B Vaccine Side Effects

    As with any medication, the hepatitis B vaccine may cause some side effects. Most people dont experience any unwanted effects. The most common symptom is a sore arm from the injection site.

    When receiving the vaccination, youll likely receive information or a pamphlet regarding the side effects that you might expect, and others that warrant medical attention.

    Mild side effects usually last only . Mild side effects of the vaccine include:

    • redness, swelling, or itching at the injection site
    • a purple spot or lump at the injection site

    A Look At Each Vaccine: Hepatitis B Vaccine

    The hepatitis B vaccine is given to prevent the severe liver disease that can develop when children or adults are infected with hepatitis B virus. The hepatitis B vaccine is given as a series of three shots. The first dose is given within 24 hours of birth. The second dose is given one to two months after the first dose, and the third dose is given between 6 months and 18 months of age.

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    Concerns About Immunisation Side Effects

    If the side effect following immunisation is unexpected, persistent or severe, or if you are worried about yourself or your child’s condition after a vaccination, see your doctor or immunisation nurse as soon as possible or go directly to a hospital.

    It is important to seek medical advice if you are unwell, as this may be due to other illness, rather than because of the vaccination.

    Immunisation side effects may be reported to SAEFVIC, the Victorian vaccine safety and reporting service. Discuss with your immunisation provider how to report adverse events in other states or territories.

    Persons New To Canada

    Addressing Adult Patientsâ Hepatitis B Vaccine Concerns with Dr. Sandra Leal

    Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals, as necessary. In many countries outside of Canada, HB vaccine is in limited use.

    All persons from a country that is endemic for HB should be assessed and vaccinated against HB if not immune and not infected. Individuals born in developing countries are more likely to be carriers of HB, necessitating vaccination of their sexual and household contacts based on review of their serologic test results. HB vaccine is recommended for all household contacts whose families have immigrated to Canada from areas in which there is a high prevalence of HB and who may be exposed to HB carriers through their extended families or when visiting their country of origin.

    Children adopted from countries in which there is a high prevalence of HB infection should be screened for HBsAg and, if positive, household or close contacts in the adopting family should be immunized before adoption or as soon as possible thereafter. Adults going to pick-up children from these countries should be vaccinated before departure. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional information.

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    When To Delay Or Avoid Hepb Immunization

    Doctors delay giving the vaccine to babies who weigh less than 4 pounds, 7 ounces at birth whose mothers do not have the virus in their blood. The baby will get the first dose at 1 month of age or when the baby is discharged from the hospital.

    The vaccine is not recommended if your child:

    • is currently sick, although simple colds or other minor illnesses should not prevent immunization
    • had a serious allergic reaction after an earlier dose of the vaccine or is allergic to baker’s yeast

    Us Children And Adult Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedules

    *Please note that the first dose should be given as soon as possible. Additional doses require minimum time intervals between doses in order for the vaccine to be effective.

    3-Dose Vaccine Series for Children and Adults

    The hepatitis B vaccine is an injection that is generally given in the arm as a three-dose series on a 0, 1, and 6-month schedule. Alternative schedules may be considered, noting that a third dose at 6 months, meeting minimum intervals between doses, is needed for maximum, long-term protection. Completing the hepatitis B vaccine series, preferably beginning at birth, will ensure protection against hepatitis B, hepatitis delta and lower the lifetime risk of liver cancer. Greater than 90% of babies and up to 50% of young children who are not vaccinated and are infected with hepatitis B will have lifelong infection, which makes the birth dose essential to their protection.

    There are four, 3-dose vaccine brands approved in the U.S.

    • PreHevbrio PreHevbrio is only approved for adults age 18 and over.

    2-Dose Vaccine Series

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    What Is The Treatment

    Hepatitis B affects the liver. However, for many individuals, the virus does not show any symptoms, and many people would be unaware of the fact that they have the virus. There are two stages of the virus The acute stage and the chronic stage. In the acute stage, the virus has been diagnosed before, and the doctor focuses on avoiding its spread and the damage to the liver. In many cases, you might not need any treatment as the virus has a tendency to dissolve on its own. Often the doctor might suggest changes to your dietary pattern and intake of fluids. Also, you have to make some changes to your lifestyle. For safer results, once you have been diagnosed with the virus you might have to take the Hepatitis B immunoglobulin shot along with the hepatitis B vaccine shot. In the chronic cases, your doctors primary focus would be to curtail the spread of the virus and to prevent the further damages to your liver. Antiviral medications might be given to achieve this. However hepatitis B medicines may not be suitable for everyone, and there could be some side effects when undergoing the treatment.

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    Hepatitis B Vaccine On The Nhs

    Symptoms of Hepatitis B

    A hepatitis B-containing vaccine is provided for all babies born in the UK on or after 1 August 2017. This is given as part of the 6-in-1 vaccine.

    Hospitals, GP surgeries and sexual health or GUM clinics usually provide the hepatitis B vaccination free of charge for anyone at risk of infection.

    GPs are not obliged to provide the hepatitis B vaccine on the NHS if you’re not thought to be at risk.

    GPs may charge for the hepatitis B vaccine if you want it as a travel vaccine, or they may refer you to a travel clinic for a private vaccination. The current cost of the vaccine is around £50 a dose.

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    What Are The Potential Adverse Effects Of The Hepatitis B Vaccine

    The most common adverse effects are local symptoms at the injection site, including pain, redness and swelling.

    Transient generalised symptoms are also common, including

    • fever
    • tiredness.

    Skin symptoms or actual hypersensitivity reactions are rare.

    Local and generalised symptoms usually begin within a few days of the vaccination and go on for some days. They may be treated with fever and pain medications.

    Local and generalised symptoms are not a contraindication for further vaccinations.

    Who Is More Likely To Get Hepatitis B

    People are more likely to get hepatitis B if they are born to a mother who has hepatitis B. The virus can spread from mother to child during birth. For this reason, people are more likely to have hepatitis B if they

    • were born in a part of the world where 2 percent or more of the population has hepatitis B infection
    • were born in the United States, didnt receive the hepatitis B vaccine as an infant, and have parents who were born in an area where 8 percent or more of the population had hepatitis B infection

    People are also more likely to have hepatitis B if they

    • are infected with HIV, because hepatitis B and HIV spread in similar ways
    • have lived with or had sex with someone who has hepatitis B
    • have had more than one sex partner in the last 6 months or have a history of sexually transmitted disease
    • are men who have sex with men
    • are injection drug users
    • work in a profession, such as health care, in which they have contact with blood, needles, or body fluids at work
    • live or work in a care facility for people with developmental disabilities
    • have been on kidney dialysis
    • live or work in a prison
    • had a blood transfusion or organ transplant before the mid-1980s

    In the United States, hepatitis B spreads among adults mainly through contact with infected blood through the skin, such as during injection drug use, and through sexual contact.12

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    How Is A Hepatitis B Vaccine Given

    A health care provider gives the hepatitis B vaccine. The vaccine is given as a shot injected into a muscle, usually in the arm for adults and children older than 1 year and in the thigh for infants and children younger than 1 year. Vaccination with a hepatitis B vaccine is usually given as a series of injections over a period of time, depending on the specific brand of the vaccine. Read any printed information that your health care provider gives you about the hepatitis B vaccine.

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