Tuesday, May 24, 2022

How Do You Diagnose Hepatitis C

Getting Tested Is The Only Way To Know If You Have Hepatitis C

How do you diagnose and what tests are used in screening for Hepatitis C?

A blood test called a hepatitis C antibody test can tell if you have been infected with the hepatitis C viruseither recently or in the past. If you have a positive antibody test, another blood test is needed to tell if you are still infected or if you were infected in the past and cleared the virus on your own.

  • Are 18 years of age and older
  • Are pregnant
  • Currently inject drugs
  • Have ever injected drugs, even if it was just once or many years ago
  • Have HIV
  • Have abnormal liver tests or liver disease
  • Are on hemodialysis

Getting Tested For Hepatitis C

A blood test, called an HCV antibody test, is used to find out if someone has ever been infected with the hepatitis C virus. The HCV antibody test, sometimes called the anti-HCV test, looks for antibodies to the hepatitis C virus in blood. Antibodies are chemicals released into the bloodstream when someone gets infected.

Test results can take anywhere from a few days to a few weeks to come back. Rapid anti-HCV tests are available in some health clinics and the results of these tests are available in 20 to 30 minutes.

Should I Be Screened For Hepatitis C

Doctors usually recommend one-time screening of all adults ages 18 to 79 for hepatitis C. Screening is testing for a disease in people who have no symptoms. Doctors use blood tests to screen for hepatitis C. Many people who have hepatitis C dont have symptoms and dont know they have hepatitis C. Screening tests can help doctors diagnose and treat hepatitis C before it causes serious health problems.

Also Check: How Can A Person Contract Hepatitis

Additional Tests You Might Need

Once youve been diagnosed with Hepatitis C, your doctor will likely order a number of tests to find out about the health of your liver and decide on a treatment plan thats most appropriate for you.

Hepatitis C genotype

The Hepatitis C genotype refers to a specific strain or type of the Hepatitis C virus. There are six major types of Hepatitis C around the world: genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. In the United States, genotypes 1, 2, and 3 are common:

  • Genotype 1: Most Americans with Hepatitis C have this type
  • Genotype 2: About 10% of Americans with Hepatitis C have this type
  • Genotype 3: About 6% of Americans with Hepatitis C have this type

The genotype of Hepatitis C does not change over time, so you only need to get tested once.

Genotype tests are done before a person starts treatment. Hepatitis C treatment works differently for different genotypes, so knowing your genotype helps your doctor choose the best treatment for you.

Testing for Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B

Your doctor may test to see if your body is immune to Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B. If these tests show no prior exposure or protection, he or she will recommend that you be vaccinated against these two viruses to eliminate the chance of becoming infected.

Liver function tests or liver enzymes

  • ALT
  • AST

Liver function tests also include ALP and total bilirubin, among other things.

Tests to measure liver scarring or fibrosis

  • Liver Biopsy
  • Elastography
  • Serum markers

Imaging tests

This Hepatitis C Screening Test Checks Whether You Test Positive For Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C Symptoms : Diagnosis, Treatment &  Cure

In the event that your test results are positive, an associate from our physician network will contact you directly to discuss your particular case as well as provide information on how to take the next steps to get treatment. We take customer privacy very seriously and will never share your information with a third-party with the exception of the lab we use to test your sample and our physician network.

As is the case with all STD testing – whether through EverlyWell or your doctor â we may be required by law to report positive test results to certain state health departments. This is only done to track infection prevalence. In rare cases you may not receive a definitive result because of early infection or inadequate sampling and repeat testing is suggested. Know where you stand with our at-home Hepatitis C test.

Recommended Reading: How Do You Get Rid Of Hepatitis C

What Do Hepatitis C Symptoms Look Like

Hepatitis C infection can go through two stages: acute and chronic. In the early, or acute stage, most people don’t have symptoms. If they do develop symptoms, these can include:

  • flu-like symptoms, tiredness, high temperature and aches and pains
  • loss of appetite
  • tummy pain
  • jaundice, meaning your skin and the whites of your eyes turn yellow

While for some people, the infection will clear without treatment, in most cases, acute infection will develop into long-term chronic infection. Chronic infection may not become apparent for a number of years until the liver displays signs of damage. These symptoms can include:

  • mental confusion and depression these are specific to hepatitis C
  • constantly feeling tired
  • nausea, vomiting or tummy pain
  • dark urine
  • feeling bloated
  • joint and muscle pain

Without treatment, chronic hepatitis C can cause scarring of the liver , which can cause the liver to stop working properly. A small number of people with cirrhosis develop liver cancer and these complications can lead to death. Other than a liver transplant, theres no cure for cirrhosis. However, treatments can help relieve some of the symptoms.

Can I Drink Alcohol Once In A While If I Have Hepatitis C

Alcohol can clearly contribute to worsening liver disease. You must discuss with your health care provider if any amount of alcohol is safe for you.

Alcohol can cause inflammation and scarring in the liver. If you have any underlying liver condition, such as hepatitis C or hepatitis B or damage from long-term alcohol use, your liver will be more sensitive to alcohol. When you have hepatitis C virus, alcohol on top of the hepatitis C can cause the inflammation and scarring to be worse, and overall damage to the liver may happen much faster when you drink alcohol.

Here is some helpful information about alcohol and hepatitis:

  • No one knows exactly what amount of alcohol is “safe” when you have hepatitis C. Some small amounts of alcohol may be safe while you have hepatitis C and have mild damage in the liver, but if you have cirrhosis, then no amount of alcohol is safe and you should not drink at all.
  • All forms of alcohol can be damaging. In other words, beer and wine are not “safer” than whiskey.
  • If you have severe scarring , then you should not drink any alcohol at all.
  • If you are awaiting a transplant, you also cannot drink any alcohol at all.
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    Enzyme Immunoassays For Detection Of Hepatitis C Antibody

    The HCV Ab test is used for initial screening for hepatitis C. The test is performed by enzyme immunoassays , which detect the presence of hepatitis C antibodies in serum. The result of the test is reported as positive or negative. Third-generation EIAs have a sensitivity/specificity of approximately 99%. However, the presence of HCV Ab does not indicate whether the infection is acute, chronic, or resolved. A positive antibody test result should be followed up with an HCV RNA test to confirm that viremia is present.

    Questions For Your Doctor

    How to diagnose a hepatitis E infection.

    When you visit the doctor, you may want to ask questions to get the information you need to manage your hepatitis C. If you can, have a family member or friend take notes. You might ask:

  • What kinds of tests will I need?
  • Are there any medications that might help?
  • What are the side effects of the medications you might prescribe?
  • How do I know when I should call the doctor?
  • How much exercise can I get, and is it all right to have sex?
  • Which drugs should I avoid?
  • What can I do to prevent the disease from getting worse?
  • How can I avoid spreading hepatitis C to others?
  • Are my family members at risk for hepatitis C?
  • Should I be vaccinated against other types of hepatitis?
  • How will you keep tabs on the condition of my liver?
  • Recommended Reading: Latest Treatment Of Hepatitis C

    Causes And Risk Factors

    HCV causes hepatitis C. People contract the virus through blood-to-blood contact with contaminated blood. For transmission to occur, blood containing HCV must enter the body of a person without HCV.

    A speck of blood, invisible to the naked eye, can carry hundreds of hepatitis C virus particles, and the virus is not easy to kill.

    The report the following risk factors for developing hepatitis C:

    • using or having used injectable drugs, which is currently the most common route in the U.S.
    • receiving transfusions or organ transplants before 1992, which is before blood screening became available
    • having exposure to a needle stick, which is most common in people who work in healthcare
    • being born to a mother who has hepatitis C

    The CDC offer advice on cleaning syringes if it is not possible to use clean and sterile ones. Although bleach can kill the HCV in syringes, it may not have the same effect on other equipment. Boiling, burning and using alcohol, peroxide, or other common cleaning fluids to wash equipment can reduce the amount of HCV but might not stop a person from contracting the infection.

    It is extremely dangerous to inject bleach, disinfectant, or other cleaning products, so people should make sure they rinse the syringe thoroughly. A person should only ever use bleach to clean equipment if new, sterile syringes and equipment are not available.

    People who are at risk due to these factors can have screening to rule out HCV.

    • peginterferon alfa-2a
    • sofosbuvir

    Meaning Of Hcv Viral Load

    The number of HCV RNA international units per milliliter of blood must be measured before treatment and during the course of treatment, to assess response. Before treatment, however, the HCV viral load is not related to the patient’s liver disease severity or HCV prognosis. This is important for patients and providers to understand.

    Note: In hepatitis B, unlike hepatitis C, a higher HBV DNA viral load does correlate with increased disease severity and increased likelihood of outcomes such as hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Recommended Reading: How Do People Contract Hepatitis C

    How Do You Prevent Hepatitis C

    Researchers have yet to develop a vaccine that prevents hepatitis C .

    Just as you might not know you have hepatitis C, other people with the condition may not know they have it, either. But you can take a few key precautions to avoid contracting it:

    • Avoid sharing needles.
    • When getting piercings or tattoos, check to make sure the piercer or tattoo artist uses only sterile, unopened needles and ink.
    • Avoid sharing nail clippers, razors, and toothbrushes.
    • Use sterile gloves when caring for someone elses wound.

    Since hepatitis C is transmitted through blood, you wont get it by sharing food and drinks with someone who has the condition or by hugging, touching, or holding hands.

    Hepatitis C is not commonly transmitted through sexual contact. But using a condom or another barrier method when having sex can always help lower your chances of contracting a sexually transmitted infection.

    Keep in mind that you can contract hepatitis C again, even if youve had it already.

    Questions You Should Be Able To Answer About Your Liver Health

    » Hepatitis C

    Keep in mind, though, that elevated liver enzymes don’t always indicate liver problems due to hepatitis C. Liver enzymes can go up and down because of various factors. For this reason, someone diagnosed with chronic hepatitis can have a liver enzyme level thats normal or near normal, whereas a person who doesnt have hepatitis C can have elevated enzymes for other reasons.

    Certain medications can cause elevated enzymes, such as acetaminophen and drugs used to control cholesterol. A larger waist circumference can also cause elevated liver enzymes if theres excess fat stored in your liver cells.

    Your doctor may even recommend an ultrasound or another imaging test to check your liver for cirrhosis. A biopsy, which removes a sample of tissue from your liver, can confirm cirrhosis. Your doctor can also schedule a biopsy and imaging test to check for liver cancer.

    Also Check: Can Hepatitis Be Transmitted Sexually

    Will The Baby Be Infected If The Mother Or Father Has Hepatitis C

    The baby’s risk of becoming infected with hepatitis C in the womb varies, depending on whether the parent with hepatitis C is the father or the mother.

    If the mother is infected, whether or not the father is infected, there is a 5% chance that the baby will be born with hepatitis C. The risk is the same regardless of whether the birth occurs by vaginal delivery or by cesarean section. The risk is higher if the mother is also living with HIV.

    If the father has hepatitis C but the mother does not, the baby cannot become infected because a father cannot pass the virus directly to a baby. If the father first passes the virus to the mother through sex, then the baby possibly could be infected by the mother. However, the chance of the virus being transmitted both from father to mother and then from mother to baby is almost zero.

    All children born to HCV-infected women should be tested for HCV infection. Testing is recommended using an antibody-based test at or after 18 months of age. Approximately 25-50 % infants with hepatitis C will clear the infection without any medical help by age 4. For those who become chronically infected, most have no symptoms .

    How To Get Tested

    Hepatitis C testing is performed by a doctor. Testing requires a blood sample, which can be collected in a hospital, lab, or other medical setting. Blood is often drawn from a vein in the arm or, in children, taken by pricking the skin. After blood is collected, the sample is sent to a laboratory for analysis.

    Read Also: Can You Transmit Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis C Symptoms & Treatment

    FAST FACTS:

    • Hepatitis C is found in infected blood. It is also rarely found in semen and vaginal fluids.

    • Hepatitis C is mainly passed on through using contaminated needles and syringes or sharing other items with infected blood on them. It can also be passed on through unprotected sex, especially when blood is present.

    • You can prevent hepatitis C by never sharing needles and syringes, practising safer sex, and avoiding unlicensed tattoo parlours and acupuncturists.

    • Hepatitis C will often not have any noticeable symptoms, but a simple blood test carried out by a healthcare professional will show whether you have hepatitis C.

    • In the early stages, some peoples bodies can clear a hepatitis C infection on their own, others may develop chronic hepatitis C and will need to take antiviral treatment to cure the infection.

    • Without treatment, chronic hepatitis C can lead to permanent liver damage.

    Hepatitis C is part of a group of hepatitis viruses that attack the liver.

    Its mainly passed on through contaminated needles, either from injecting drugs or from needle stick injuries in healthcare settings. It can also be transmitted sexually, especially during anal sex or other types of sex that may involve blood.

    Some groups are more at risk of getting hepatitis C than others, including people who use drugs, people in prisons, men who have sex with men, health workers and people living with HIV.

    Tests Used To Help Diagnose Hepatitis C

    Heptitis C Treatments | WebMD

    Diagnosing hepatitis C doesnt involve a single test. Instead, your doctor will likely conduct multiple tests to confirm or rule out an infection.

    Before beginning testing, your doctor may ask about your medical history and any symptoms youre experiencing. Most people get a trivial illness that they dont even notice, but occasionally, people develop classic clinical hepatitis with muscle aches, fatigue, and jaundice, says Glenn Englander, MD, a board-certified internal medicine doctor and gastroenterologist practicing in Palm Beach County, Florida.

    Other symptoms of hepatitis C can include:

    • Fever
    • Nausea
    • Clay-colored stools

    Your doctor may ask questions about your lifestyle to assess your risk, too. This includes whether youve ever had a blood transfusion or organ transplant, injected drugs, shared personal care items such as razors or toothbrushes, or had unprotected sex. They may even ask whether your mother has been diagnosed hepatitis C.

    Recommended Reading: Hepatitis A And B Vaccine

    Cost Of Hepatitis C Medicines

    The newer direct-acting antiviral medicines for hepatitis C can be costly. Most government and private health insurance prescription drug plans provide some coverage for these medicines. Talk with your doctor about your health insurance coverage for hepatitis C medicines.

    Drug companies, nonprofit organizations, and some states offer programs that can help pay for hepatitis C medicines. If you need help paying for medicines, talk with your doctor. Learn more about financial help for hepatitis C medicines.

    Taking A Hepatitis C Test

    Hepatitis C testing is conducted on a sample of blood. Blood samples can be collected by a doctor, nurse, technician, or other health care provider from an adult patients vein using a small needle or a skin prick on a childs heel.

    For an at-home hepatitis C test, patients collect a blood sample according to the manufacturers directions. Instructions provided in the test kit detail the steps to obtain a small sample of blood and mail it for testing.

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    Hepatitis C: Diagnosis And Treatment

    THAD WILKINS, MD JENNIFER K. MALCOLM, DO DIMPLE RAINA, MD and ROBERT R. SCHADE, MD, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia.

    Am Fam Physician. 2010 Jun 1 81:1351-1357.

    An estimated 170 million persons, or 3 percent of the worlds population, are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus .1 In the United States, the prevalence of hepatitis C antibody is 2 percent in adults 20 years and older, but the prevalence is higher in groups at increased risk .2,3 HCV, a single-stranded RNA virus, is transmitted through percutaneous exposure to infected blood.4 HCV is categorized into nine genetically distinct genotypes.5 In the United States, 72 percent of patients with HCV infection have genotype 1 16 to 19 percent have genotype 2 8 to 10 percent have genotype 3 and 1 to 2 percent have other genotypes.6 This article focuses on chronic HCV infection in adults and excludes special groups, such as children, pregnant women, transplant recipients, and persons coinfected with hepatitis B virus or human immunodeficiency virus .

    SORT: KEY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE

    Persons who are not at increased risk should not be screened for HCV infection.

    HCV = hepatitis C virus.

    *Recommendation for treatment is C because the outcome is a surrogate marker rather than mortality.

    SORT: KEY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE

    Persons who are not at increased risk should not be screened for HCV infection.

    HCV = hepatitis C virus.

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