Wednesday, August 10, 2022

What Is Viral Hepatitis C

All Adults Pregnant Women And People With Risk Factors Should Get Tested For Hepatitis C

Viral hepatitis (A, B, C, D, E) – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

Most people who get infected with hepatitis C virus develop a chronic, or lifelong, infection. Left untreated, chronic hepatitis C can cause serious health problems, including liver damage, cirrhosis, liver cancer, and even death. People can live without symptoms or feeling sick, so testing is the only way to know if you have hepatitis C. Getting tested is important to find out if you are infected so you can get lifesaving treatment that can cure hepatitis C.

Finding Help For Hepatitis

If youve been diagnosed with viral hepatitis, there are a variety of resources that are available to help you. Lets explore a few of them below:

  • Your doctor. Your doctor is a great first point of contact for questions and concerns. They can help you to better understand the type of hepatitis you have, as well as how it will be treated.
  • American Liver Foundation . ALF is dedicated to ending liver disease through education, research, and advocacy. Their site has educational material about viral hepatitis, as well as ways to find doctors, support groups, and clinical trials in your area.
  • Patient assistance programs. If you have hepatitis C, the cost of antiviral drugs can be high. The good news is that many drug manufacturers have patient assistance programs that can help you pay for these medications.

The chart below is an at-a-glance summary of some of the key differences between hepatitis A, B, and C.

Hepatitis A

Why Is The Viral Load Test Important

Viral load testing is important because it shows whether someone has an active hepatitis C infection or not. People can have antibodies in their blood from previous exposure to hepatitis C, but they may not have an active infection.

Viral load also shows the amount of the virus in the bloodstream. This can help indicate the effectiveness of treatments in reducing the virus by comparing viral load before, during, and after hepatitis C treatment.

However, the viral load does not indicate the condition of the liver people will need liver function tests to assess any damage to the liver.

Read Also: What Is The Treatment For Hepatitis B Virus

Treatment And Medication For Hepatitis C

If you have acute hepatitis C, there is no recommended treatment. If your hepatitis C turns into a chronic hepatitis C infection, there are several medications available.

Interferon, peginterferon, and ribavirin used to be the main treatments for hepatitis C. They can have side effects like fatigue, flu-like symptoms, anemia, skin rash, mild anxiety, depression, nausea, and diarrhea.

Now youâre more likely to get one of these medications:

Find out more on treatment options for hepatitis C.

What Causes Hepatitis In Children

Hepatitis C Virus Photograph by Kateryna Kon

There are a number of causes for hepatitis in children and adults alike. Different causes correspond to different types of hepatitis, which are treated differently.

  • Viral hepatitis – hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E viruses and certain other infections can lead to hepatitis. These spread in various ways. For example, hepatitis A and E viruses usually spread through contaminated food or drink, while B, C, and D viruses spread through blood or bodily fluids.
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease – a range of conditions caused by a build-up of fat in the liver. Hepatitis is one effect this can have.
  • Toxins – toxins are substances harmful to the body. Some medications can trigger toxic reactions in some people. Others store harmful levels of iron or copper .
  • Autoimmune hepatitis – a condition where the immune system attacks and damages the liver.
  • Recommended Reading: Do You Ever Get Rid Of Hepatitis C

    Complications Of Hepatitis C

    If the infection is left untreated for many years, some people with hepatitis C will develop scarring of the liver .

    Over time, this can cause the liver to stop working properly.

    In severe cases, life-threatening problems, such as liver failure, where the liver loses most or all of its functions, or liver cancer, can eventually develop.

    Treating hepatitis C as early as possible can help reduce the risk of these problems happening.

    Who Should Be Vaccinated

    Children

    • All children aged 1223 months
    • All children and adolescents 218 years of age who have not previously received hepatitis A vaccine

    People at increased risk for hepatitis A

    • International travelers
    • Men who have sex with men
    • People who use or inject drugs
    • People with occupational risk for exposure
    • People who anticipate close personal contact with an international adoptee
    • People experiencing homelessness

    People at increased risk for severe disease from hepatitis A infection

    • People with chronic liver disease, including hepatitis B and hepatitis C
    • People with HIV

    Other people recommended for vaccination

    • Pregnant women at risk for hepatitis A or risk for severe outcome from hepatitis A infection

    Any person who requests vaccination

    There is no vaccine available for hepatitis C.

    Read Also: Can Hepatitis C Be Cured Totally

    What Are The Risk Factors

    Some people are at an increased risk for contracting HAV, including:

    • people traveling to areas of the world where hepatitis A is common
    • men who have sex with men
    • people who use injectable or noninjectable drugs
    • caregivers for those who have hepatitis A
    • people who are experiencing homelessness
    • people living with a child whos been adopted from an area where hepatitis A is common

    Can You Prevent Hepatitis C Infection

    What Is Viral Hepatitis?

    Thereâs no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C. To avoid getting the virus:

    • Use a latex condom every time you have sex.
    • Don’t share personal items like razors.
    • Don’t share needles, syringes, or other equipment when injecting drugs.
    • Be careful if you get a tattoo, body piercing, or manicure. The equipment may have someone else’s blood on it.

    Find out more on how to prevent hepatitis C.

    Don’t Miss: Can A Child Get Hepatitis C

    How Do You Prevent Hepatitis C

    Researchers have yet to develop a vaccine that prevents hepatitis C .

    Just as you might not know you have hepatitis C, other people with the condition may not know they have it, either. But you can take a few key precautions to avoid contracting it:

    • Avoid sharing needles.
    • When getting piercings or tattoos, check to make sure the piercer or tattoo artist uses only sterile, unopened needles and ink.
    • Avoid sharing nail clippers, razors, and toothbrushes.
    • Use sterile gloves when caring for someone elses wound.

    Since hepatitis C is transmitted through blood, you wont get it by sharing food and drinks with someone who has the condition or by hugging, touching, or holding hands.

    Hepatitis C is not commonly transmitted through sexual contact. But using a condom or another barrier method when having sex can always help lower your chances of contracting a sexually transmitted infection.

    Keep in mind that you can contract hepatitis C again, even if youve had it already.

    New Ongoing And Published Research

    VA research on hepatitis C includes clinical trials of treatments, epidemiologic studies, investigations of the biological mechanisms of infection, and studies on identifying and removing barriers to treatment.

    Some VA researchers are working on projects to improve screening and testing methods for HCV. Others are working to improve the assessment and treatment of patients traditionally excluded from hepatitis C treatment, including those with mental illness, substance use, or who also are infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

    Another area of interest to VA researchers is developing and disseminating models of interdisciplinary care to optimize treatment and clinical standards for treating patients at all stages of HCV infection.

    If you are interested in learning about joining a VA-sponsored clinical trial, visit our research study information page.

    You May Like: Can You Die From Hepatitis B

    Cost Of Hepatitis C Medicines

    The newer direct-acting antiviral medicines for hepatitis C can be costly. Most government and private health insurance prescription drug plans provide some coverage for these medicines. Talk with your doctor about your health insurance coverage for hepatitis C medicines.

    Drug companies, nonprofit organizations, and some states offer programs that can help pay for hepatitis C medicines. If you need help paying for medicines, talk with your doctor. Learn more about financial help for hepatitis C medicines.

    What Are The Different Types Of Hepatitis C

    What Is Hepatitis C? A Guide To The Silent Epidemic And Its Effects ...

    Hepatitis C can be acute or chronic. How long you experience symptoms will depend on the type you have.

    Acute hepatitis C involves more short-term symptoms that typically last 6 months or less but acute hepatitis often leads to chronic hepatitis. When hepatitis C lasts longer than 6 months, its considered chronic.

    Without treatment, you may have chronic hepatitis your whole life, since your body often cant get rid of the virus easily. Some people do get better without treatment, although treatment can go a long way toward improving the outlook.

    Hepatitis C wont necessarily become chronic.

    As a matter of fact, for anywhere from 15 to 45 percent of people with acute hepatitis C, the virus will clear up without treatment. In other words, if you dont have any symptoms, hepatitis C could improve on its own before you ever know you have it.

    However, if your body cant get rid of the hepatitis C virus, the infection wont go away. Instead, it will become chronic, or long-term.

    Experts arent sure why some people develop the chronic form of the disease and others dont. But more than half of all people with the hepatitis C virus will eventually develop the chronic form, according to the

    Since hepatitis C symptoms can resemble those of other health conditions, your symptoms alone if you have any may not make it clear that you have hepatitis C.

    A doctor or other healthcare professional may recommend getting tested if you:

    • daclatasvir

    Don’t Miss: What Kind Of Disease Is Hepatitis C

    Hiv And Hepatitis C Coinfection

    HCV infection is common among people with HIV who also inject drugs. Nearly 75% of people living with HIV who report a history of injection drug use are co-infected with HCV. All people who are diagnosed with HIV are recommended to be tested for HCV at least once. People living with HIV are at greater risk for complications and death from HCV infection. Fortunately, direct acting antivirals that are used to treat HCV work equally well in people with and without HIV infection. For more information about HIV and HCV coinfection, visit the HIV.govs pages about hepatitis C and HIV coinfection.

    How Do Doctors Treat Hepatitis C

    Doctors treat hepatitis C with antiviral medicines that attack the virus and can cure the disease in most cases.

    Several newer medicines, called direct-acting antiviral medicines, have been approved to treat hepatitis C since 2013. Studies show that these medicines can cure chronic hepatitis C in most people with this disease. These medicines can also cure acute hepatitis C. In some cases, doctors recommend waiting to see if an acute infection becomes chronic before starting treatment.

    Your doctor may prescribe one or more of these newer, direct-acting antiviral medicines to treat hepatitis C:

    You may need to take medicines for 8 to 24 weeks to cure hepatitis C. Your doctor will prescribe medicines and recommend a length of treatment based on

    • which hepatitis C genotype you have
    • how much liver damage you have
    • whether you have been treated for hepatitis C in the past

    Your doctor may order blood tests during and after your treatment. Blood tests can show whether the treatment is working. Hepatitis C medicines cure the infection in most people who complete treatment.

    Hepatitis C medicines may cause side effects. Talk with your doctor about the side effects of treatment. Check with your doctor before taking any other prescription or over-the-counter medicines.

    For safety reasons, talk with your doctor before using dietary supplements, such as vitamins, or any complementary or alternative medicines or medical practices.

    Read Also: How Does Hepatitis Affect The Body

    How Can I Cover Medication Costs

    New therapies called direct-acting antivirals are effective and can achieve cures of over 90%. Because these new therapies are very new, they remain very expensive. As such, drug coverage from both government and private companies may require that your liver disease has progressed to a certain stage before they are willing to cover the cost of these drugs.

    Talk with your healthcare provider about financial support that may be available.

    Below are useful resources when looking for financial assistance:Private health insurance or drug plansIf you have private health insurance or a drug plan at work, you may be able to have the medication paid through your plan. Please consult your private health insurance or drug plan provider to see if your drug is covered.

    Publicly funded plansEach provincial and territorial government offers a drug benefit plan for eligible groups. Some are income-based universal programs. Most have specific programs for population groups that may require more enhanced coverage for high drug costs. These groups include seniors, recipients of social assistance, and individuals with diseases or conditions that are associated with high drug costs. For more details, please contact your provincial or territorial health care ministry, or click on the appropriate link below.

    Yukon

    Available Patient Assistance Programs for Hepatitis C treatment Holkira Pak Maviret

    MerckCare Hepatitis C Program 1 872-5773 Zepatier

    Where to?

    Can Hepatitis Be Treated

    Viral hepatitis: Pathology Review

    There are no treatments to cure hepatitis A, aside from carefully monitoring liver function. If you know you have hepatitis A early enough, you might be able to stop the infection if you get a dose of the hepatitis A vaccine or something called hepatitis A immune globulin.

    Hepatitis B, when chronic, can often be treated successfully. The most commonly used drugs to treat chronic hepatitis B are:

    • Entecavir .

    For hepatitis C, the following drugs are used:

    • Simeprevir .
    • Sofosbuvir sofusbuvir/velpatasvir sofusbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir ledipasvir/sofosbuvir .
    • Ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir/dasabuvir .
    • Elbasivir/grazoprevir .
    • Glecaprevir/pibrentasvir .

    These new drugs are sometimes given with older drugs like ribavirin and peginterferon alfa-2a and peginterferon-2b. You might have to take these medicines for some time, even as long as six months.

    If you have chronic hepatitis D, your doctor may prescribe drugs with interferons and might also add medicines for hepatitis B. Hepatitis E treatments include peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin.

    Recommended Reading: How Long Can You Live With Hepatitis C

    What Is Acute Fulminant Hepatitis

    Rarely, individuals with acute infections with HAV and HBV develop severe inflammation, and the liver fails . These patients are extremely ill with the symptoms of acute hepatitis already described and the additional problems of confusion or coma , as well as bruising or bleeding . In fact, up to 80% of people with acute fulminant hepatitis can die within days to weeks therefore, it is fortunate that acute fulminant hepatitis is rare. For example, less than 0.5% of adults with acute infection with HBV will develop acute fulminant hepatitis. This is even less common with HCV alone, although it becomes more frequent when both HBV and HCV are present together.

    What To Do If The Hcv Antibody Test Is Reactive

    If the antibody test is reactive or positive, you need an additional test to see if you currently have hepatitis C. This test is called a nucleic acid test for HCV RNA. Another name used for this test is a PCR test.

    If the NAT for HCV RNA is:

    • Negative you were infected with hepatitis C virus, but the virus is no longer in your body because you were cured or cleared the virus naturally.
    • Positive you now have the virus in your blood.

    If you have a reactive antibody test and a positive NAT for HCV RNA, you will need to talk to a doctor about treatment. Treatments are available that can cure most people with hepatitis C in 8 to 12 weeks.

    You May Like: What Is Hepatitis 1 And 2

    Prevention Of Hepatitis B

    • Vaccination offers good protection against infection.
    • Prevent or reduce exposure by using latex condoms and not sharing drug or tattoo needles.
    • Health workers should be careful to avoid needle stick injury.
    • HBV immune globulin and vaccine should be given within 12 hours of birth to infants of HBV positive mothers.

    How Many People Have Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis C Virus: Causes and Risk Factors

    During 2013-2016 it was estimated that about two and half million people were chronically infected with HCV in the United States. The actual number may be as low as 2.0 million or as high as 2.8 million.Globally, hepatitis C is a common blood-borne infection with an estimated 71 million people chronically infected according to the World Health Organization .

    Don’t Miss: Can You Get Hepatitis C Sexually

    How Is Hepatitis C Transmitted

    Because HCV is primarily spread through contact with infected blood, people who inject drugs are at increased risk for HCV infection. HCV can also be transmitted from an infected mother to child at the time of birth, from unregulated tattoos or body piercings, and from sharing personal items that may be contaminated with infected blood, even in amounts too small to see. Much less often, HCV transmission occurs through sexual contact with an HCV-infected partner, especially among people with multiple sex partners and men who have sex with men. Currently in the United States, health care related transmission of HCV is rare, but people can become infected from accidental needle sticks and from breaches in infection control practices in health care facilities.

    Symptoms Of Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis C often does not have any noticeable symptoms until the liver has been significantly damaged.

    This means many people have the infection without realising it.

    When symptoms do occur, they can be mistaken for another condition.

    Symptoms can include:

    The only way to know for certain if these symptoms are caused by hepatitis C is to get tested.

    You May Like: Hepatitis C High Viral Load

    Popular Articles
    Related news