Hepatitis B Surface Antibody
- Hepatitis B Surface Antibody
The Quantitative detection Hepatitis B virus Surface IgG antibody in human sera using the FDA approved Abbott ARCHITECT AUSAB-DIL test two-step chemiluminescent immunoassay.
In the first step, sample, assay diluent, and recombinant Hepatitis B surface Antigen coated paramagnetic microparticles are combined. Anti-HBs present in the sample binds to the rHBsAg coated microparticles. In the second step, rHBsAg acridinium-labeled conjugate is added, which binds to IgG anti-HBs. Then pre-trigger and trigger solutions are added to the reaction mixture. The resulting chemiluminescent reaction is measured as relative light units .
A direct relationship exists between the amount of anti-HBs in the sample and the RLUs. The concentration of anti-HBs in the sample is determined using an active ARCHITECT AUSAB calibration curve. Results are reported as mIU/mL.
For Batteries containing HBSAb see:
Hepatitis B Antibodies , Quantitative detection of Hepatitis B virus Surface IgG antibody and Hepatitis B virus Core IgG and IgM antibodies
Hepatitis B Battery , Quantitative detection of Hepatitis B virus Surface IgG antibody , Qualitative detection of Hepatitis B virus Surface Antigen and Qualitative detection of Hepatitis B virus Core IgG and IgM antibodies
Hepatitis B Surface Antigen & Antibody , Quantitative detection of Hepatitis B virus Surface IgG antibody and Qualitative detection of Hepatitis B virus Surface Antigen
How Are Tests Performed Sequentially
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What Does Hepatitis B Core Antibody Positive Mean
Hepatitis B is an inflammation of the liver caused by a virus. Signs of hepatitis include tiredness or fatigue, fevers, loss of appetite, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, headache, itchy skin, muscle soreness , jaundice , dark urine, and light stools.Here are some hepatitis B facts:
1. HBV infections will occur in one out of every 20 people at some time in the United States
2. Your risk of HBV is greater if you have sex with someone who has HBV.
3. Your risk is greater if you have a job that places you in contact with human blood.
4. Your risk is greater if you travel to areas where HBV is common.
Some people who donate blood get a letter from the blood bank saying that they are hepatitis B core antibody positive. Dont panic. This does not mean that you have hepatitis B, but you should get a more thorough screening. There are three blood tests that are used to diagnose hepatitis B: hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B surface antibody, and hepatitis B core antibody positive. If your blood tests show that you are hepatitis B core body positive, it means that you either have a present infection or that you were infected in the past. There is a possibility of having a false hepatitis B core antibody positive. Blood banks only screen for hepatitis B core antibody positive and not for surface antigens or antibodies.
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Why It Is Done
You may need testing if:
- You have symptoms of hepatitis.
- You may have been exposed to the hepatitis B virus. You are more likely to have been exposed to the virus if you inject drugs, have many sex partners, or are likely to be exposed to body fluids .
- Youâve had other tests that show you have liver problems.
- You are pregnant.
- You or your doctor wants to know if you are protected from getting the disease.
The tests also are done to help your doctor decide about your treatment and see how well itâs working.
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Diagnosis Of Acute And Chronic Hepatitis B
HBsAg is the first serologic marker to appear and may be detected within 1 to 2 weeks after exposure. It precedes the development of symptoms by an average of 4 weeks.104 The presence of HBsAg indicates ongoing infection. Qualitative but not quantitative methods are used by most clinical laboratories because the amount of antigen does not correlate with disease activity or with the presence of an acute or chronic infection.26 Some symptomatic patients may have self-limited, acute HBV infection without detectable HBsAg. These patients, up to 9% in some studies, have other detectable markers of infection.104 HBeAg appears virtually simultaneously, peaks, and then declines in parallel with HBsAg. It usually disappears before HBsAg. Adult patients who remain persistently positive for HBeAg for more than 10 weeks are likely to become chronically infected. HBeAg indicates a high level of viral replication and infectivity. Most patients with nondetectable HBeAg have resolving, minimal, or no active liver disease.26 Pre-core mutants of HBV do not express HBeAg they may be responsible for a more severe course and, in some cases, fulminant disease. Serum aminotransferase levels become raised but are nonspecific. They begin to increase just before the development of symptoms and then peak , with the development of jaundice.
Howard C. Thomas, Jennifer A. Waters, in, 1998
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Hbv Dna Hbv Genotype And Hbv Drug Resistance Assays
Specimen: Serum or plasma
Container: Red-top tube, yellow-top tube , gel-barrier tube, plasma preparation tube, or lavender tube
Collection method: Routine venipuncture
The specimen should be transfused to separate plasma/serum from cells within 6 hours and kept frozen when testing cannot be done promptly.
The tests use PCR amplification, DNA probe hybridization, and sequencing method.
Negative But Other Hepatitis Tests Are Positive
Your HBsAb test may be negative even when other hepatitis B tests are positive, showing active or chronic infection. Further testing is necessary, especially for the hepatitis B surface antigen , which shows that the virus itself is circulating in your bloodstream and that you have an active or chronic infection.
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Purpose Of The Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Test
The HBsAb test determines the presence and quantity of HBV antibodies in your blood in order to establish how immune you are to the virus. These antibodies are “encoded” by your immune system when it encounters the HBV virus through blood or sexual contact, or if you are vaccinated with the hepatitis B vaccine. Your body uses the antibodies to attack the virus if it appears again.
There are two types of antibodies produced in response to the hepatitis B virus:
- Immunoglobulin M is the antibody that mounts the initial attack but eventually fades away.
- Immunoglobulin G is the antibody that provides long-lasting immune protection against HBV. The immunity can last for many years, but it gradually wanes over time.
The HBsAb test may be used to look for prior exposure to HBV . By comparing levels of IgM and IgG, a healthcare practitioner can also use the test to monitor your recovery from an acute HBV infection.
Additionally, the HBsAb test can reveal whether you are successfully vaccinated, not successfully vaccinated, or indeterminately vaccinated. A booster vaccine may be needed if the HBsAb level drops below protective levels.
Hepatitis B Blood Tests
The Hepatitis B Panel of Blood Tests
Only one sample of blood is needed for a hepatitis B blood test, but the Hepatitis B Panel includes three parts. All three test results are needed to fully understand whether a person is infected or not. Below is an explanation of the 3-part Hepatitis B Panel of blood test results.
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When Should You Have The Test
Anyone who has symptoms of hepatitis B may benefit from having the test. Other people who may consider undergoing the hepatitis B panel test are those with known risk factors. These people include individuals born in places with a high incidence of HBV infection and those who use needles to inject drugs.
Is Hepatitis Related To The Liver
Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. The liver is a vital organ that processes nutrients, filters the blood, and fights infections. When the liver is inflamed or damaged, its function can be affected. Heavy alcohol use, toxins, some medications, and certain medical conditions can cause hepatitis.
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What Is The Difference Between Hepatitis B Surface Antibody And Antigen
An antigen is a substance that induces antibody production. Hepatitis B surface antigen is a protein on the surface of hepatitis B virus.
Hepatitis B surface antibodies are produced by the bodys immune system in response to HBsAg. The presence of adequate hepatitis B surface antibodies in the blood indicates protection against hepatitis B virus infection.
Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Titer
This antibody titer test checks for immunity to Hepatitis B.
Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Titer This test measures your Hepatitis B Surface Antibody IgG titer level.
Most people receive the Hepatitis B vaccine series when they are young and/or receive vaccine boosters as adults. As a consequence of either vaccination or prior exposure, people develop antibodies to Hepatitis B.
The Hepatitis B Titer Test measures the Hepatitis B IgG antibody levels in your blood. Positive results mean that you are considered immune to Hepatitis B according to accepted international standards.
Hepatitis B Titer Test results are reported as quantitative IgG titers.
This information is for educational purposes only, and does not constitute medical advice, diagnosis or treatment in any way. This site does not replace the services of licensed health care professionals and all site users should consult with a physician regarding their health concerns.
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Results Of The Hbcab Test
There are two variations of antibodies. The IgM antibody is the largest antibody and the first produced in an infection. It shows that you may have a current, active infection. Sometimes it persists for years, but it usually drops to undetectable levels.
The HBcAb IgG variant is produced later in the course of the infection, and itÃ¢s likely that you will have a positive HBcAb IgG test the rest of your life.
The screening panel usually has a test that is for total HBcAb, which includes both IgM and IgG. The IgM test may be ordered to help determine if you have an acute infection.
A positive HBcAb test must be interpreted along with the results of the other tests. You may have an active or chronic infection, or you may be immune to hepatitis B due to past infection. Discuss the results with your healthcare provider. In any case, a positive HBcAb test means your blood or organs cannot be donated to a recipient.
Significantly Increased Levels Of Serum Anti
In the HBeAg CHB patients, serum anti-HBc levels increased significantly along with the increasing histology activity index score . In the HBeAg CHB patients, serum anti-HBc levels also differed significantly between HAI score . Spearmans correlation analysis indicated that serum anti-HBc levels were positively correlated with the HAI score in both HBeAg and HBeAg CHB patients .
Serum anti-HBc level increased significantly along with increasing histology activity index score. Serum anti-HBc level in different stages of histology activity index score in total HBeAg and HBeAg CHB patients. Serum anti-HBc collected from patients with different stages of CHB-related liver inflammation was quantified for the levels of anti-HBc using ELISA. Graph showing correlation between serum anti-HBc level and stages of liver fibrosis HBeAg and HBeAg CHB patients. Interquartile ranges with medians presented. ***P< 0.001, **P< 0.01, *P< 0.05 and ns, no significance.
Serum anti-HBc were significantly correlated with liver fibrosis stage in both HBeAg and HBeAg patients , whereas there was no significant difference in the anti-HBc level between fibrosis stage score more than 2 .
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Is Hepatitis B Curable
Theres currently no known cure for hepatitis B, but there are many ways you can prevent infection and avoid transmitting the virus to others.
The most effective and safe way to prevent hepatitis B is to get vaccinated. You can also use barrier methods, like condoms, when having sex and avoid sharing needles.
Question 7 Is Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Antibody Always Acquired After A Completed Vaccination Protocol
No. After 3 intramuscular doses of vaccine, > 90% of healthy adults and > 95% of those < 19 years of age develop immunity .1 However, there is an age-specific decline in development of immunity. After age 40 years, about 90% of people become immune, but by age 60 years, only 75% of people become immune.1 Larger vaccine doses or an increased number of doses are required to induce immunity in many hemodialysis patients and in other immunocompromised people.1
This FAQ is provided for informational purposes only and is not intended as medical advice. A clinicians test selection and interpretation, diagnosis, and patient management decisions should be based on his/her education, clinical expertise, and assessment of the patient.Document FAQS.105 Revision: 0
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Question 3 How Is The Quantitative Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Test Performed
An immunometric technique is used. The anti-HBs binds to HBsAg ad and ay subtypes, which are coated on the test wells. Binding of a horseradish peroxidase-labeled HBsAg conjugate to the anti-HBs completes the sandwich formation. Unbound materials are then washed away. In the next step, the horseradish peroxidase catalyzes oxidation of a luminogenic substrate, producing light. Light signals are detected and quantified. Intensity of the light is proportional to the amount of anti-HBs present in the patient sample. The result is standardized to an international unit system and reported as milliinternational units per milliliter .
Hepatitis B Virus Antigens And Antibodies
The Structure of Hepatitis B Virus
The hepatitis B virus is a small DNA virus with unusual features similar to retroviruses, which is a prototype virus of the Hepadnaviridae family. HBV causes acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. The hepatitis B virus consists of an outer lipid envelope and an icosahedral nucleocapsid core composed of protein. The virus is one of the smallest enveloped animal viruses with a virion diameter of 42 nm, and also named Dane particles. Dane particles contains both envelope and core.
The outer envelope contains embedded proteins which are involved in viral binding of susceptible cells. There are three types of proteins: small hepatitis surface proteins, middle hepatitis surface proteins and large hepatitis surface proteins, they are totally composed of hepatitis B surface proteins. The nucleocapsid encloses the viral DNA and a DNA polymerase that has reverse transcriptase activity.
There are three types of Hepatitis B Virus particles in infectious serum by electron microscopy, Dane particles, filamentous particles and spherical particles. Except for Dane particles , there also exist pleomorphic forms, as filamentous particles and spherical particles .
Hepatitis B Virus Antigens
Hepatitis B core antigen-HBcAg
Hepatitis B e antigen-HBeAg
The X gene codes for HBxAg. The product of the X gene is hepatitis B x antigen . It may be involved in carcinogenesis.
Hepatitis B Virus Antibodies
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Does Hepatitis B Show Up In Routine Blood Tests
Routine blood tests do not detect hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatitis B tests are specifically done if blood tests show abnormal liver function results, or if a person experiences symptoms or falls into the high-risk category for HBV infection.
A panel of HBV-specific blood tests are required to detect HBV infection.
How Long Do Hep B Antibodies Last
How long does protection from hepatitis B vaccine last? Studies indicate that immunologic memory remains intact for at least 30 years among healthy people who initiated hepatitis B vaccination at > 6 months of age. The vaccine confers long-term protection against clinical illness and chronic hepatitis B virus infection.
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Analysis Of The Positive Results And Influencing Factors Of Hepatitis B Antibody In Hospitalized Neonates With Aghbs Positive Mothers
- Department of Neonatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Childrenâs Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China
Purpose: To investigate the results of positive antibody to hepatitis surface antigenin hospitalized neonates whose mothers were hepatitis B surface antigen positive and to explore the influencing factors.
Method: The study subjects were hospitalized neonates whose mothers were positive for AgHBs. According to the serological test results of five immune markers of hepatitis B virus , they were divided into positive for anti-HBs and negative for anti-HBs. Retrospective analysis of relevant factors affecting results of anti-HBs.
Result: 269 cases were positive for anti-HBs and 64 cases were negative for anti-HBs. Univariate analysis results: the number of hepatitis B immunoglobulin injections after birth, whether HBIG was injected within 6h, whether Hepatitis B vaccine was injected within 6h, whether combined immunization within 12h, whether Hep B was vaccinated on time after discharge, whether preterm birth, and whether low birth weight infants were statistically significant . The results of binary logistic regression analysis: HBIG injection time 6h , combined immunization time 12h were protective factors premature infants , ALB/GLO and failure to complete three vaccinations on time were risk factors .