Friday, April 5, 2024

Hepatitis B Vaccine Newborn Dose

What To Do If You Miss A Scheduled Dose

Ending hepatitis B with crucial birth dose vaccine

The recommended schedule for the HBV vaccine follows a three-dose pattern, with all doses complete within 6 months. The good news is that if you miss a dose, you dont need to start the series of shots all over.

If you missed getting the second dose 1 month after the first, make an appointment as soon as possible. If you miss the third dose, you should also try to get it as quickly as possible. Keep in mind that the second and third doses

When To Delay Or Avoid Hepb Immunization

Doctors delay giving the vaccine to babies who weigh less than 4 pounds, 7 ounces at birth whose mothers do not have the virus in their blood. The baby will get the first dose at 1 month of age or when the baby is discharged from the hospital.

The vaccine is not recommended if your child:

  • is currently sick, although simple colds or other minor illnesses should not prevent immunization
  • had a serious allergic reaction after an earlier dose of the vaccine or is allergic to baker’s yeast

Who Should Not Receive The Hepatitis B Vaccine

Talk to your healthcare provider before getting the hepatitis B vaccine if:

  • You have had a severe allergic reaction to the hepatitis B vaccine or any of its ingredients in the past.
  • You have had an allergic reaction to yeast in the past.
  • You are moderately or severely ill.
  • You are currently taking immunosuppressive medications.

In addition, pregnant people should not receive the Heplisav-B or PreHevbrio vaccines until more safety information is available.

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Why Should My Baby Get The Hepatitis B Shot

  • Protects your child from against hepatitis B, a potentially serious disease.
  • Protects other people from the disease because children with hepatitis B usually dont have symptoms, but they may pass the disease to others without anyone knowing they were infected.
  • Prevents your child from developing liver disease and cancer from hepatitis B.
  • Keeps your child from missing school or child care and you from missing work.

Recommended Doses Of Hepatitis B Vaccine

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Recommended doses of hepatitis B by vaccine type, age, formulation, dosage and schedule.

Download PDF version formatted for print: Recommended Doses of Hepatitis B Vaccine

Vaccine

Infants: birth, 1-4, 6-18 monthsOROlder children: 0, 1-2, 4-6 months

20 years & older

Infants: birth, 1-4, 6-18 monthsOROlder children: 0, 1-2, 4-6 months

11-15 years

3 doses

0, 1, 4-6 months

* The schedule for hepatitis B is flexible, but minimal intervals and minimum ages need to be observed:

  • There should be at least 4 weeks between doses 1 and 2, and at least 8 weeks between doses 2 and 3.
  • The minimum interval for the overall series from dose 1 to final dose is 4 months .
  • Infants, should receive the final dose of hepatitis B vaccine on or after 6 months of age, otherwise long term immunity may be impacted.

Note:

  • Adults who are immunocompromised or on dialysis require a larger dose of hepatitis B vaccine.
  • The Engerix-B dose required is 40mcg/2.0mL on a scheduled of 0, 1, 2, and 6 months.
  • For Recombivax HB, a special formulation is available. The dose is 40mcg/1.0mL given on a schedule of 0, 1, and 6 months

Combination Vaccines:

6 weeks thru 6 years

Hep B as Engerix-B 10 mcg, DTaP as Infanrix, Polio

0.5 mL

3 doses

Give single antigen hep B dose at birth followed by Pediarix at: 2, 4, 6 months

Twinrix

Hep A as Havrix 720 El.U, Hep B as Engerix-B 20 mcg

1.0 mL

0, day 7, day 21-30, 12 months

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Concurrent Administration Of Vaccines

HB-containing vaccines may be administered concomitantly with other vaccines or with HBIg. Different injection sites and separate needles and syringes must be used for concurrent parenteral injections.

Refer to Timing of Vaccine Administration in Part 1 for additional information about concurrent administration of vaccines.

Hepatitis B Vaccine: Canadian Immunization Guide

For health professionals

Last partial content update : May 2022

The footnotes in and the accompanying text description for the figure have been revised to align with the corresponding figure in Protocole d’immunisation du Québec, 5e édition from which it was adapted.

Last complete chapter revision :

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Use In Special Populations

Pregnancy

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies designed to evaluate RECOMBIVAX HB in pregnant women. Available post-approval data do not suggest an increased risk of miscarriage or major birth defects in women who received RECOMBIVAX HB during pregnancy.

Nursing Mothers

Data are not available to assess the effects of RECOMBIVAX HB on the breastfed infant or on milk productions/excretion. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mothers clinical need for RECOMBIVAX HB and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from RECOMBIVAX HB or from the underlying maternal condition.

Pediatric Use

Us Children And Adult Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedules

Why Do Newborns Get the Hepatitis B Vaccine?
*Please note that the first dose should be given as soon as possible. Additional doses require minimum time intervals between doses in order for the vaccine to be effective.

3-Dose Vaccine Series for Children and Adults

The hepatitis B vaccine is an injection that is generally given in the arm as a three-dose series on a 0, 1, and 6-month schedule. Alternative schedules may be considered, noting that a third dose at 6 months, meeting minimum intervals between doses, is needed for maximum, long-term protection. Completing the hepatitis B vaccine series, preferably beginning at birth, will ensure protection against hepatitis B, hepatitis delta and lower the lifetime risk of liver cancer. Greater than 90% of babies and up to 50% of young children who are not vaccinated and are infected with hepatitis B will have lifelong infection, which makes the birth dose essential to their protection.

There are four, 3-dose vaccine brands approved in the U.S.

  • PreHevbrio PreHevbrio is only approved for adults age 18 and over.

2-Dose Vaccine Series

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Us Infant Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedules

*Please note that the first dose should be given as soon as possible. Additional doses require minimum time intervals between doses in order for the vaccine to be effective.
3-Dose Vaccine Series for Infants

Since 1991, ALL medically stable infants with a birth weight of at least 2,000 g in the U.S. are recommended to receive the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth. The additional 2 doses are given at 1 month and 6 months of age.

4-Dose Vaccine Combination Series for Infants

Combination vaccines, such as the pentavalent and hexavalent vaccines, include protection against 5 or 6 diseases, including hepatitis B. The first shot is usually given at 6 weeks of age, but in order to protect infants from hepatitis B beginning at birth, a monovalent or single dose of the hepatitis B vaccine is also recommended within 24 hours of birth. The hepatitis B vaccine series can then be completed with the pentavalent or hexavalent vaccine with the recommended schedule.

Screen For Contraindications And Precautions

  • Do not administer Heplisav-B to individuals with a history of severe allergic reaction after a previous dose of any hepatitis B vaccine or to any component of Heplisav-B, including yeast.
  • Consult the package insert for precautions, warnings, and contraindications and Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety for additional information and possible side effects.
  • See Vaccine Administration and SIRVA infographic for more information about proper IM vaccine administration.
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    Other Reported Adverse Events And Conditions

    While serious events and chronic illnesses such as chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and sudden infant death syndrome have been alleged or reported following HB vaccination, no evidence of a causal association has been demonstrated in a number of studies.

    Indications For Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Green Cross Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin 0.5 Ml HepaBSV, Per Box 1 Vial ...

    HepB vaccine is a routine childhood vaccination .

    HepB vaccine also is indicated for all adults aged 19 through 59 years who have not been previously vaccinated.

    HepB vaccine also is indicated for adults aged 60 years and older who have not been previously vaccinated and who have any of the following:

    • A desire for protection from hepatitis B

    • A sexually active lifestyle in people who are not in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship

    • Need for evaluation or treatment of a sexually transmitted infection

    • Current or recent use of illicit injection drugs

    • Sex between men

    • Employment in which workers may be exposed to blood or other potentially infectious body fluids

    • Diabetes in people < 60 years and sometimes in those 60 years

    • End-stage renal disease

    • Household contact and/or sexual contact with people who are positive for hepatitis B surface antigen

    • Travel to endemic areas

    • Time spent in correctional facilities or in facilities that provide sexually transmitted infection treatment, HIV testing and treatment, drug abuse treatment and prevention services, services to injection-drug users or men who have sex with men, or care for patients with developmental disabilities or with end-stage renal disease

    The combination HepA and HepB vaccine can be used in people 18 years who have indications for either hepatitis A or hepatitis B vaccine and who have not been previously vaccinated with one of the vaccine components.

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    What Are Side Effects Of Inactivated Viral Vaccines

    Side effects of inactivated viral vaccines may include the following:

    • Injection site reactions include:
  • Triggering of shingles in pre-exposed individuals
  • Precipitation or aggravation of autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis
  • Information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible side effects, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. Check with your doctor or pharmacist to make sure these drugs do not cause any harm when you take them along with other medicines. Never stop taking your medication and never change your dose or frequency without consulting your doctor.

    Persons New To Canada

    Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals, as necessary. In many countries outside of Canada, HB vaccine is in limited use.

    All persons from a country that is endemic for HB should be assessed and vaccinated against HB if not immune and not infected. Individuals born in developing countries are more likely to be carriers of HB, necessitating vaccination of their sexual and household contacts based on review of their serologic test results. HB vaccine is recommended for all household contacts whose families have immigrated to Canada from areas in which there is a high prevalence of HB and who may be exposed to HB carriers through their extended families or when visiting their country of origin.

    Children adopted from countries in which there is a high prevalence of HB infection should be screened for HBsAg and, if positive, household or close contacts in the adopting family should be immunized before adoption or as soon as possible thereafter. Adults going to pick-up children from these countries should be vaccinated before departure. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional information.

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    How You Can Protect Your Baby

    Talk to your midwife and register your baby with a GP as soon as you can so that their vaccines can beordered. You can find a list of local GPs by town or postcode.

    Make sure that your baby:

    • has their vaccines at the right age from birth
    • completes the full course of vaccines
    • has a blood test for infection when they reach 1 year of age

    Facts About Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis B Vaccine for Babies – Importance and Recommended Schedule
    • Two billion people, or one in three, have been infected with hepatitis B worldwide. Of these, almost 300 million live with chronic hepatitis B. This means about 1 of every 26 people throughout the world are living with a chronic hepatitis B infection.
    • Each year about 900,000 people die from hepatitis B worldwide, and about 2,000 of these deaths occur in the United States.
    • Hepatitis B is transmitted through blood and is 100 times more infectious than HIV. An estimated one billion infectious viruses are in one-fifth of a teaspoon of blood of an infected person, so exposure to even a very small amount, such as on a shared toothbrush, can cause infection.
    • Hepatitis B is sometimes referred to as the silent epidemic because most people who are infected do not experience any symptoms.
    • Liver cancer accounted for about 5% of cancer deaths in the U.S. during 2020.
    • Almost half of liver cancers are caused by chronic infection with hepatitis B.
    • The World Health Organization recommends the inclusion of hepatitis B vaccine in immunization programs of all countries in 2019, more than 8 of 10 infants born throughout the world received three doses of hepatitis B vaccine.

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    How Do You Catch Hepatitis B Virus

    Blood from a person infected with hepatitis B virus is heavily contaminated with the virus. As a result, contact with blood is the most likely way to catch hepatitis B. Even casual contact with the blood of someone who is infected can cause infection.

    Healthcare workers are at high risk of catching the disease, as are intravenous drug users and newborns of mothers infected with the virus. Sexual contact can also expose people to infection. The virus is also present in low levels in saliva.

    Do The Benefits Of The Hepatitis B Vaccine Outweigh Its Risks

    Every year in the United States about 2,000 people die following an overwhelming hepatitis B virus infection. In addition, every year about 22,000 people are infected with hepatitis B. Some of them will remain chronically infected, putting them at high risk of the long-term consequences of hepatitis B virus infection: cirrhosis and liver cancer. In fact, with the exception of influenza and COVID-19 viruses, hepatitis B virus causes more severe disease and death in the United States than any other vaccine-preventable disease. On the other hand, the hepatitis B vaccine is an extremely rare cause of a severe allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. To date, no one has died from this reaction, but it is theoretically possible that this could occur.

    Because hepatitis B virus is a common cause of severe disease and death in the United States, and because the hepatitis B vaccine does not cause permanent damage or death, the benefits of the hepatitis B vaccine clearly outweigh its risks.

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    What Are The Risks Of Not Getting The Vaccine

    The main risk of the baby not getting the vaccine is that they may contract the hepatitis B virus.

    Hepatitis B primarily attacks the liver, causing inflammation that can damage this organ over time. An acute infection lasts for less than 6 months and may cause no symptoms in some people.

    Many acute infections resolve without treatment. If the infection persists for 6 months or more, doctors will refer to it as chronic. Chronic infections increase a persons risk of damage to the liver over time.

    As this damage builds up, it can scar the liver, which is known as cirrhosis. This long-term damage may result in other complications, including liver cancer.

    According to the WHO, about

    Common And Local Adverse Events

    Hepatitis B

    HB vaccine

    HB vaccine is well tolerated. Reactions are generally mild and transient, and include: irritability, headache, fatigue and injection site reactions in 10% or more of recipients.

    HAHB vaccine

    There is no increase in adverse events when HAHB vaccine is compared with HA vaccine given alone or concomitantly with HB vaccine at a different injection site. When the adult formulation of HAHB vaccine is given to children in the 2 dose schedule, there is no increase in adverse events compared with those occurring after administration of the pediatric formulation of HAHB vaccine.

    DTaP-HB-IPV-Hib vaccine

    Reactions are usually mild and transient, and include fever, irritability, restlessness and injection site reactions .

    HBIg

    Headache, diarrhea, fever, urticaria, angioedema and injection site reactions may occur.

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    Which Adults Should Be Vaccinated Against Hepatitis B

    According to CDC recommendations, adults in the following groups are recommended to receive hepatitis B vaccine:

    General

    • All people age 18 years and younger.
    • Anyone 19 years and older who wants to be protected from hepatitis B.

    People at risk for infection by sexual exposure

    • Sex partners of people who are hepatitis B surface antigen -positive.
    • Sexually active people who are not in long-term, mutually monogamous relationships.
    • People seeking evaluation or treatment for a sexually transmitted disease.
    • Men who have sex with men.

    People at risk for infection by percutaneous or permucosal exposure to blood or body fluids

    • Current or recent illegal injection drug users.
    • Household contacts of people who are HBsAg-positive.
    • Residents and staff of facilities for developmentally challenged people.
    • Healthcare and public safety workers with reasonably anticipated risk for exposure to blood or blood-contaminated body fluids.
    • People with end-stage renal disease, including predialysis, hemo-, peritoneal- and home-dialysis patients.

    Others

    • International travelers to regions with intermediate or high levels of endemic HBV infection.
    • People with chronic liver disease.
    • People with HIV infection.
    • People with diabetes who are age 19 through 59 years. For those age 60 and older, clinicians should make a determination of need for
    • vaccination based on their patientsâ situation.

    In a future issue, we will review the various hepatitis B serologic tests, who needs testing, and when they need it .

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