Wednesday, November 29, 2023

Symptoms Of Hepatitis B In Females

Hepatitis C Symptoms In Women

What if a pregnant woman is found positive for Hepatitis B? | Apollo Hospitals

Liver disease C infection isnt the like other sort of liver disease. Heres where to discover why and to discover the symptoms and signs to look out for.

Liver disease C is an infection caused by the hepatitis C infection . There are various types of liver disease infections, including hepatitis A, B, D, and E. Amongst the various infections, liver disease C is the most serious because it can be chronic and cause severe liver damage.

The infection spreads out through contact with infected blood, so particular individuals have a higher risk of infection. This includes healthcare workers exposed to blood and drug users.

Hepatitis C impacts both males and females As a whole, the symptoms and complications of the disease are the same for both sexes. But the infection can impact women in a different way.

Hepatitis C And Liver Transplantation

Some people with advanced hepatitis C infection and severe liver damage undergo a liver transplant, but that doesnt eradicate the infection. Patients with active infection at the time of the transplant will develop hepatitis C in the new liver. Sometimes the infection recurs even when patients are on antiviral treatment. Those who have achieved sustained virologic response meaning no detectable virus in the blood 6 months after treatment have a very low risk of developing hepatitis C infection in the new liver.

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Pregnancy And Hepatitis B

Treatment for Hepatitis B during pregnancy is available. It should be noted that any women infected with Hepatitis B during pregnancy should be treated on time under proper supervision so as the disease does not reach the infant.

Infants may die after being infected from Hepatitis B according to a survey conducted by a leading hospital of United States. As a treatment, antiviral therapy with tenofovir is recommended by many physicians.

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Is Hepatitis B Contagious

Hepatitis B is highly contagious. Its transmitted through contact with blood and certain other bodily fluids. Although the virus can be found in saliva, its not transmitted through sharing utensils or kissing. Its also not transmitted through sneezing, coughing, or breastfeeding.

Symptoms of hepatitis B may not appear for 3 months after exposure. Symptoms can last for several weeks.

But even without symptoms, you can still transmit the infection to others. The virus can live outside the body and remains infectious for at least

Hepatitis B is a highly contagious condition. Its associated with many serious complications, some of which can be life threatening.

But there are many treatment options available and multiple ways you can prevent infection, including getting vaccinated.

If you suspect you may have been exposed to hepatitis B, its important to talk with a doctor to prevent infection and determine the best course of treatment for you.

Causes Of Acute Viral Hepatitis

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Acute viral hepatitis can be caused by five major hepatitis viruses :

Other viruses can also cause acute viral hepatitis. These viruses include the Epstein-Barr virus , which is the virus that causes infectious mononucleosis Infectious Mononucleosis Epstein-Barr virus causes a number of diseases, including infectious mononucleosis. The virus is spread through kissing. Symptoms vary, but the most common are extreme fatigue, fever, sore throat… read more .

Engaging in certain activities, such as getting a tattoo or body piercing, sharing needles to inject drugs, or having multiple sex partners, increases the risk of developing hepatitis.

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How Is It Spread

Hepatitis B virus is spread by contact with body fluidsthat carry the virus, such as:

Hepatitis B is spread by contact with infected body fluids, mostly by:

  • Sexual contact:
  • Sharing unclean sex toys
  • Needle sharing:
    • During illegal drug or drug equipment use
  • Contact with blood:
    • Open sores of an infected person
    • Sharing items such as razors or toothbrushes with an infected person
    • Being tattooed or pierced with tools that were not properly cleaned
  • Pregnancy and birth:
    • Hepatitis B can spread to babies during pregnancy and birth.

    Infected motherscan pass hepatitisB to their babiesduring childbirth.

    Hepatitis B is rarely spread from a blood transfusion because:

    • Hepatitis B tests are done on all donated blood.
    • Blood and blood products that test positive for hepatitis B are safely destroyed. None are used for transfusions.
    • There is no risk of getting hepatitis B when donating or giving blood.

    How Is Hepatitis B Treated

    Your healthcare provider will treat you based on what type of hepatitis B you have, acute or chronic.

    Acute hepatitis B infections

    If you develop an acute form of the condition, you probably wont need medical treatment. Instead, your doctor will likely suggest that you get plenty of rest, drink lots of fluids and maintain a healthy diet to support your body as it fights off the infection.

    Chronic hepatitis B infections

    If you have chronic hepatitis B, you might be a candidate for drug therapy. Usually, drug therapy is used only if you have active liver disease. There are seven drugs that are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat hepatitis B. Two are injectable forms of interferon, while the five other antivirals are tablets.

    You will need to take these medications every day. They help by slowing the viruss ability to multiply in your system. This helps reduce swelling and liver damage. Youll need to be regularly monitored for early signs of liver damage and liver cancer. Your healthcare provider will want to see you once or twice a year.

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    How Do I Test For Hepatitis C

    A simple blood test will show whether you have the virus. You may also be given an extra test to see if your liver is damaged.

    If youâve got hepatitis C you should be tested for other STIs. Its important that you tell your recent sexual partner/s so they can also get tested and treated. Many people who have hepatitis C do not notice anything wrong, and by telling them you can help to stop the virus being passed on. It can also stop you from getting the infection again.

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    Immunisation For Hepatitis B

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    Immunisation is the best protection against hepatitis B infection. A course of vaccination is recommended for all babies and people in high-risk groups.

    Immunisation can be with a vaccine against hepatitis B alone or with a combination vaccine. To be immunised, contact your doctor or local council.

    Protection against hepatitis B is available free of charge under the National Immunisation Program Schedule. In Victoria, immunisation against hepatitis B is free for:

    • Babies at birth immunisation against hepatitis B alone as soon as possible after birth.
    • Babies at 2, 4 and 6 months combination immunisation in the form of a diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, hepatitis B, polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine .
    • Premature babies at 12 months premature babies born under 32 weeks gestation or under 2,000g birth weight receive a single booster dose.
    • Children up to and including 9 years of age.
    • People aged less than 20 years having a catch-up immunisation.
    • Refugees and humanitarian entrants aged 20 years and above.

    In Victoria, free hepatitis B vaccine is provided for people who are at increased risk of infection, including:

    Immunisation is also recommended, but not necessarily free, for people who are at increased risk of infection, including:

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    How Can I Get Free Or Low

    The hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccines are covered under most insurance plans.

    • If you have insurance, check with your insurance provider to find out whats included in your plan.
    • Medicare Part B covers hepatitis B vaccines for people at risk.
    • If you have Medicaid, the benefits covered are different in each state. Check with your state’s program.

    Find a clinic near you where you can get vaccines for hepatitis A and B.

    Symptoms Of Chronic Hepatitis C

  • Severe exhaustion
  • Skin itching and/or skin rashes
  • Stool that is black or white
  • Jaundice yellowing of the skin and eyes
  • Edema of the lower extremities
  • Excessive fluid accumulation in the abdomen
  • Acute Hepatitis C Recognition and Transmission

    Since the symptoms of acute Hepatitis C are so vague, more information is needed to suspect this virus as the cause of fatigue and bellyache.

    The following information is important regarding acute Hepatitis C:

    • Symptom time frame In those individuals who develop symptoms from acute Hepatitis C infection, the average time from exposure to symptoms ranges from 2 to 12 weeks.
    • Contagious Even if a person with Hepatitis C has no symptoms, he or she can still spread the Hepatitis C virus to others.
    • How you get it The Hepatitis C virus is blood-borne, meaning contaminated blood must enter your bloodstream for infection to occur.

    It is important to understand how the virus is transmitted to be able to recognize what early symptoms of Hepatitis C could be.

    The Hepatitis C virus itself is small and resilient. A microscopic amount of blood can transmit the virus and it can live outside of your body in open air for at least four days. Inside of a syringe, the virus can live for several weeks. As such, sharing injection drug equipment presents the highest risk for Hepatitis C transmission.

    Hepatitis C transmission should be suspected if:

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    Prevent Hepatitis B Infections In Newborns

    If you are pregnant and have hepatitis B, talk with your doctor about lowering the risk that the infection will spread to your baby. Your doctor will check your virus levels during pregnancy. If virus levels are high, your doctor may recommend treatment during pregnancy to lower virus levels and reduce the chance that hepatitis B will spread to your baby. Your doctor may refer you to a liver specialist to find out if you need hepatitis B treatment and to check for liver damage.

    When it is time to give birth, tell the doctor and staff who deliver your baby that you have hepatitis B. A health care professional should give your baby the hepatitis B vaccine and HBIG right after birth. The vaccine and HBIG will greatly reduce the chance of your baby getting the infection.

    How Long Does Hepatitis A Last

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    How long it lasts can vary from person to person. Symptoms can range from mild to severe. Some things to keep in mind:

    • Mild hepatitis A may last 1 to 2 weeks.
    • Most people are much better within 3 weeks.
    • Young children who get symptoms usually get better within 2 months.

    If you have a severe infection, it can cause problems for several months. You may need to stay in the hospital.

    Some people have symptoms that can last more than 3 months or have problems that come and go for 3 to 9 months.

    Show Sources

    CDC: Travelers Health: Hepatitis A,Viral Hepatitis, Hepatitis A Questions and Answers for the Public,Hepatitis A Vaccine.

    National Health Service: Hepatitis A Complications.

    Mandell, G.L., Bennett, J.E., Dolin, R., editors, Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 7th edition, Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 2009.

    Long, S.S., editor, Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 3rd edition, Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 2008.

    American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases: Hepatitis A Vaccine Recommendations.

    Mayo Clinic: âHepatitis A.â

    UpToDate: âHepatitis A virus infection in adults: Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis.â

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    How Do You Get Hepatitis A

    Hepatitis A is found in an infected persons stool .10

    Hepatitis A is spread through:11

    • Eating or drinking contaminated food or water
    • You can get hepatitis A by eating food prepared by a person with the virus who didnt wash his or her hands after using the bathroom and then touched the food.
    • You can get hepatitis A by eating raw or undercooked shellfish that came from sewage-contaminated water.
  • Touching unclean diaper changing areas or toilets. If an infant or toddler had hepatitis A and soiled the changing area, others who come into contact with the stool could become infected.
  • You are more likely to get hepatitis A if you travel out of the country to a developing country with poor sanitation or without access to clean water and have not gotten vaccinated for hepatitis A.12 Ask your doctor if you need a hepatitis A vaccination.

    Can Hepatitis C Be Prevented

    There is no vaccine for hepatitis C. But you can help protect yourself from hepatitis C infection by:

    • Not sharing drug needles or other drug materials
    • Wearing gloves if you have to touch another persons blood or open sores
    • Making sure your tattoo artist or body piercer uses sterile tools and unopened ink
    • Not sharing personal items such toothbrushes, razors, or nail clippers
    • Using a latex condom during sex. If your or your partner is allergic to latex, you can use polyurethane condoms.

    NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

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    Is Hepatitis B Curable

    Theres currently no known cure for hepatitis B, but there are many ways you can prevent infection and avoid transmitting the virus to others.

    The most effective and safe way to prevent hepatitis B is to get vaccinated. You can also use barrier methods, like condoms, when having sex and avoid sharing needles.

    What Are The Symptoms Of Hepatitis B

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    Many people with hepatitis B dont have any symptoms. If you do get symptoms you may not notice them until two or three months after infection. You can pass the virus on to others even if you dont have symptoms.

    There are two types of infection acute and chronic.

    Acute symptoms can include:

    • flu-like symptoms, including tiredness, fever and aches and pains

    • feeling and/or being sick

    • yellowing of the skin and eyes

    • pale, grey coloured faeces .

    People who cant fight off acute infection after six months can go on to develop chronic hepatitis B. These include babies, young children and people with a weakened immune system because of HIV. People with chronic hepatitis B are at higher risk of liver failure, liver disease and cancer of the liver.

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    What Is The Outlook For People With Hepatitis B

    The outlook for people with HBV is better now than ever before. You are certainly able to live a full life and help yourself stay healthy. You should make sure to have regular check-ups with a healthcare provider who is qualified to treat hepatitis B, possibly a liver doctor.

    Make sure you are vaccinated against hepatitis A. Check with your healthcare provider or pharmacist before taking other medications or over-the-counter products, including supplements and natural products. These could interfere with your medication or damage your liver. For instance, taking acetaminophen in large doses may harm your liver.

    Follow the usual guidelines for living a healthy life:

    • Eat nutritious foods, choosing from a variety of vegetables, fruits and healthy proteins. It is said that cruciferous vegetables are especially good at protecting the liver.
    • Exercise regularly.
    • Dont smoke and dont drink. Both tobacco and alcohol are bad for your liver.
    • Do things that help you cope with stress, like journaling, talking with others, meditating and doing yoga.
    • Avoid inhaling toxic fumes.

    Who Is At Risk Of Hepatitis B

    Anyone can get hepatitis B if not vaccinated. However, in the U.S., you may be at a higher risk if you:

    • Have sex partners that have hepatitis B
    • Have HIV or another STD
    • Inject drugs or share needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment
    • Live with someone who has hepatitis B
    • Are undergoing dialysis
    • Travel to areas that have moderate to high rates of hepatitis B
    • Work in health care or public safety and are exposed to blood or body fluids on the job
    • Are an infant born to an infected mother

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    How Do People Get The Hbv Virus

    Hepatitis B virus is found in the blood of people with HBV infection. It enters the body through blood-to-blood contact.

    Reliable blood tests for HBV were developed many years ago. Since blood donors and blood products are tested for HBV, this is no longer the typical means of infection.

    In many parts of the world, hepatitis B virus infects more than 8% of the population. HBV-infected women pass the infection to their babies during the birth process. People can also get hepatitis B by sharing needles for injection drug use, through sexual contact with an infected person, by an accidental needlestick with a contaminated needle, or from improperly sterilized medical, acupuncture, piercing, or tattooing equipment.

    Who Is Most Affected

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    In the United States, rates of new HBV infections are highest among adults aged 30-59 years, reflecting low hepatitis B vaccination coverage among adults at risk. The most common risk factor among people with new HBV infections is injecting drugs, related to the opioid crisis.

    The highest rates of chronic hepatitis B infection in the United States occur among foreign-born individuals, especially people born in Asia, the Pacific Islands, and Africa. Approximately 70% of cases in the United States are among people who were born outside of the United States. CDC developed this map of the geographic distribution of hepatitis B around the world – PDF. Other groups who have higher rates of chronic HBV infection include people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men.

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    How Do You Get Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis C is found in an infected persons blood and other body fluids.

    Hepatitis C is usually spread through:

    • Sharing or reusing needles, syringes, and drug preparation equipment such as cookers and cotton when injecting drugs. This is the most common way hepatitis C is spread in the United States. Hands or drug preparation equipment that have even tiny amounts of blood on them can also spread hepatitis C.
    • Accidental needle stick or other sharp instrument injury

    Less common ways to spread hepatitis C:13

    • Birth to a mother who has hepatitis, though this is rare
    • Sharing personal items like razors and toothbrushes
    • Tattoos or body piercings
    • Blood transfusions done in the United States before the 1990s or in other parts of the world where hepatitis C testing is less common

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