Hiv And Hepatitis And Participation In Sport
The Equal Opportunity Act 2010 makes it unlawful in Victoria to fail or refuse to select a person with HIV or hepatitis B or C for a sporting team, or to exclude them from participating in a sporting activity, because they have HIV or hepatitis B or C. People with these viruses are not required to disclose their health status to coaches, sporting teams or sporting organisations. They are entitled to keep the fact that they have HIV, hepatitis B or C confidential.
Days Weeks Months Or Years
Written by Bhavyajyoti Chilukoti | Updated : December 1, 2017 8:27 AM IST
If a person is HIV-positive, then how long does it take for them to get AIDS is a common query that most people have. Given the fact that the human immunodeficiency virus virus can remain dormant in the body before it can lead to an infection and if a person gets infected, will it progress slowly or will the person die within a short time? However, in reality, for an HIV infection to turn into full-blown acquired immune deficiency syndrome , it depends on a lot of factors, says Dr V Sam Prasad, Country Programme Director, AIDS Healthcare Foundation. Here are few Frequently Asked Questions about HIV.
How long does it take to acquire full blown AIDS?
The important thing to keep in the mind is it doesn’t matter whether you suffer from any co-infection or other health problems, it takes the same time for an HIV infection to turn into full-blown AIDS. In India, a span of 8 – 10 years is what it takes for an untreated HIV infection. This includes the HIV-positive patient suffering from various other infections before leading to full-blown AIDS. For the infection to be categorised as full-blown AIDS, the person should harbour more than two to three infections, have a low CD4 count and very high viral load. Read about the diagnosis of HIV and AIDS.
How To Delay The Progression Of Hiv To Aids
How does HIV turn into AIDS? Is it possible to delay the process? Yes. There is currently no cure for AIDS, but the condition can be delayed to give the person a longer period of good health. Each class of the medications works differently to control the virus. It is advisable to use a combination of three drugs from two classes.
- Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors . This class includes drugs like efavirenz, etravirine and nevirapine. These drugs work by disabling a protein required by the HIV virus to reproduce.
- Nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors . This class of drugs includes abacavir. The drugs work by producing faulty protein that resemble those used by the HIV virus to reproduce.
- Protease inhibitors . This class includes atazanavir, darunavir, fosamprenavir and indinavir. These drugs inhibit protease, a protein required by the HIV virus to reproduce.
- Entry or fusion inhibitors. Entry inhibitors include enfuvirtide and maraviroc. These drugs delay the development of AIDS by inhibiting the entry of the HIV virus into the CD4 cells.
- Integrase inhibitors. Integrase inhibitors include raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir. Integrase is a protein used by the HIV virus to insert its DNA into the CD4 cells. These drugs function by inhibiting it.
When to Start Drugs
All people with HIV should be on antiretroviral drugs. However, drugs are particularly necessary in these situations:
Possible Side Effects
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How Does Hcv Spread From Person To Person
HCV is spread mainly through contact with the blood of a person who has HCV. In the United States, HCV is spread mainly by sharing needles or other injection drug equipment with someone who has HCV. HCV can also be spread through sexual contact. While the risk of transmission through sexual contact is low, the risk is increased in people with HIV.
Stage : Chronic Hiv Infection
In stage 2 of HIV, the virus is still present and growing, but at a slower rate than in stage 1. Its common for people to experience no symptoms in this stage. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, stage 2 can last almost 10 years without receiving the appropriate HIV treatment, although, for some, it may progress quicker .
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When Should You Start Treatment For Hepatitis C
With the new antiviral drugs for hepatitis C, it’s now recommended that everyone with hepatitis C shouldn’t wait to be treated, regardless of liver disease severity.
The aim of this treatment is a cure sometimes described as a sustained virologic response. This means that no hepatitis C virus is detectable in your blood six months after youve finished treatment.
How Does Hiv Turn Into Aids
HIV and AIDS are often used interchangeably. However, the two are very different. HIV is a virus. Without treatment, HIV can destroy the immune system and end with AIDS. AIDS is the last stage of the development of HIV. The three stages of HIV infection are acute HIV infection, clinical latency and AIDS. Though there is no cure for HIV, there are drugs available that can delay or even prevent the progression of HIV to AIDS.
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Hiv And Aids Treatment
More than 25 antiretroviral therapy drugs are approved to treat the virus. Your doctor will prescribe a mix of these medications.
The drugs will help stop HIV from making copies of itself. That will keep you healthy and lower your risk of spreading it.
Thereâs no cure for HIV or AIDS. ARTâs goal is to lower your viral load and keep your immune system healthy. The idea is to lower the viral load to âundetectableâ and keep it that way, by taking your medicine every day as prescribed.
How Is Hepatitis C Treated
Treatment for hepatitis C depends on how long you have had the virus.
People with acute infection do not always need treatment because their immune system may clear hepatitis C on its own. If you test positive during the acute stage, your doctor may ask you to come back after a few months to re-test and to see if you need any treatment.
If you develop chronic infection, you will need treatment to help clear the virus. Treatment with drugs called direct-acting antivirals can cure hepatitis in most cases. These are usually taken for 8-12 weeks. Your doctor will also check your liver for any damage.
If youve had hepatitis C in the past, youre not immune to future infections which means you can get it again. You can also still get other types of hepatitis and having hepatitis C together with another type is more serious.
Whether you have symptoms or not, dont have sex until your healthcare professional says you can.
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Hiv Treatment And Prevention
Simple, effective treatments for HIV are widely available in Australia. In addition to protecting the health and wellbeing of people living with HIV, these treatments significantly reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Almost all people on HIV treatments have very low levels of virus in their body. This is called having an undetectable viral load. There is no risk of HIV transmission from a person with an undetectable viral load. This is sometimes referred to as undetectable equals untransmissible, or U=U.
For people who do not have HIV, but may be at higher risk of it, affordable medication is available that is more than 99 per cent effective at preventing HIV. Known as PrEP , this medication is available through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme from your regular GP.
Can Hcv Infection Be Prevented
The best protection against HCV is to never inject drugs. If you do inject drugs, always use new, sterile needles, and do not reuse or share needles, syringes, or other injection drug equipment.
People, including people with HIV, can also take the following steps to reduce their risk of HCV infection:
- Do not share toothbrushes, razors, or other personal items that may come in contact with another personâs blood.
- If you get a tattoo or body piercing, make sure the instruments used are sterile.
- Use condoms during sex. The risk of HCV infection through sexual contact is low, but the risk increases in people with HIV. Condoms also reduce the risk of HIV transmission and infection with other sexually transmitted diseases, such as gonorrhea and syphilis.
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How Does Hbv Spread From Person To Person
HBV is spread through contact with the blood, semen, or other body fluid of a person who has HBV. Among adults in the United States, HBV is spread mainly through sexual contact.
HBV can also spread from person to person in the following ways:
- From contact with the blood or open sores of a person who has HBV
- From an accidental prick or cut from an HBV-contaminated needle or other sharp object
- From a mother who has HBV to her child during childbirth
What Is The Window For Hiv
The HIV window period is the time between exposure to HIV and when it becomes detectable in blood or saliva tests. An HIV test may show a negative result during the window period even if you have HIV. You can still pass the virus to others during this period even though a test didn’t detect the virus.
The HIV window period differs by the testing method used:
- Nucleic acid test : 10 to 33 days after exposure
- Antigen/antibody test : 18 to 45 days after exposure
- Antigen/antibody test : 18 to 90 days after exposure
- Antibody test: 23 to 90 days after exposure
If you think you may have been exposed to HIV but tested negative, it could be because you tested too early. In such cases, you may be advised to return in several weeks or months to get retested.
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Protecting Everyone Involved In Sport Against Hiv And Hepatitis
Consult your sporting organisations infection control policies. Simple and inexpensive procedures can prevent the spread of HIV, hepatitis B and C, including:
- Remember to cover all pre-existing wounds before starting a game.
- Wear protective gloves when giving first aid to bleeding players.
- If someones eyes have been splashed with blood with the eyes open, rinse the area gently but thoroughly with water or normal saline, rinsing away from the nose.
- If blood gets in your mouth spit it out and rinse your mouth with water several times.
- Standard practice is to stop play if a player is bleeding and allow them to return to play only after bleeding is controlled and the wound is properly covered.
- Bandage any wounds that occur, and properly clean any playing surfaces and change any clothes exposed to blood before play restarts.
- Have your own drink bottle and towel, mouth guard and other personal items, including razors, to reduce the possibility of small amounts of blood-to-blood transmission.
- If you are concerned about potential infection, contact a doctor or health information line for further advice.
If a player is injured while playing sport:
- Remember to wear protective gloves when giving first aid to a player who is bleeding.
- Stop the bleeding from the wound.
- Dress the wound.
- Clean up the blood.
Stage : Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
This stage is widely known to be the most serious of the three. The immune system of those with AIDs becomes completely weakened, and they become at risk of experiencing a number of illnesses referred to as opportunistic infections – although these arent as common now with the advancement in medical treatments surrounding HIV and AIDs .
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Tips For Taking Your Medications
Besides knowing “how does HIV turn into AIDS?” You may want to know how to take the medications correctly. Medications for HIV need to be taken consistently. Otherwise, the virus can become resistant to the drugs and reproduce itself faster. Here are a few tips to help you take your medications in the right way and prevent an early onset of AIDS:
- Start taking your medication at the right time. When you start taking antiretroviral drugs, you will need to keep taking them for the entire life. So make sure you are ready to this serious commitment. Before starting taking ARVs, you can test yourself for consistency by taking a piece of candy at a specific time every day. Your performance with this will help you know whether you are ready to start taking the drugs.
- Have a reminder. You can choose to set an alarm or a reminder on your phone or simply check off a to-do list. This will help you always remember to take your drugs.
- Store the drugs correctly. Ideally, you should keep them at a spot where you can always see them, such as near to your bed. When travelling, you should have a container with the medications.
- Have sufficient amounts of the medications at all times. It is important to keep more than your need of the drugs at all times in case anything happens. Whenever you almost run short of the drugs, you need to visit the pharmacist to avoid a last minute rush.
Does Hiv Cause Cancer
Human immunodeficiency virus is a virus that affects the immune system, so the body is less able to get rid of other infections that can cause cancer. HIV increases the risk of Kaposis sarcoma, lymphoma, eye cancer, cervical cancer and anal cancer.
Anti-retroviral therapy can help keep HIV under control and reduce the risk of developing HIV-linked cancer.
People with HIV who develop acquired immune deficiency syndrome are at higher risk of cancer than those who dont develop AIDS.
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Sport And Transmission Of Hiv And Hepatitis
The risk of transmission of HIV or hepatitis B or C from an infected player is:
- negligible for other athletes and players involved in contact sports
- negligible for first aid officers who follow infection control guidelines
- zero for coaches, trainers, officials and spectators.
HIV and hepatitis B and C cannot spread through:
- sweat or saliva from other sportspeople
- sharing drink bottles with team members
- hugging or shaking hands.
Chronic Hiv Infection Symptoms
Even after the acute infection has been controlled, the virus does not disappear. Instead, it goes into a period of chronic HIV infection in which the virus persists at lower levels in the bloodstream and continues to “silently” kill CD4 T-cells.
At the same time, the virus will imbed itself in tissues throughout the body called latent reservoirs. These reservoirs effectively hide HIV from detection by the immune system.
Clinical latency is a relatively long period in which there may be few, in any, notable signs or symptoms. If symptoms do occur, they tend to be non-specific and easily mistaken for other illnesses.
Some of the more common OIs experienced during chronic HIV infection include:
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Preventing Hepatitis C Infection
Here’s how you can protect yourself against hepatitis C:
- Do not share needles, syringes or any other equipment to inject drugs.
- Use latex gloves for fisting, with a new glove with each partner.
- Do not share pots of lubricant.
- Do not share sex toys, or put a new condom on the sex toy each time you use it.
- Properly used condoms provide excellent protection against the transmission of HIV, hepatitis C and other sexually transmitted infections.
- A caesarean delivery can reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of the virus.
Theres no vaccine for hepatitis C. Unlike hepatitis A and B, having hepatitis C once doesnt mean youre then immune from getting it again. Its possible to be reinfected with the hepatitis C virus.
Should People With Hiv Get Tested For Hcv
Every person who has HIV should get tested for HCV. Usually, a person will first get an HCV antibody test. This test checks for HCV antibodies in the blood. HCV antibodies are disease-fighting proteins that the body produces in response to HCV infection.
A positive result on an HCV antibody test means that the person has been exposed to HCV at some point in their life. However, a positive antibody test does not necessarily mean the person has HCV. For this reason, a positive result on an HCV antibody test must be confirmed by a second test. This follow-up test checks to see if HCV is present in the personâs blood. A positive result on this test confirms that a person has HCV.
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Hepatitis C Symptoms And Treatment
Hepatitis C is part of a group of hepatitis viruses that attack the liver. It is commonly found in infected blood. It is also rarely found in semen and vaginal fluids.
The virus is usually passed on through using contaminated needles and syringes or other items with infected blood on them. It can also be passed on through unprotected sex, especially when blood is present.
It often has no noticeable symptoms. Some peoples bodies can clear the infection on their own but others may develop chronic hepatitis C and will need to take antiviral treatment to cure the infection and prevent liver damage.
- The basics
Does Ebv Cause Cancer
The Epstein Barr virus increases the risk of some cancer types. But, for most people that have the virus, it will not cause them any problems.
Its not possible to predict who will develop EBV-linked cancer and who wont. But there are other important things you can do to reduce your risk of cancer, such as not smoking, keeping a healthy weight and cutting down on alcohol.
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