Sunday, November 27, 2022

Can Hepatitis C Be Transmitted

Why Is It So Important To Take Hepatitis C Drugs Correctly

How Is Hepatitis Transmitted?

Taking any medicine correctly is extremely important. Taking medicines correctly means:

  • not skipping doses
  • taking the medicine as instructed, such as with or without food
  • not running out of the medicine before you have picked up your refill
  • not stopping the treatment earlier than planned
  • For hepatitis C drugs, these issues are especially important because, if a medicine is not taken correctly, it may not kill the virus completely. Then, because the virus has “seen” the drug, it learns how to mutate and change in ways that allow it to escape the drug and avoid getting killed off. This is called drug resistance.

    Developing drug resistance is a serious issue. It means that the treatment may not work and that the patient may not respond to future treatments.

    To prevent drug resistance, it is important to take any medication correctly, but especially DAAs such as Harvoni, Mavyret, Epclusa, and Zepatier.

    Resistance can develop quickly. It is very important to take these new antiviral medications according to instructions, on schedule, and not to skip or reduce doses.

    Articles On Hepatitis C

    If you’ve just been diagnosed with hepatitis C, you may wonder how you got it and worry about passing on the virus to a loved one. If you’ve had the disease for a long time without knowing it, you could dwell on every little incident in the past where you might have accidentally exposed a family member to the disease.

    It’s important to remember that hepatitis C isn’t easy to catch. If you take a few precautions, it’s almost impossible to pass on the disease to someone else.

    How Can You Prevent Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis B: Vaccination is the best way to prevent all of the ways that hepatitis B is transmitted. People with HIV who do not have active HBV infection should be vaccinated against it. In addition to the 3-dose series of hepatitis B vaccine given over 6 months, as of 2017, there is a 2-dose series given over 1 month.

    Hepatitis C: No vaccine exists for HCV and no effective pre- or postexposure prophylaxis is available. The best way to prevent hepatitis C infection is to never inject drugs or to stop injecting drugs by getting into and staying in drug treatment. If you continue injecting drugs, always use new, sterile needles or syringes, and never reuse or share needles or syringes, water, or other drug preparation equipment.

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    Common Symptoms Of Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis C symptoms can show up between 2 and 12 weeks after being exposed to the virus. In many cases, though, there are no symptoms at allâuntil the infection causes serious health complications. Itâs possible for people to have HCV for many years and not know it due to the absence of symptoms.

    When hepatitis C symptoms do occur, they may include:

    • Joint pain
    • Pain in the upper right part of the stomach
    • Jaundice
    • Nausea

    How Hepatitis C Is Transmitted

    Hepatitis is an alphabet of viruses to watch out for

    Sharing needles and other equipment for drug use is the most common way of spreading the hepatitis C virus. But there are other ways and risk factors.

    Thinkstock

    Hepatitis C is a type of hepatitis, or inflammation of the liver, caused by the hepatitis C virus . When a person contracts hepatitis C, it can take 2 to 12 weeks from exposure until the onset of any symptoms, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .

    Between 20 and 30 percent of people infected with HCV develop symptoms of acute hepatitis C. But in many cases of acute hepatitis C, people with HCV have no symptoms. About three-quarters of people with HCV will develop complications, including a chronic HCV infection that can last a lifetime.

    Also Check: How Do You Get Infected By Hepatitis C

    How Do You Prevent Hepatitis C

    There is no vaccine for hepatitis C but there are a number of ways to reduce the risk of infection.

    Never share needles and syringes or other items that may be contaminated with infected blood, even old or dried blood can contain the virus.

    Only have tattoos, body piercings or acupuncture in a professional setting, where new, sterile needles are used

    You can also stop the spread of the virus by practising safer sex. Use condoms, especially during anal sex, rough sex or if youre menstruating. Use dental dams and latex gloves for rimming, fingering and fisting. Knowing the status of your sexual partner is another important way to stay safe.

    If you have HIV, taking your antiretroviral treatment keeps your immune system strong. This way so youre less likely to get other infections, including hepatitis C. For more details on hepatitis C and HIV read our in detail tab.

    Taking pre-exposure prophylaxis , the contraceptive pill or any other type of contraception apart from condoms doesnt protect you from hepatitis C and other STIs.

    Having regular STI tests is one of the best ways to look after your sexual health. If you are having sex with multiple partners, its even more important to use condoms and get tested regularly even if you dont have any symptoms.

    If youve been diagnosed with hepatitis C you should avoid sex until you have finished your treatment and a health care professional says its safe.

    What Are The Symptoms Of Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis C can develop differently, depending on if it becomes an acute or chronic infection. For about 60 to 75% of individuals, no symptoms will be experienced .

    If present, the symptoms of hepatitis C infection include fever, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, stomach pain, tiredness, joint pain, dark urine, pale feces, and yellowing of the skin and eyes . Symptoms last about 2 to 12 weeks. Health Canada states that about 60 to 70% of people with hepatitis C do not develop symptoms until their liver has already been damaged.

    About 75% of individuals with an acute infection will develop a chronic condition. With chronic hepatitis C infection, about 25% of individuals will recover on their own . Symptoms of chronic infection include nausea, pruritus , malaise, and abdominal pain.

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    How Does Hepatitis C Progress

    When someone is first infected with hepatitis C, most likely they have no symptoms and are unaware. Occasionally people experience fatigue, loss of appetite, weakness or sometimes having a yellow color in their skin or eyes. Although having any symptoms at all is rare, if they do occur, they usually go away within a few weeks.

    Around 15-25% of people who are infected will spontaneously fight off the virus on their own and they will not have a chronic hepatitis C infection and no long term damage occurs.

    But around 75-85% of people will develop chronic infection. Most of the time, people with chronic hepatitis C have no symptoms at the time of infection and no symptoms for years or even decades of chronic infection. The virus will be with them until they are successfully treated with hepatitis C medications.

    Around 10-20% of people with chronic infection will slowly have gradual damage in the liver over years and will eventually develop cirrhosis . This can take 20 years or more from the time of the initial infection.

    Cirrhosis is the replacement of liver cells with permanent scar tissue. Cirrhosis can lead to problems such as bleeding from veins in the esophagus, fluid buildup in the belly, and damaged brain function.Approximately 15% of people with cirrhosis will develop liver cancer during their lifetime. Drinking excessively can double the chance of liver cancer in people infected with HCV.

    Symptoms Of Hepatitis C

    How is Hepatitis B & C transmitted? | Apollo Hospitals

    It is very important to know that not everyone with hepatitis C has symptoms. The only way to know if you have hepatitis is by talking to your doctor and getting a blood test.

    Many people living with hepatitis C feel well and only have symptoms once the disease has progressed and there is serious liver damage.

    If you do not have symptoms this does not mean that the virus isnt causing damage.

    When first infected, some people may find:

    • their urine becomes dark
    • their eyes and skin turn yellow
    • they experience a minor flu-like illness.

    These symptoms may disappear within a few weeks, but this does not necessarily mean that the infection has been cleared.

    Over time, symptoms that may develop include:

    • tiredness and fatigue
    • flu-like symptoms
    • pain in the abdomen where the liver is located
    • not feeling hungry and indigestion.

    Around 30% of people who have been infected may clear the virus from their blood naturally, with no treatment, within 6 months. These people no longer have the hepatitis C virus and are not infectious, but will always have hepatitis C antibodies in their blood. The presence of hepatitis C antibodies shows that someone has been exposed to the virus, but does not offer any immunity against hepatitis C. People can become reinfected after clearing the virus naturally, or after treatment.

    Read Also: Can Hepatitis B Virus Be Cured

    If You Notice Symptoms See A Doctor Right Away

    Symptoms of hepatitis C include the following:

    • Jaundice a yellowish tone to the eyes and skin
    • Mild, chronic right belly pain
    • Nausea
    • Loss of appetite
    • Fatigue

    If you believe you have been exposed to hepatitis C or notice any symptoms, visit your primary care doctor as soon as possible. If you test positive for the virus, your doctor can refer you to a hepatologist to discuss your options.

    “I strongly encourage all baby boomers and others who are at high risk to get tested, even if you don’t look or feel sick,” Reau says. “If you do have hepatitis C, the earlier we discover it, the more likely we can prevent it from progressing and causing more serious damage.”

    Poor Infection Control For Tattooing And Piercing

    The notes that HCV may be transmitted by receiving tattoos or piercings from unregulated settings with poor infection control standards.

    Commercially licensed tattooing and piercing businesses are generally thought to be safe.

    More informal settings may not have adequate safeguards to help avoid the spread of infections. Receiving a tattoo or piercing in settings such as in a prison or in a home with friends carries a of HCV transmission

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    Can I Get Reinfected With Hepatitis C

    If you become infected with hepatitis C infection and then clear the virus , yes, it is possible for you to become infected again.

    The chance of another infection with hepatitis C is much, much less than the chance of a first-time infection, but it is not impossible. It has happened in people who continue to use injection drugs, and some studies suggest that it happens even more often in people who are also HIV positive.

    In other words, having had hepatitis C once does not make you “immune” to getting hepatitis C again.

    The best way to avoid reinfection is to reduce risky behaviors that can result in exposure to the hepatitis C virus: Do not use injection drugs, do not share needles for any reason, avoid blood-to-blood exposures with others, and use condoms if you are sexually active with a new partner or with a partner who has used injection drugs.

    The research in this area is ongoing, and we will continue to learn more about this very important topic. But for now, preventing re-exposure to the hepatitis C virus is the only sure way of avoiding infection and reinfection with hepatitis C.

    Pregnancy And Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis C

    Should pregnant women be tested for HCV antibodies?

    Yes. All pregnant women should be screened for anti-HCV during each pregnancy, except in settings where the prevalence of HCV infection is < 0.1% . Pregnant women with known risk factors should be tested during each pregnancy, regardless of setting prevalence. Any pregnant women testing positive for anti-HCV should receive a PCR test for HCV RNA to determine current infection status.

    Can a mother with hepatitis C infect her infant during birth?

    The overall risk of an infected mother transmitting HCV to her infant is approximately 4%8% per pregnancy . Transmission occurs during pregnancy or childbirth, and no prophylaxis is available to protect the newborn from infection. The risk is significantly higher if the mother has a high HCV viral load, or is coinfected with HIV with which the rate of transmission ranges from 8%15% . Most infants infected with HCV at birth have no symptoms.

    Should a woman with hepatitis C be advised against breastfeeding?

    When should children born to HCV-infected mothers be tested to see if they were infected at birth?

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    Treatments For Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis C can be treated with medicines that stop the virus multiplying inside the body. These usually need to be taken for several weeks.

    Until recently, most people would have taken 2 main medicines called pegylated interferon and ribavirin .

    Tablet-only treatments are now available.

    These new hepatitis C medicines have been found to make treatment more effective, are easier to tolerate, and have shorter treatment courses.

    They include sofosbuvir and daclatasvir.

    Using the latest medications, more than 90% of people with hepatitis C may be cured.

    But it’s important to be aware that you will not be immune to the infection and should take steps to reduce your risk of becoming infected again.

    Can Males Transmit Hcv To A Fetus

    It is unlikely that males can transmit HCV to the fetus through sperm during conception.

    A 2004 review of studies investigating assisted reproduction found that while some studies have detected HCV in sperm, the evidence suggests that ejaculated sperm is usually safe to use in fertility treatments, such as in vitro fertilization.

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    Can You Have Hep C And Not Know It

    We said this illness is sneaky, and in fact, most people with hepatitis C dont have any symptoms at the time they are diagnosed, says Dr. Goff. That makes it difficult to trace exactly where and when someone contracted the virus. Unfortunately, it also gives the virus time to wreak havoc on the liver before you feel sick enough to seek treatment.

    Until we started actively screening the population, patients could be infected with hepatitis C and have absolutely no idea they had it, Dr. Fox says. Weve had to change our screening recommendations over time so that were not only testing people who self-report a history of a risk factor.

    Currently, the CDC recommends all adults get screened for hepatitis C at least once in their lifetime, and pregnant women should be screened during each pregnancy. For people with ongoing risk factorsfor example, for people who regularly inject drugs or share needlesmore frequent testing is recommended.

    How Is Hepatitis C Spread

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    Hepatitis C is spread person-to-person usually by direct contact with another person’s blood who is infected with hepatitis C virus. Individuals that share needles are at a high risk to become infected. Surgical and other instruments that are not properly decontaminated can also spread hepatitis C to others. Moreover, some patients that receive organ transplants from individuals that have the virus, but no symptoms, can transmit the disease to the organ transplant recipient.

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    Different Types Of Hepatitis

    The different types of viral hepatitis, which also includes hepatitis A and B, are transmitted in different ways. For instance, the hepatitis A virus is transmitted through contaminated food and drink, while the hepatitis B virus is spread through contact with various bodily fluids, including blood, semen, and vaginal secretions.

    Hepatitis C is less transmissible than A and B because you mainly get it through blood contact, though it can be spread through sexual contact. But unlike A and B, there is no vaccine for C, though research is under way. According to the CDC, hepatitis C is responsible for more deaths in the United States than any other infectious disease.

    While some acute infections of hepatitis C spontaneously clear on their own, prior infection does not protect against a future infection with the same or a different strain of the virus. There are six primary strains, or genotypes, of the hepatitis C virus, and each responds to different medications.

    Complications Of Hepatitis C

    If the infection is left untreated for many years, some people with hepatitis C will develop scarring of the liver .

    Over time, this can cause the liver to stop working properly.

    In severe cases, life-threatening problems, such as liver failure, where the liver loses most or all of its functions, or liver cancer, can eventually develop.

    Treating hepatitis C as early as possible can help reduce the risk of these problems happening.

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    How Do I Test For Hepatitis C

    A simple blood test will show whether you have the virus. You may also be given an extra test to see if your liver is damaged.

    If youve got hepatitis C you should be tested for other STIs. It’s important that you tell your recent sexual partner/s so they can also get tested and treated. Many people who have hepatitis C do not notice anything wrong, and by telling them you can help to stop the virus being passed on. It can also stop you from getting the infection again.

    Can You Get Hep C From Recreational Drug Use

    Hepatitis B Transmission for Those Newly Diagnosed

    The main way hepatitis C is spread is blood-to-blood, says Rena Fox, M.D., a professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, and an internist and hepatitis specialist at UCSF Health. So any activity where you might come in contact with another persons blood, like sharing needles, puts you at risk.

    In fact, sharing needles and syringes is the most common way hepatitis C is spread, says Dr. Fox. We started seeing the number of new cases per year rise again about four or five years ago, along with an increase in heroin use with the opioid epidemic, she says. If people become addicted to prescription opiates, but then lose access to them, she explains, they may turn to heroin which often involves sharing needles.

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