Who Should Be Vaccinated For Hepatitis B
All newborns should be vaccinated. Also, people who are under 18 who were not vaccinated at birth should also get the vaccine. Other groups who should be sure to be vaccinated are those in certain high-risk categories, such as:
- People who have more than one sexual partner.
- Men who have sex with men.
- Adults with diabetes.
- Sexual partners of infected people and people who share households with infected individuals.
- People who are exposed to blood and other bodily fluids, including healthcare and public safety professionals, and people who work in jails and other places taking care of people who cant take care of themselves.
Who Is At Risk Of Hepatitis B
Anyone can get hepatitis B if not vaccinated. However, in the U.S., you may be at a higher risk if you:
- Have sex partners that have hepatitis B
- Have HIV or another STD
- Inject drugs or share needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment
- Live with someone who has hepatitis B
- Are undergoing dialysis
- Travel to areas that have moderate to high rates of hepatitis B
- Work in health care or public safety and are exposed to blood or body fluids on the job
- Are an infant born to an infected mother
Is There A Cure For Chronic Hepatitis B
Currently, there is no complete cure for hepatitis B. But when managed properly, those living with the virus can expect to live a normal life. Maintaining a healthy diet and avoiding alcoholic beverages and tobacco products are crucial components in managing the disease.
You should also visit a doctor familiar with hepatitis B at least annuallythough twice a year might be best to monitor your liver through blood tests and medical imaging. As with most diseases, detecting it early leads to a better outcome. If youre exposed to the virus, you should get an antibody injection within 12 hours of exposure.
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Physical Types Of Urticaria And Infections
Physical urticaria accounts for about 15% of urticaria cases and is triggered by exogenous mechanical stimuli that by both, immunologic and non-immunologic mechanisms – cause mast cell activation. Often these physical urticaria subtypes persist for average 3-5 years and may interfere with ability to work. Recent data demonstrated that also in children physical urticaria is long-persisting: only 38% were symptom-free 5 years post-onset .
Physical urticaria is divided into several subtypes with dermatographic urticaria being the commonest form, followed by cold urticaria and delayed pressure urticaria whereas heat urticaria, solar and vibratory urticaria are very rare. In physical urticaria the routine diagnosis is mainly limited to identify the subtype by appropriate standardized challenge tests .
The association of physical urticaria to infections has been poorly studied. Most physical urticarias are regarded not to be associated with infection but systematic studies are lacking and often no investigations regarding infections have been performed.
There are no reports of infections in dermographic urticaria although it is generally accepted that dermographism can start after infections and/or drug intake .
Eating Diet And Nutrition For Hepatitis B
If you have hepatitis B, you should eat a balanced, healthy diet. Obesity can increase the chance of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease , and NAFLD can increase liver damage in people who have hepatitis B. Talk with your doctor about healthy eating and maintaining a healthy weight.
You should also avoid alcohol because it can cause more liver damage.
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How Can You Avoid Hepatitis B
Getting the vaccine for hepatitis B is the best way toprevent hepatitis B. The hepatitis B vaccine is safe andeffective. It is usually given as 3-4 shots over a 6-monthperiod. You will not get hepatitis B from the vaccine.Ask your health care provider if you should get thisvaccine. It is recommended for:
- All infants, starting with the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine at birth
- Everyone under the age of 19 who has not been vaccinated
- People whose sex partners have hepatitis B
- Sexually active people who are not in a long-term, faithful relationship
- People with a sexually transmitted disease
- People who share needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment
- People who have close household contact with someone infected with the hepatitis B virus
- Health care and public safety workers at risk for exposure to blood or body fluids on the job
- People with kidney disease. This includes all those on dialysis and those being considered for dialysis.
- Adults with diabetes
- Before oral sex
- Have sex with only one partner who does not have sex with others and does not have hepatitis B.
For more information, see Safer Sex.
Blood Tests To Check For Liver Damage
Blood tests may be done to help find out if your liver has been damaged. They include:
- Bilirubin, albumin, and prothrombin time. These help show how well your liver is working. Cholesterol testing also may be done.
- Alanine aminotransferase , aspartate aminotransferase , alkaline phosphatase, and lactic dehydrogenase . These show whether your liver is damaged or inflamed.
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How Long Will The Effects Last
For most UTIs, the symptoms go away within 24 hours after you begin treatment. Take all of the medicine your healthcare provider prescribes, even after the symptoms go away. If you stop taking your medicine before the scheduled end of treatment, the infection may come back.
Without treatment, the infection can last a long time. If it is not treated, the infection can permanently damage the bladder and kidneys, or it may spread to the blood. If the infection spreads to the blood, it can be fatal.
Should You See A Doctor
Both UTIs and yeast infections should be reviewed and diagnosed by your doctor to prevent them from getting worse. UTIs that are untreated could lead to a more serious kidney infection. Yeast infections may also be something more serious, or the symptoms may actually be from another condition, such as a sexually transmitted infection.
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Hbsag Positivity In Patients With Uuc
The prevalence of HBsAg positivity among patients with and without UUC is shown in Table . The prevalence of HBsAg positivity in UUC patients was higher than that in non-UUC patients . After stratifying by sex, the relative odds of HBsAg positivity were statistically significant in men but not in women.
Table 2 The prevalence of HBsAg positivity in patients with and without UUC
The prevalence of HBsAg positivity among male UUC patients was higher than that among male non-UUC patients for all age groups . Among male UUC patients, a significantly higher prevalence of HBsAg positivity was seen in those groups aged 10 to 29 years and> 70 years.
Prevalence of HBsAg positivity among male patients with and without UUC stratified by age. *P< 0.05, **P< 0.01, ***P< 0.001. HBsAg=hepatitis B surface antigen UUC=upper urinary calculi
Potential risk factors that might affect the prevalence of HBV-infected patients were analysed. Age was a strong confounding variable for both men and women. After adjusting for age, the odds of HBsAg positivity remained significantly elevated in male UUC patients compared with male non-UUC patients. However, the adjusted odds of HBsAg positivity in female UUC patients was not significantly higher .
Table 3 Characteristics and laboratory outcomes among patients with UUC stratified by HBsAg status
Impact Of Elevated Urine Leukocyte And Bacteria Count Per High
Dan Han1,2*, Ran Wang1,2*, Yang Yu1, Sien-Sing Yang3, Sebastian Mueller4, Fernando Gomes Romeiro5, Tingxue Song1,2, Han Deng2, Jing Li2, Zhong Peng2,6, Yibing Li7, Xiaozhong Guo1,2#, Xingshun Qi2#
1 Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine , Liver Cirrhosis Study Group, Department of Gastroenterology , General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area , Department of Medicine and Center for Alcohol Research, Salem Medical Center , Department of Internal Medicine Botucatu Medical School , General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area , , China
Contributions: Conception and design: X Qi, X Guo Administrative support: X Guo, X Qi Provision of study materials or patients: X Guo, X Qi Collection and assembly of data: D Han, R Wang, T Song, H Deng, J Li, Z Peng Data analysis and interpretation: All authors Manuscript writing: All authors Final approval of manuscript: All authors.
*These authors contributed equally to this work.
#These authors are the joint senior authors.
Background: Liver cirrhosis is prone to the development of urinary tract infection . Urine culture is a golden standard for the diagnosis of UTI, but it is often missing in routine clinical practice. Urinalysis may be an alternative. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of abnormal urinalysis and its impact on the in-hospital outcome of liver cirrhosis.
Abnormal urinalysis is common in liver cirrhosis and may be a predictor for the in-hospital death.
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What Is The Treatment For Hepatitis B
Prevention is recommended by receiving a vaccine for HBV.
Receiving an injection of the hepatitis B immune globulin within 12 hours of coming in contact with the virus may help prevent the development of the disease.
At present, there is no specific treatment for patients with acute hepatitis B. Acute infection is usually short and will often resolve on its own. Your health care provider may recommend rest, and adequate nutrition and fluids to help your body fight the infection. Hospitalization may be required for patients who suffer from severe vomiting and who are unable to maintain adequate nutritional levels. It may also be required to prevent the development of complications.
While chronic infection cannot be cured, there are two standard treatments in Canada that may control the virus and prevent further damage to the liver.
- Antiviral medications can fight the virus and slow damage to the liver.
- Interferon which may be given for short periods and if effective, results in suppression of the virus.
Prevent Infection After Contact With The Virus
If you think you have been in contact with the hepatitis B virus, see your doctor right away. Doctors typically recommend a dose of the hepatitis B vaccine to prevent infection. In some cases, doctors may also recommend a medicine called hepatitis B immune globulin to help prevent infection. You must get the vaccine dose and, if needed, HBIG shortly after coming into contact with the virus, preferably within 24 hours.
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Blood Tests To Diagnose Hepatitis B
Blood tests are done to help diagnose hepatitis B. They include:
- Hepatitis B antigens and antibodies. These help tell if you are or were infected with the virus. They also can show if you have been immunized and if you have long-term infection. You also may get tested for the virus’s genetic material . For more information, see Hepatitis B Virus Tests.
- Tests to see if the hepatitis A, hepatitis C, or Epstein-Barr viruses are causing your hepatitis.
- Tests to see if you are infected with hepatitis D along with hepatitis B.
When Should You Call Your Doctor
if you have been diagnosed with hepatitis B and you have severe dehydration or these signs of liver failure:
- Extreme irritability.
- Extreme sleepiness.
- Swelling of the arms, legs, hands, feet, belly, or face.
- Heavy bleeding from the nose, mouth, or rectum , or under the skin.
- Yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes.
- You have risk factors for hepatitis B, such as handling blood or body fluids as a routine part of your job or having many sex partners.
- You have any symptoms of hepatitis B, such as a headache, feeling tired, or an upset stomach.
- Someone in your household has been diagnosed with hepatitis B.
- Your sex partner has been diagnosed with hepatitis B.
- You have been bitten by or exposed to the blood or body fluids of someone who has hepatitis B.
In most areas, public health units or sexual health clinics are able to diagnose and provide assessment and treatment of hepatitis B.
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Avoid Alcohol And Drugs
Hepatitis makes it hard for your liver to process drugs and alcohol. If you take drugs or drink alcohol when you have hepatitis, their effects may be more powerful and may last longer. They also can make liver damage worse.
- If you are taking prescription medicines, your doctor may tell you to stop using them until your liver has had time to heal. Don’t stop taking the medicines unless your doctor has told you to do so.
- Check with your doctor before taking any over-the-counter medicines, including herbal products and acetaminophen . Acetaminophen can make liver disease worse, especially if you continue to drink alcohol.
- Avoid alcohol until your doctor feels that your liver is completely healed. This may take as long as 3 to 4 months.
How Does It Occur
Normally the urinary tract does not have any bacteria or other organisms in it. Bacteria that cause UTI often spread from the rectum to the urethra and then to the bladder or kidneys. Sometimes bacteria spread from another part of the body through the bloodstream to the urinary tract. Urinary tract infection is less common in men than in women because the male urethra is long, making it difficult for bacteria to spread to the bladder.
Urinary tract infection may be caused by a sexually transmitted disease. Sometimes a stone in the urinary tract blocks the flow of urine and causes an infection. In older men, an enlarged prostate can cause a urinary tract infection by keeping urine from draining out of the bladder completely. Infection might also be caused by the use of a catheter used to drain the bladder or by urethral stricture, which is a narrowing of the urethra by scar tissue from previous infections or surgical procedures.
You may be more likely to have a UTI if you have diabetes or another medical problem that affects the immune system.
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What Is Involved In A Liver Transplant
A liver transplant is considered necessary when the liver is damaged and cannot function or in some cases of liver cancer. Your liver is very important. It is responsible for many functions related to making sure that your body stays healthy and is able to digest foods.
You may be eligible for a transplant if you have chronic hepatitis B infection or some of the diseases that may result from it, including liver cancer and cirrhosis. You will have to complete testing and be evaluated before being approved for a transplant. It is likely that you will be placed on a waiting list while an appropriate organ is found.
Donated livers come from two types of donors: living and deceased. Because the liver can regenerate, it is possible to use part of a liver for transplant. The remaining sections in both the donor and the receiver will grow into livers of adequate size.
People who get liver transplants must take anti-rejection drugs for the rest of their lives. These drugs make you more susceptible to infection. However, liver transplants have become more successful over time and continue to improve.
Who Is More Likely To Get Hepatitis B
People are more likely to get hepatitis B if they are born to a mother who has hepatitis B. The virus can spread from mother to child during birth. For this reason, people are more likely to have hepatitis B if they
- were born in a part of the world where 2 percent or more of the population has hepatitis B infection
- were born in the United States, didnt receive the hepatitis B vaccine as an infant, and have parents who were born in an area where 8 percent or more of the population had hepatitis B infection
People are also more likely to have hepatitis B if they
- are infected with HIV, because hepatitis B and HIV spread in similar ways
- have lived with or had sex with someone who has hepatitis B
- have had more than one sex partner in the last 6 months or have a history of sexually transmitted disease
- are men who have sex with men
- are injection drug users
- work in a profession, such as health care, in which they have contact with blood, needles, or body fluids at work
- live or work in a care facility for people with developmental disabilities
- have been on kidney dialysis
- live or work in a prison
- had a blood transfusion or organ transplant before the mid-1980s
In the United States, hepatitis B spreads among adults mainly through contact with infected blood through the skin, such as during injection drug use, and through sexual contact.12
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How Do Doctors Treat Hepatitis B
Doctors typically dont treat hepatitis B unless it becomes chronic. Doctors may treat chronic hepatitis B with antiviral medicines that attack the virus.
Not everyone with chronic hepatitis B needs treatment. If blood tests show that hepatitis B could be damaging a persons liver, a doctor may prescribe antiviral medicines to lower the chances of liver damage and complications.
Medicines that you take by mouth include
A medicine that doctors can give as a shot is peginterferon alfa-2a .
The length of treatment varies. Hepatitis B medicines may cause side effects. Talk with your doctor about the side effects of treatment. Tell your doctor before taking any other prescription or over-the-counter medicines.