Can The Liver Repair Itself From Hepatitis B
With a chronic hepatitis B infection, however, the liver is constantly under attack by the virus and eventually it can become hardened over time. Some of the changes and liver damage that can occur are described below: Fibrosis: After becoming inflamed, the liver tries to repair itself by forming tiny scars.
Infectious Diseases From Mouth Sores
Certain infections causing ulcerations in the mouth can also be spread through kissing. These include cold sores and hand, foot, and mouth disease.
Cold sores are caused by the herpes virus, usually herpes simplex virus-1 . While related, this is different from herpes simplex virus-2 , which is more generally associated with genital herpes.
In contrast to infections spread through the saliva, HSV-1 is spread through open cold sores on the lips or near the mouth. Although the infection is contagious through all stages of a cold sore, the infection is most contagious when the sore is open and leaking fluid.
Hand, foot, and mouth disease, caused by the Coxsackievirus, is another infectious disease that is spread through open sores in the mouth. This is a type of enterovirus, which is a common infection that has multiple strains that we all often are exposed to. This particular infection is common in kids, especially those in daycare or preschool settings.
It spreads by breathing the air after the sick person coughs or sneezes, touching or close contact such as kissing or sharing utensils and cups, through touching a sick persons feces such as when changing a diaper, or from touching the eyes, nose, or mouth after contact with surfaces that have been contaminated such as doorknobs or toys.
In contrast to cold sores and coxsackievirus blisters, canker sores have no infectious disease origin and cannot be spread through saliva or kissing.
Direct Exposure To Blood
Exposure to large amounts of contaminated blood increases the risk for hepatitis C transmission. If you get a cut and need help tending it, whoever helps you should first put on disposable gloves to prevent exposure in case he or she has a cut. You can also help prevent hepatitis C transmission by covering any cuts or sores with bandages until theyre healed and disposing of used bandages properly.
Uninfected people should take steps to avoid getting someone elses blood in their eyes, nose, and mouth. If an uninfected persons skin is exposed to contaminated blood, wash the area with soap and water immediately. If blood gets in the eyes, rinse them with running water right away and call a doctor to find out about further steps that should be taken.
When cleaning blood from surfaces, Dr. Lee recommends using a solution of one part bleach to 10 parts water. Dried blood should also be handled with care because the virus can live for several days outside the body.
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Hcv Rna Detection In Saliva
HCV-RNA was amplified using a nested reverse transcription-PCR with the two sets of primers corresponding to the 5UTR, as reported previously . Reverse transcription and the first round of PCR were performed using One-Step RT-PCR with Platinum Taq . Program parameters were 55°C for 30 min, 94°C for 2 min, and 40 cycles of 94°C for 30 sec, 56°C for 30 sec, and 72°C for 30 sec. The second round of PCR was performed using BioMix and 2 l of first-round PCR product. Thermal cycler conditions were 94°C for 2 min and 40 cycles of 94°C for 30 sec, 60°C for 30 sec, and 72°C for 30 sec. The 305 and 251 bp PCR products were analyzed with 1% agarose gel electrophoresis. This technique has a detection limit of 50 IU/ml, comparable with commercial tests used for qualitative detection of HCV genome . A fragment of the housekeeping gene cyclophilin was amplified for each sample as internal control for RNA extraction and RT/PCR reaction, using primers and conditions previously published . In all test series, known HCV negative and positive serum controls were included and the samples were managed with the same precautions during taking, transport and processing.
Diseases You Can Get From Being Bittenby A Human
As Uruguayan soccer player Luis SuÃ¡rez demonstrated yesterday, sometimes people bite others. Here are five diseases you can get from human chomps.
Itâs not every day that you hear of a human being biting another. But Uruguayan soccer player Luis SuÃ¡rez showed us all yesterday that peopleeven full-grown humansoccasionally bite others. During a match with Italy, SuÃ¡rez appeared to chomp the shoulder of Italian defender Giorgio Chiellini. âSurely not again,â the announcer said. âSurely not again.â Yes, SuÃ¡rez has bitten players during games twice before.
Most cases of human bites involve children or drunk people. One case study of 92 bitten people found that 86 percent of cases involved alcohol . But these injuries are no laughing matter, as bite wounds can be very serious, even deadly. Here are five diseases than can be spread from bites:
1. Infections. Human mouths contain high levels of bacteria, especially of the variety that can infect human tissues. And bites quite effectively transfer these bugs. âThe bacterial inoculumâthat which can be grown out and detectedâof human bite wounds is rich in oral flora, containing as many as 100 million organisms per milliliter that represent as many as 190 different species,âMedscape noted. Yes, you have a dirty mouth.
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Who Is Most At Risk For Chronic Disease
The likelihood that an HBV infection will become chronic depends upon the age at which a person becomes infected, with young children who become infected with HBV being the most likely to develop chronic infections.
About 90% of infants infected during the first year of life develop chronic infections 30% to 50% of children infected between one to four years of age develop chronic infections. About 25% of adults who become chronically infected during childhood die from HBV-related liver cancer or cirrhosis. About 90% of healthy adults who are infected with HBV will recover and be completely rid of the virus within six months.
Can I Contaminate My Surroundings
- The hepatitis C virus is transmitted through blood. So there is no risk in everyday life. You can kiss, touch, and use common toilets and washing machines. It is useless to wash ones dishes in a particular way.
The hepatitis C virus cannot be spread by saliva, cough, nor sweat.
- In contrast, avoid sharing items that may be in contact with the blood, especially toiletries: razors, nail clippers, tweezers, toothbrushes, dental equipment.
- For feminine intimate hygiene, do like all other women: put your used towels in well-sealed bags and dispose of them in the trash.
- Drug users should never share their injection or sniff equipment .
No panic in case of a small injury: if a persons skin is in contact with our blood, there is no risk of contamination. For the virus to be transmitted, it needs a gateway: when the skin is intact, it acts as a barrier.
To be perfectly calm if a loved one is treating you, you can suggest that you wear gloves. Clean the wound with a disinfectant and cover with a bandage. It is advisable to notify your dentist and other health professionals with whom you may be in contact. If informing these people is a problem for you, do not feel guilty: know that caregivers must apply the same precautionary measures to all patients.
Tips and tricks
Get used to separating your personel toiletries from others in your household, especially if you have children.
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Who Gets Hepatitis C
Who gets hepatitis C?
Anyone can get hepatitis C virus. But unlike a cold or flu virus, HCV isnât easy to catch. The virus is transmitted only by direct contact with human blood that contains the virus. There are several ways infection can occur. Those at risk of being infected with hepatitis C virus include:
What about tattooing?
Several studies have shown there is no link between licensed commercial tattooing parlors and HCV infection, âbut transmission of Hepatitis C is possible when poor infection-control practices are used during tattooing or piercing,â according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .
The agency advises people thinking about getting tattoos or body piercing to consider the health risks. Itâs possible to get infected with HCV, the CDC says, if the tools used have someone elseâs blood on them, or if the piercer or tattoo artist fails to use proper hygiene, such as washing hands, sterilizing tools, and using disposable gloves.
Is it possible to contract HCV from a shared razor or toothbrush?
There are no documented cases of transmission, but the CDC warns that people should not share toothbrushes, razors, or other personal care items: They might have small amounts of infected blood on them.
The CDC stresses that the hepatitis C virus is NOT spread by casual contact or by breast feeding, hugging or kissing, sneezing, coughing, or sharing utensils, drinking glasses, food, or water.
Is sex safe?
Bacteria That Can Be Transmitted By Kissing
Examples of bacteria that can be transmitted during kissing include:
- Meningococcal disease this is a potentially life-threatening condition which includes meningitis, inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord, and septicaemia. These bacteria can be spread either through direct contact or via droplets. Studies show that, with respect to kissing, only deep kissing seems to be a risk factor.
- Tooth decay the bacteria that cause tooth decay arent found in the mouths of newborn babies. A babys mouth must be colonised with infected saliva, which can be passed by a kiss on the lips.
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General Tips For Prevention
Refrain from engaging in IV drug use and be cautious with all procedures that involve needles.
For example, you shouldnt share needles used for tattooing, piercing, or acupuncture. The equipment should always be carefully sterilized for safety. If youre undergoing any of these procedures in another country, always make sure the equipment is sterilized.
Sterile equipment should also be used in a medical or dental setting.
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Inoculation Of Chimeric Mice With Livers Repopulated By Human Hepatocytes
Three male chimeric mice were purchased from PhoenixBio . Human hepatocytes were imported from BD Bioscience . Of the 3 mice, 2 were inoculated once intravenously with 100 µL of the sterilized tear sample. The remaining mouse was orally inoculated with 100 µL of the sterilized tear sample every 4 weeks. After inoculation, blood samples for real-time PCR assay were collected from the chimeric mouse every week.
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Encouraging Others To Get Tested For Hepatitis C
While the odds of passing on the hepatitis C virus are low, you should still tell anyone at risk that you have hepatitis C. You should tell sexual partners, spouses, and family members. Your infection may be difficult to discuss, but anyone at potential risk must know. That way, they can get tested and treated if needed. Read more on why you should get tested for hepatitis C.
Paul Berk, MD, professor of medicine and emeritus chief of the division of liver disease, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York City chairman of the board, American Liver Foundation.
Alan Franciscus, executive director, Hepatitis C Support Project and editor-in-chief of HCV Advocate, San Francisco.
Thelma King Thiel, chair and CEO, Hepatitis Foundation International.
David Thomas, MD, professor of medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore.
Howard J. Worman, MD, associate professor of medicine and anatomy and cell biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York City.
The American Gastroenterological Association.
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Hepatitis C Symptoms & Treatment
Hepatitis C is mainly passed on through using contaminated needles and syringes or sharing other items with infected blood on them. It can also be passed on through unprotected sex, especially when blood is present.
You can prevent hepatitis C by never sharing needles and syringes, practising safer sex, and avoiding unlicensed tattoo parlours and acupuncturists.
Hepatitis C will often not have any noticeable symptoms, but a simple blood test carried out by a healthcare professional will show whether you have hepatitis C.
In the early stages, some peoples bodies can clear a hepatitis C infection on their own, others may develop chronic hepatitis C and will need to take antiviral treatment to cure the infection.
Without treatment, chronic hepatitis C can lead to permanent liver damage.
Hepatitis C is part of a group of hepatitis viruses that attack the liver.
Some groups are more at risk of getting hepatitis C than others, including people who use drugs, people in prisons, men who have sex with men, health workers and people living with HIV.
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Whos Most At Risk Of Hepatitis B
People at highest risk of hepatitis B include:
- people born or brought up in a country where the infection is common
- babies born to mothers infected with hepatitis B
- people who have ever injected drugs
- close contacts, such as family members, of someone with a long-term hepatitis B infection
The risk of getting hepatitis B for travellers going to places where the infection is common is generally considered to be low if these activities are avoided.
Your GP can arrange for you to have a blood test to check for hepatitis B and have the hepatitis B vaccination if youre at a high risk.
Why Getting Tested Is Important
A blood test is one of the only ways to confirm a diagnosis of hepatitis C. Additionally, hepatitis C often has no visible symptoms for many years.
Because of this, its important to be tested if you believe youve been exposed to the virus. Getting a timely diagnosis can help ensure you receive treatment before permanent liver damage occurs.
Can hepatitis C be spread through sexual contact?
Hepatitis C is a contagious liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus . The disease can be passed from person to person.
Researchers in found that 1 out of every 190,000 instances of heterosexual sexual contact led to HCV transmission. Participants in the study were in monogamous sexual relationships.
HCV may be more likely to spread through sexual contact if you:
- have multiple sexual partners
- participate in rough sex, which is more likely to result in broken skin or bleeding
- dont use barrier protection, such as condoms or dental dams
- dont use barrier protection properly
- have a sexually transmitted infection or HIV
Theres no evidence that HCV can be spread through oral sex. However, it may still be possible if blood is present from either the person giving or receiving oral sex.
For example, a slight risk may exist if any of the following are present:
- menstrual blood
- any other breaks in the skin in the involved areas
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Can I Get A Manicure Or Pedicure If I Have Hep C
The risk of transmitting hep C at a nail salon is extremely low, Dr. Chung says. Again, the key is that the salon uses single-use tools or follows strict sterilization procedures between each person. That means heat-sterilizing metal tools in a machine called an autoclave, and never reusing items like pumice stones, nail buffers, and foam toe separators. To further reduce your risk, hold off on a mani or pedi if you have an open wound on your hands or feet, skip cuticle pushing and especially clipping, and dont shave your legs right before a pedicure to avoid microscopic skin cuts.
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If Youve Got Hep C Spitting Can Be A Felony
By Michelle AndrewsJune 19, 2018
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Unregulated Tattoos And Body Piercings
Tattoos and body piercings use needles that pierce through your skin. Each piercing brings more opportunities for the needle to come in contact with infected blood. If you get a tattoo or body piercing using the same needle that’s been exposed to infected blood, it puts you at greater risk of contracting hepatitis C.
Who To Talk To And How
Hepatitis C is still a difficult subject to talk about. Being well informed before talking to our loved ones helps to present the situation clearly, not to worry too much about others on our state of health and to anticipate possible negative reactions. We have learned over time to adopt different attitudes according to our interlocutors.
You do not have to talk about it if you dont want to. However, for your personal balance, it is recommended to entrust yourself to at least one person. Look for support around you: its not necessarily an intimate.
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Prevention Of Infection While Kissing
There are a number of things you can do to reduce the risk of passing on, or catching, an infection while kissing. You should try to:
- Avoid kissing when you or the other person is sick.
- Avoid kissing anyone on the lips when you, or they, have an active cold sore, warts or ulcers around the lips or in the mouth.
- Maintain good oral hygiene.
- Cough and sneeze into a hanky if you have a cold.
- See your doctor about immunisations. Vaccines are available to prevent some infectious diseases, such as chickenpox, hepatitis B and group C meningococcal infection.
Ways You Wont Spread Hepatitis C
There are some ways in which you wont spread HCV, though. Go ahead and let your significant other have a bite of your sandwich or dessert. According to the CDC, hepatitis C isnt spread by sharing silverware or drinking glasses, or through water or foods. Showing affection by holding hands, hugging, or kissing is also safe, Lee says. And although germs from sneezing or coughing might cause you to get a cold, they wont give you hepatitis C.
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