Monday, July 15, 2024

What Is The Hepatitis B Vaccine

Why Is The Hepatitis B Vaccine Important

Hepatitis B Vaccine

Because of the vaccine, cases of acute hepatitis B have decreased by a lot in the United States. But chronic hepatitis B is still common up to 2.2 million people in the United States have it. Chronic hepatitis B can lead to serious liver problems and even death.

Getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent hepatitis B.

Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused by a virus. There are 2 types of hepatitis B:

  • Acute hepatitis B
  • Chronic hepatitis B

Many children who get acute hepatitis B dont have any symptoms, but most adults do. Symptoms may include:

  • Dark pee or clay-colored poop
  • Pain in the muscles, joints, and stomach

Acute hepatitis B symptoms usually last a few weeks but they can last as long as 6 months.

If the acute hepatitis B infection does not go away after 6 months, its considered a chronic hepatitis B infection. Most people who have chronic hepatitis B dont have symptoms at first. But chronic hepatitis B is a lifelong illness that can lead to serious and possibly deadly liver problems, like:

  • Has sex with a person who has hepatitis B
  • Touches the blood or open sores of a person who has hepatitis B

All children and most adults need to get the hepatitis B vaccine.

Infants and children

All children need to get the hepatitis B vaccine as part of their routine vaccine schedule.

Children need 3 doses of the vaccine at the following ages:

  • Birth for the first dose
  • 1 through 2 months for the second dose
  • 6 through 18 months for the third dose

Adults

Important Information About Vaccine And Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin Shot Administration

Where available, the hepatitis B birth-dose and HBIG should be administered within 24 hours of birth in order to prevent the transmission of hepatitis B from mother to child. It is very important that the shots be given in opposite limbs, to ensure the highest effectiveness. Please see chart above for more information.

How Is The Hepatitis B Vaccine Made

People are protected against hepatitis B virus infection by making an immune response to a protein that sits on the surface of the virus. When hepatitis B virus grows in the liver, an excess amount of this surface protein is made. The hepatitis B vaccine is made by taking the part of the virus that makes surface protein and putting it into yeast cells. The yeast cells then produce many copies of the protein that are subsequently used to make the vaccine. When the surface protein is given to children in the vaccine, their immune systems make an immune response that provides protection against infection with the hepatitis B virus.

The first hepatitis B vaccine was made in the 1980s by taking blood from people infected with hepatitis B virus and separating or purifying the surface protein from the infectious virus. Because blood was used, there was a risk of contaminating the vaccine with other viruses that might be found in blood, such as HIV. Although contamination with HIV was a theoretical risk of the early, blood-derived hepatitis B vaccine, no one ever got HIV from the hepatitis B vaccine. That is because the blood used to make vaccine was submitted to a series of chemical treatments that inactivated any possible contaminating viruses. Today, there is no risk of contaminating the vaccine with other viruses because the surface protein is manufactured in the laboratory.

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Treatment Options For Antiviral Resistant Pathogens

If a virus is not fully wiped out during a regimen of antivirals, treatment creates a bottleneck in the viral population that selects for resistance, and there is a chance that a resistant strain may repopulate the host. Viral treatment mechanisms must therefore account for the selection of resistant viruses.

The most commonly used method for treating resistant viruses is combination therapy, which uses multiple antivirals in one treatment regimen. This is thought to decrease the likelihood that one mutation could cause antiviral resistance, as the antivirals in the cocktail target different stages of the viral life cycle. This is frequently used in retroviruses like HIV, but a number of studies have demonstrated its effectiveness against influenza A, as well. Viruses can also be screened for resistance to drugs before treatment is started. This minimizes exposure to unnecessary antivirals and ensures that an effective medication is being used. This may improve patient outcomes and could help detect new resistance mutations during routine scanning for known mutants. However, this has not been consistently implemented in treatment facilities at this time.

What Is Hepatitis B Vaccine

Engerix Hepatitis B Vaccine Adult 20 mcg/mL 1 mL SDV, 10/Pk

Hepatitis B is a serious disease caused by a virus. Hepatitis causes inflammation of the liver, vomiting, and jaundice . Hepatitis can lead to liver cancer, cirrhosis, or death.

The hepatitis B adult vaccine is used to help prevent this disease in adults. The dialysis form of this vaccine is for adults receiving dialysis.

This vaccine helps your body develop immunity to hepatitis B, but it will not treat an active infection you already have.

Vaccination with hepatitis B adult vaccine is recommended for all adults who are at risk of getting hepatitis B. Risk factors include: living with someone infected with hepatitis B virus having sexual contact with infected people having hepatitis C, chronicliver disease, kidney disease, diabetes, HIV or AIDS being on dialysis using intravenous drugs living or working in a facility for developmentally disabled people working in healthcare or public safety and being exposed to blood or body fluids living or working in a correctional facility being a victim of sexual abuse or assault and traveling to areas where hepatitis B is common.

Like any vaccine, the hepatitis B vaccine may not provide protection from disease in every person.

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Who Should Not Receive The Hepatitis B Vaccine

Talk to your healthcare provider before getting the hepatitis B vaccine if:

  • You have had a severe allergic reaction to the hepatitis B vaccine or any of its ingredients in the past.
  • You have had an allergic reaction to yeast in the past.
  • You are moderately or severely ill.
  • You are currently taking immunosuppressive medications.

In addition, pregnant people should not receive the Heplisav-B or PreHevbrio vaccines until more safety information is available.

Who Should Get The Hbv Vaccine

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that all children and adults up to age 59 should receive the hepatitis B vaccine.

Infants should get their first hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth and complete their doses by age 6 to 18 months.

All unvaccinated children and adults through age 59 should receive the vaccine. Also, unvaccinated adults over the age 60 who are at risk of hepatitis B should get the vaccine.

Adults over age 60 who are not at risk of hepatitis B may also choose to get the shot.

Several types of the HBV vaccine are also safe to administer to pregnant women.

  • people who have had more than one sex partner in the last 6 months
  • men who have sex with men
  • people seeking treatment for a sexually transmitted infection
  • people whose partners or household members have hepatitis B
  • people who inject drugs
  • people who live or work in care facilities
  • people who are on dialysis
  • travelers to countries where hepatitis B is common
  • people with chronic liver disease, HIV, or hepatitis C
  • people who are in jail or prison

People who have diabetes should talk with a healthcare professional about their risk for contracting hepatitis B.

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Us Infant Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedules

*Please note that the first dose should be given as soon as possible. Additional doses require minimum time intervals between doses in order for the vaccine to be effective.
3-Dose Vaccine Series for Infants

Since 1991, ALL medically stable infants with a birth weight of at least 2,000 g in the U.S. are recommended to receive the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth. The additional 2 doses are given at 1 month and 6 months of age.

4-Dose Vaccine Combination Series for Infants

Combination vaccines, such as the pentavalent and hexavalent vaccines, include protection against 5 or 6 diseases, including hepatitis B. The first shot is usually given at 6 weeks of age, but in order to protect infants from hepatitis B beginning at birth, a monovalent or single dose of the hepatitis B vaccine is also recommended within 24 hours of birth. The hepatitis B vaccine series can then be completed with the pentavalent or hexavalent vaccine with the recommended schedule.

When To Delay Or Avoid Hepb Immunization

Hepatitis B vaccine for Grade 7 Students

Doctors delay giving the vaccine to babies who weigh less than 4 pounds, 7 ounces at birth whose mothers do not have the virus in their blood. The baby will get the first dose at 1 month of age or when the baby is discharged from the hospital.

The vaccine is not recommended if your child:

  • is currently sick, although simple colds or other minor illnesses should not prevent immunization
  • had a serious allergic reaction after an earlier dose of the vaccine or is allergic to baker’s yeast

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Is The Hepatitis B Vaccine Covered By Medicare Insurance

As you get older, you may be tempted to neglect preventive care, especially if youre healthy overall. Vaccines are often included in preventive care plans created by you and your physician during your annual Medicare Wellness Visit.

You may be eligible to get certain vaccines covered by Medicare Part B or Part D . Depending on your risk factors, health, and lifestyle, you may be eligible to get the hepatitis B vaccine at no cost.

TIP: Find out which plans offer coverage for hepatitis B and other vaccines and compare them against your current Medicare benefits.

Medicare Benefits Solutions

International Hepatitis B Vaccine Schedules

*Please note that the first dose should be given as soon as possible. Additional doses require minimum time intervals between doses in order for the vaccine to be effective.

The hepatitis B vaccine is an injection that is generally given in the arm and as a three-dose series. The World Health Organization recommends a 0, 1, and 6-month vaccine schedule, though schedules may vary based on a countrys national immunization program. Completing the hepatitis B vaccine series, preferably beginning at birth, will ensure protection against hepatitis B, hepatitis delta and lower the lifetime risk of liver cancer. Greater than 90% of babies and up to 50% of young children who are not vaccinated and are infected with hepatitis B will have lifelong infection, which makes the birth dose essential to their protection. Please note that the vaccine brand name, manufacturer and associated schedules for adults, children and infants may be unique to different countries, though there is a list of WHO prequalified vaccines.

3-Dose Vaccine Series for Infants

The World Health Organization recommends all infants receive the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth and to complete the vaccine series with additional shots at 1 month and 6 months of age. Beginning the hepatitis B vaccine at birth will ensure protection against hepatitis B for life.

3-Dose Vaccine Series for Children and Adults

4-Dose Combination Vaccine Series for Infants

Additional Resource Links:

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Sbp Adjuvant For Hepatitis B Vaccine

Wang and colleagues stated that although adjuvants are a common component of many vaccines, there are few adjuvants licensed for use in humans due to concerns about their toxic effects. There is a need to develop new and safe adjuvants, because some existing vaccines have low immunogenicity among certain patient groups. In this study, SBP, a hepatitis B surface antigen binding protein that was discovered through screening a human liver cDNA expression library, was introduced into hepatitis B vaccine. A good laboratory practice, non-clinical safety evaluation was performed to identify the side effects of both SBP and SBP-adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine. The results indicated that SBP could enhance the HBsAg-specific immune response, thus increasing the protection provided by the hepatitis B vaccine. The authors concluded that given the encouraging safety data obtained in this study, further evaluation of SBP as a vaccine adjuvant for human use is warranted. They stated that this research has the potential to accelerate adjuvant development for HBV vaccine and for other vaccine types in the future.

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How Does Medicare Cover The Hepatitis B Vaccine

Engerix Hepatitis B Vaccine Adult 20 mcg/mL 1 mL SDV, 10/Pk

Medicare Part B benefits include the hep B vaccine as a preventive service if you meet specific criteria. To be eligible for the vaccine, you need to have a specific condition or exposure that puts you at medium-to-high risk for getting the infection. You may qualify if you:

  • Have end-stage renal disease , hemophilia or diabetes
  • Are employed as a healthcare worker, frequently in contact with bodily fluids, including blood

Only one of the above conditions needs to be met. If you qualify and get the shot from a healthcare provider who accepts assignment from Medicare, the vaccine will be paid in full. If you are enrolled in Medicare Advantage, you may have to visit providers in the plans network.

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Pregnant Women At Risk For Infection Or An Adverse Infection

Lin and Vickery searched for large, high-quality studies related to hepatitis B screening in pregnancy that have been published since the 2004 USPSTF recommendation. English-language studies indexed in PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and published between January 1, 2001 and March 5, 2008 were included in this study. For benefits of screening and newborn prophylaxis, these investigators included systematic reviews meta-analyses and RCTs. For harms of screening, they included systematic reviews meta-analyses RCTs cohort studies case-control studies and case series of large, multi-site databases. Abstracts and full articles were independently reviewed for inclusion by both reviewers. Data on the benefits of screening, including benefits of hepatitis B immune globulin and hepatitis B vaccine prophylaxis of newborns of HBsAg-positive mothers, were extracted by 1 reviewer. No new studies met inclusion criteria. A 2006 systematic review of RCTs found that newborn prophylaxis reduced peri-natal transmission of HBV infection all relevant trials were published in 1996 or earlier. The authors concluded that no new evidence was found on the benefits or harms of screening for HBV infection in pregnant women. Previously published RCTs support the 2004 USPSTF recommendation for screening.

What Is The Transmission Route Of Hbv

Today, we know that HBVs are highly infectious and are spread by exposure of mucosal membranes or nonintact skin to infected blood or other body fluids . In high endemic areas, HBV is most commonly transmitted from mother to child at birth and during early childhood from infected to uninfected children . Most HBV infections in areas of low endemicity occur in adults in relatively well-defined risk groups, such as those at risk through sexual exposure, household members of an infected person, hemodialysis patients, incarcerated persons, injection-drug users, persons at risk for occupational exposure, developmentally disabled persons in long-term care facilities, and travelers to regions with moderate or high HBV endemicity. Today, only humans are a known reservoir for human HBV genotypes, but closely related HBV genotypes exist in higher primates . Hence, a comprehensive control strategy could eventually lead to the eradication of HBV.

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Persons New To Canada

Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals, as necessary. In many countries outside of Canada, HB vaccine is in limited use.

All persons from a country that is endemic for HB should be assessed and vaccinated against HB if not immune and not infected. Individuals born in developing countries are more likely to be carriers of HB, necessitating vaccination of their sexual and household contacts based on review of their serologic test results. HB vaccine is recommended for all household contacts whose families have immigrated to Canada from areas in which there is a high prevalence of HB and who may be exposed to HB carriers through their extended families or when visiting their country of origin.

Children adopted from countries in which there is a high prevalence of HB infection should be screened for HBsAg and, if positive, household or close contacts in the adopting family should be immunized before adoption or as soon as possible thereafter. Adults going to pick-up children from these countries should be vaccinated before departure. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional information.

The Safety Of Hepatitis B Vaccination Programs

Hepatitis B Vaccination in Younger Diabetes Patients

Numerous clinical trials and widespread practical applications have demonstrated that hepatitis B vaccines are very safe. Since 1982, over 1 billion doses of hepatitis B vaccine have been used worldwide. Adverse events after immunization against hepatitis B are infrequent and generally mild and transient. Except for localized pain, placebo-controlled studies have revealed that reported events occur no more frequently among vaccinees than among persons receiving placebo . Data from numerous long-term studies fail to causally link other serious adverse events to hepatitis B vaccination. Data do not indicate a causal association between hepatitis B vaccine and neurological disease , leukemia, diabetes mellitus, demyelinating disorders, chronic fatigue syndrome, arthritis, autoimmune disorders, asthma, hair loss, or sudden infant death syndrome. The Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety has confirmed the excellent safety profile of hepatitis B vaccine and continues to monitor the safety of this vaccine. Furthermore, hepatitis B vaccination can be administered safely to pregnant women during any trimester of pregnancy and to breastfeeding women. Both low birth weight and premature infants and HIV-positive persons can receive hepatitis B vaccination. Hepatitis B vaccination is contraindicated only for persons with a history of allergic reactions to yeast or any of the vaccines components.

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