Wednesday, January 25, 2023

What Is Surface Antigen Hepatitis B

Ontology: Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Measurement

Hepatitis B Serology: Surface Antigen (HBsAg), Surface Antibody (anti-HBs), Core Antibody (anti-HBc)
Definition A measurement of the surface antibody reaction of a biological specimen to the Hepatitis B virus.
Definition The determination of the surface antibody reaction of a sample to the Hepatitis B virus.
Concepts
86706
English Hepatitis B surface antibody measurement, Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Measurement, Hepatitis B surface antibody , Hepatitis B surface antibody, HEPATITIS B SURF ANTIBODY HBSAB, Assay for Hepatitis B surface antibody , HBsAg antibody level , HBsAg antibody level, HBSAB, Anti-HBs, Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antibody, HBsAb, hepatitis B surface antibody test, serum hepatitis B surface antibody , serum hepatitis B surface antibody, HBsAb measurement, Hepatitis B surface antibody measurement , HEP B SURFACE ANTIBODY, Hep b surface antibody
Spanish Anticuerpos anti antÃgeno superficial de hepatitis B, medición de HBsAb, medición del anticuerpo de superficie anti – hepatitis B , medición del anticuerpo de superficie anti – hepatitis B
Portuguese Anticorpo de superfÃcie de hepatite B
Dutch
Anticorps de surface de l’hépatite B
German Antikoerper gegen Hepatitis B Surface Antigen
Hungarian
Protilátky proti povrchovému antigenu viru hepatitidy B
Italian Anticorpo di superficie dell’epatite B
Japanese
Derived from the NIH UMLS

Can I Take The Test At Home

Samples for hepatitis B testing can be collected at home. At-home hepatitis B testing requires you to collect a blood sample, typically from a fingerstick using a very small needle provided in the test kit. Once a blood sample is collected, it is prepared according to the instructions contained in the test kit and mailed to a laboratory for testing.

Because there are numerous types of tests for HBV, it is important to look closely at the specific components of any at-home test kit. Many at-home test kits only look for HBsAg.

You can order a test through our shop page quickly and easily with local lab testing and results in one to three business days.

How Much Does A Hepatitis B Titer Test Cost

The cost of a hepatitis B test varies based on where you get the test. Prices range from roughly $24 to $110.

Your insurance may cover some or all of the cost. Under the Affordable Care Act, all new health plans must cover preventative services including hepatitis B vaccination and testing without a deductible or copay.

Read Also: Va Disability Rating For Hepatitis B

Does Hepatitis B Show Up In Routine Blood Tests

Routine blood tests do not detect hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatitis B tests are specifically done if blood tests show abnormal liver function results, or if a person experiences symptoms or falls into the high-risk category for HBV infection.

A panel of HBV-specific blood tests are required to detect HBV infection.

Why Do I Need This Test

Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Blood Test

You may need this test if your doctor suspects you have a liver infection caused by HBV. You may need this test if you have symptoms of hepatitis B. Symptoms usually start slowly. Many people have no symptoms or only feel like they have a mild case of the flu. If you have symptoms, they may include:

  • Extreme tiredness

  • Jaundice, or yellowed skin and eyes

  • Dark-colored urine

You may also have this test if you have a history that puts you at risk for being in contact with the virus. Risk factors for hepatitis B infection include:

  • Having sex with someone infected with the virus

  • Living in close contact with someone who has the virus

  • Being a man who has sex with men

  • Being a child born to a mother who has the virus

  • Sharing needles for intravenous, or IV, drug use

  • Working in a health care center where you are exposed to blood

You may also have this test several times if you’ve already been diagnosed with hepatitis B, to see whether your infection is getting better.

Also Check: Hepatitis B Vaccine Dosage Newborn

How Do I Get Ready For This Test

You don’t need to prepare for this test. Be sure your healthcare provider knows about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. This includes medicines that don’t need a prescription and any illegal drugs you may use.

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Purpose Of The Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Test

The HBsAb test determines the presence and quantity of HBV antibodies in your blood in order to establish how immune you are to the virus. These antibodies are “encoded” by your immune system when it encounters the HBV virus through blood or sexual contact, or if you are vaccinated with the hepatitis B vaccine. Your body uses the antibodies to attack the virus if it appears again.

There are two types of antibodies produced in response to the hepatitis B virus:

  • Immunoglobulin M is the antibody that mounts the initial attack but eventually fades away.
  • Immunoglobulin G is the antibody that provides long-lasting immune protection against HBV. The immunity can last for many years, but it gradually wanes over time.

The HBsAb test may be used to look for prior exposure to HBV . By comparing levels of IgM and IgG, a healthcare practitioner can also use the test to monitor your recovery from an acute HBV infection.

Additionally, the HBsAb test can reveal whether you are successfully vaccinated, not successfully vaccinated, or indeterminately vaccinated. A booster vaccine may be needed if the HBsAb level drops below protective levels.

The HBsAb test should not be confused with either the hepatitis B surface antigen test or the hepatitis B core antibody test, both of which are used to determine if you have been infected with HBV.

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Ontology: Hepatitis B Antigens

Definition Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface , core , and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Definition antigens of the virion of the Hepatitis B virus or the Dane particle, its surface, core, and other associated antigens, including the hepatitis Be antigens.
Concepts
303233001
English Antigens, Hepatitis B, B Antigens, Hepatitis, HBAg, hepatitis B antigen, Hepatitis B Antigens , hepatitis b antigens, hbag, hepatitis b antigen, Hepatitis B Antigen, Hepatitis B antigen, Hepatitis B antigen , Hepatitis B Antigens
Swedish
GEPATITA B ANTIGENY, GEPATITA B VIRUSA ANTIGENY, HBAG, ÐÐÐÐТÐТРB ÐÐТÐÐÐÐЫ, ÐÐÐÐТÐТРB ÐÐРУСРÐÐТÐÐÐÐЫ
Japanese Båèçæå, HBæå, æå-HB, HBVæå, HBVé¢é£æå, èçæå-Bå
French Antigènes du virus de l’hépatite B, Antigènes de l’hépatite virale B, Antigènes HB, Ag HB, Antigène de l’hépatite virale B, Antigène VHB, Antigènes associés à l’hépatite B, Antigènes de l’hépatite B, Antigènes VHB
Croatian
Antygeny HB, Antygeny zapalenia wÄtroby B
Spanish antÃgeno del virus de la hepatitis B , antÃgeno del virus de la hepatitis B, AgHB, AntÃgenos de la Hepatitis B
German
Antigeni del virus dell’epatite B
Portuguese
Derived from the NIH UMLS

Whats The Hepatitis B Titer Test Used For

Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Serum Levels Help to Distinguish Active From Inactive Hepatitis B…

A hepatitis B titer test measures antibodies in your blood to see if youre immune either due to vaccination or previous infection.

Hepatitis B is a viral infection that targets your liver. It can be transmitted by coming into contact with the bodily fluids of an infected person. A person with the virus can also infect their child during birth.

Hepatitis B can develop into a chronic infection. Chronic infection occurs when your body cant fight off the virus within six months. Chronic hepatitis B infections most commonly develop less than six years old, especially in infants.

Hepatitis B titer tests can be used to evaluate:

  • whether a high-risk person is immune to hepatitis B
  • whether hepatitis B immunoglobulin is needed after a needle prick
  • men who have sex with men
  • people born in countries with a hepatitis B prevalence greater than 2 percent
  • people born in the United States not vaccinated as children and with parents born in regions with more than 8 percent hepatitis B prevalence

You may need your titer test results as proof of hepatitis B immunity in order to get into healthcare programs at many schools for example, the nursing program at Lone Star College. In the United States, employers are not allowed to withdraw a job offer if they learn you have hepatitis B.

Recommended Reading: What Is Autoimmune Hepatitis C

What Is The Normal Range For Hepatitis B Surface Antibody

  • Related Resources – What Is the Normal Range for Hepatitis B Surface Antibody?
  • Hepatitis B surface antibodies are measured in blood samples in milli-International Units/milliliter mIU/mL). The ranges for hepatitis B surface antibodies are:

    • Anti-HBs greater than 10-12 mIU/mL: Protected against hepatitis B virus infection, either from vaccination or successful recovery from a previous HBV infection.
    • Anti-HBs less than 5 mIU/mL: Negative for HBV infection, but susceptible and hence requires vaccination.
    • Anti-HBs from 5-12 mIU/mL: Inconclusive results and the test should be repeated.

    However, there is no standardization of these values so it is advisable to check the manufacturers values it is the reason values are mainly reported as positive or negative.

    Diagnosis Of Acute And Chronic Hepatitis B

    HBsAg is the first serologic marker to appear and may be detected within 1 to 2 weeks after exposure. It precedes the development of symptoms by an average of 4 weeks.104 The presence of HBsAg indicates ongoing infection. Qualitative but not quantitative methods are used by most clinical laboratories because the amount of antigen does not correlate with disease activity or with the presence of an acute or chronic infection.26 Some symptomatic patients may have self-limited, acute HBV infection without detectable HBsAg. These patients, up to 9% in some studies, have other detectable markers of infection.104 HBeAg appears virtually simultaneously, peaks, and then declines in parallel with HBsAg. It usually disappears before HBsAg. Adult patients who remain persistently positive for HBeAg for more than 10 weeks are likely to become chronically infected. HBeAg indicates a high level of viral replication and infectivity. Most patients with nondetectable HBeAg have resolving, minimal, or no active liver disease.26 Pre-core mutants of HBV do not express HBeAg they may be responsible for a more severe course and, in some cases, fulminant disease. Serum aminotransferase levels become raised but are nonspecific. They begin to increase just before the development of symptoms and then peak , with the development of jaundice.

    Howard C. Thomas, Jennifer A. Waters, in, 1998

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    Ontology: Hepatitis B Core Antibody Measurement

    86704
    English Hepatitis B core antibody measurement, Hepatitis B core antibody, Assay for total Hepatitis B core antibody , HBcAB measurement, Hepatitis B core antibody measurement
    Spanish Anticuerpos anti antÃgeno central de hepatitis B, medición de HBcAB, medición del anticuerpo antinuclear de la hepatitis B , medición del anticuerpo antinuclear de la hepatitis B
    Portuguese Anticorpo anti-nuclear da hepatite B
    Dutch
    Anticorps de noyau de l’hépatite B
    German
    Anticorpi anti-core del virus dell’epatite B
    Japanese
    Derived from the NIH UMLS

    How Can I Get A Hepatitis B Test

    Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen

    Hepatitis B testing is typically prescribed by a doctor and performed in a hospital, lab, or another medical setting. Taking a hepatitis B test requires a blood sample, which can be collected by a health care professional.

    For laboratory-based testing, blood is drawn from your vein. After blood is collected, the sample is sent to a laboratory for analysis.

    The test can also be ordered online and is available through our shop page.

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    What Is This Test

    This test looks for hepatitis B surface antigens in your blood. The test is used to find out whether you have a recent or long-standing infection from the hepatitis B virus .

    HBV has proteins called antigens on its surface that cause your immune system to make antibodies. It can take 30 to 150 days to develop symptoms of hepatitis B after you become infected. Hepatitis B surface antigens can be found in your blood within 12 weeks after the infection starts. They are one of the earliest signs of a hepatitis B infection.

    HBV is one of five hepatitis viruses. The others are hepatitis A, C, D, and E. Ninety-five percent of hepatitis infections are caused by these five viruses. HBV is spread through blood, seminal fluid, and vaginal secretions. The virus causes an infection in the liver. In most cases, this virus clears up on its own within six months. Bit in 6 to 10 percent of adults and 25 to 50 percent of children, the virus does not go away. This is called having a chronic infection. It may lead to liver cell damage scarring, or cirrhosis or liver cancer.

    Hepatitis B surface antigens are an early sign of an acute infection, and they are also present during chronic, or long-term, infection.

    What Is The Difference Between Hepatitis B Surface Antibody And Antigen

    An antigen is a substance that induces antibody production. Hepatitis B surface antigen is a protein on the surface of hepatitis B virus.

    Hepatitis B surface antibodies are produced by the bodys immune system in response to HBsAg. The presence of adequate hepatitis B surface antibodies in the blood indicates protection against hepatitis B virus infection.

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    Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Serum

    Determination of chronic HBV infection status

    This test should not be used as a screening or confirmatory test for blood donor specimens.

    Highlights

    This test should be used to test symptomatic individuals who may or may not have risk factors for hepatitis B virus infection.

    Reflex Tests Lists tests that may or may not be performed, at an additional charge, depending on the result and interpretation of the initial tests.

    Test Id
    No

    Testing Algorithm Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

    If hepatitis B surface antigen screen is reactive with signal-to-cutoff ratio in the range of 1.00 to 100.0 then HBsAg confirmation will be performed at an additional charge.

    A short description of the method used to perform the test

    Chemiluminescence Immunoassay

    NY State Available Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

    Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

    Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

    Hepatitis Bs Ag

    HBAG

    Testing Algorithm Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

    If hepatitis B surface antigen screen is reactive with signal-to-cutoff ratio in the range of 1.00 to 100.0 then HBsAg confirmation will be performed at an additional charge.

    Describes the specimen type validated for testing

    Serum SST

    Ordering Guidance

    Specimen Required

    Transmission Of Hepatitis B

    High Levels of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen…

    The hepatitis B virus is transmitted through blood and sexual fluids. This can most commonly occur in the following ways:

    Direct contact with infected blood

    From an infected pregnant person to their newborn during pregnancy and childbirth

    Needles and other medical/dental equipments or procedures that are contaminated or not sterile

    Unprotected sex

    Use of illegal or street drugs

    Body piercing, tattooing, acupuncture and even nail salons are other potential routes of infection unless sterile needles and equipment are used. In addition, sharing sharp instruments such as razors, toothbrushes, nail clippers, earrings and body jewelry can be a source of infection.

    Hepatitis B is NOT transmitted casually. It cannot be spread through toilet seats, doorknobs, sneezing, coughing, hugging or eating meals with someone who is infected with hepatitis B.

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    Screening Tests For Hepatitis B

    Your blood may be screened for HBV for many different reasons. There are several types of test, but the three generally included are the HBsAg, the antibody to HBsAg , and the antibody to hepatitis B core antigen .

    These tests allow the healthcare provider to know whether you could benefit from vaccination, or if you have active or chronic hepatitis B and need counseling, care, or treatment.

    You may be routinely screened if you are pregnant, are donating blood or tissue, need immunosuppressive therapy, or have end-stage renal disease. You will also be screened if you are in groups that are at higher risk for HBV.

    Hepatitis B Virus Antigens And Antibodies

    The Structure of Hepatitis B Virus

    The hepatitis B virus is a small DNA virus with unusual features similar to retroviruses, which is a prototype virus of the Hepadnaviridae family. HBV causes acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. The hepatitis B virus consists of an outer lipid envelope and an icosahedral nucleocapsid core composed of protein. The virus is one of the smallest enveloped animal viruses with a virion diameter of 42 nm, and also named Dane particles. Dane particles contains both envelope and core.

    The outer envelope contains embedded proteins which are involved in viral binding of susceptible cells. There are three types of proteins: small hepatitis surface proteins, middle hepatitis surface proteins and large hepatitis surface proteins, they are totally composed of hepatitis B surface proteins. The nucleocapsid encloses the viral DNA and a DNA polymerase that has reverse transcriptase activity.

    There are three types of Hepatitis B Virus particles in infectious serum by electron microscopy, Dane particles, filamentous particles and spherical particles. Except for Dane particles , there also exist pleomorphic forms, as filamentous particles and spherical particles .

    Hepatitis B Virus Antigens

    Hepatitis B surface antigen HBsAg

    Hepatitis B core antigen-HBcAg

    Hepatitis B e antigen-HBeAg

    The X gene codes for HBxAg. The product of the X gene is hepatitis B x antigen . It may be involved in carcinogenesis.

    Hepatitis B Virus Antibodies

    Referrence

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