Saturday, July 13, 2024

What Blood Test Shows Hepatitis

How Do You Diagnose Hepatitis A

Hepatitis C testing at Stoke-on-Trent Community Drug & Alcohol Service (video includes a blood test)

Hepatitis A testing uses a sample of blood to test for antibodies against the hepatitis A virus. When prescribed by a doctor, a blood sample may be collected in a hospital or other medical setting and sent to a laboratory for analysis. Blood is usually drawn from a vein in the patient’s arm or the back of the hand.

How To Prepare For Your First Appointment With A Hepatologist

Think through the questions that the doctor may ask you. Schedule some time to sit down and take notes before the appointment. Write down each of your symptoms and how long they have been going on. Think about any family members who have a history of liver disease or autoimmune conditions, and write them down as well. Finally, create a list of all of the medications, vitamins, and supplements you are currently taking.

Who Orders My Blood Tests

Your doctor typically orders blood tests for you during a physical, checkup, or an appointment intended to screen for a specific condition.

Its possible to order your own blood tests without a doctor through laboratories like LabCorp and Quest Diagnostics, but health insurance may not cover these tests.

While such blood tests may more accessible and convenient, it may be harder to interpret the results without a medical professional.

Some blood testing facilities may also not give you accurate results.

One infamous case of this is Theranos. The California biotechnology firm shut down in 2018 when an investigation uncovered lies and fraud around the accuracy of its private blood-testing technology.

Currently, litigation is underway against the founder and chief executive of the company, Elizabeth Holmes.

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Hepatitis B Antibody And Antigen Test

Most people who come into contact with hepatitis B will clear the virus during the first six months of their infection. During this phase, the condition is known as acute hepatitis B. People who do not clear the virus after six months will be diagnosed as having chronic hepatitis B, which can cause liver damage.

Tests are carried out to look for antigens and antibodies in your blood. The results of these may indicate several possibilities:

  • you have been infected by the virus in the past
  • you have a new infection
  • the infection is likely to go away by itself
  • the infection has become chronic .

These antigens and antibodies are known as serological or viral markers. Doctors will look for markers in your blood over the course of your infection to see how the virus is progressing and/or responding to treatment. In particular, finding surface and e antigens known as HBsAg and HBeAg and their corresponding antibodies will help your healthcare team understand more about the pattern of your disease, and how its likely to progress

What Are The Treatments For Viral Hepatitis

Hepatitis B Foundation: Understanding Your Hepatitis B Test Results

The treatment for viral hepatitis depends on the type and stage of the infection. Over the last several years, excellent treatments for both hepatitis B and C have become available. More and improved treatments are being evaluated all the time.

Your primary care doctor should be able to provide adequate care of your hepatitis. However, if you have severe hepatitis, you may require treatment by a hepatologist or gastroenterologist — specialists in diseases of the liver. Hospitalization is normally unnecessary unless you cannot eat or drink or are vomiting.

Hepatitis A usually requires minimal treatment and your liver usually heals within 2 months. Make sure you stay hydrated and well-nourished. While a vaccination can prevent you from getting hepatitis A, once you have had it, you cannot be re-infected.

Doctors sometimes recommend drug therapy for people with hepatitis B and C. Antiviral medication for hepatitis B includes adefovir , entecavir , interferon, lamivudine , peginterferon , telbivudine , and tenofovir.

Until recently, the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C was a course of peginterferon plus ribavirin for people with genotype 2 and 3, and peginterferon plus ribavirin plus a protease inhibitor for people with genotype 1. These treatments had been shown to be effective in from 50% to 80% of those infected with hepatitis C but the side effects were very difficult for people to tolerate.

Hepatitis in Pregnant Women

Other Points to Consider

Show Sources

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Who Should Be Vaccinated For Hepatitis B

All newborns should be vaccinated. Also, people who are under 18 who were not vaccinated at birth should also get the vaccine. Other groups who should be sure to be vaccinated are those in certain high-risk categories, such as:

  • People who have more than one sexual partner.
  • Men who have sex with men.
  • Adults with diabetes.
  • Sexual partners of infected people and people who share households with infected individuals.
  • People who are exposed to blood and other bodily fluids, including healthcare and public safety professionals, and people who work in jails and other places taking care of people who cant take care of themselves.

What Is The Outlook

Most people with hepatitis A recover without any complications. Once youve had hepatitis A, you cant get it again. Antibodies to the virus will protect you for life.

Some people may be at an increased risk for serious illness from hepatitis A. These include:

acute hepatitis B infections in the United States in 2018.

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What Does A Reactive Hcv Antibody Test Result Mean

A reactive or positive antibody test means you have been infected with the hepatitis C virus at some point in time.

Once people have been infected, they will always have antibodies in their blood. This is true if they have cleared the virus, have been cured, or still have the virus in their blood.

A reactive antibody test does not necessarily mean that you currently have hepatitis C and a follow-up test is needed.

Screening For Hepatitis B & C

Understanding Hepatitis B Serology Results

NYU Langone doctors provide screening for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, two forms of hepatitis that can become chronic and lead to serious liver damage without treatment.

Hepatologists, or liver specialists, and infectious disease specialists at NYU Langone recommend screening for some people who may be at increased risk of becoming infected.

Even though hepatitis B and C may cause no symptoms for years or even decades after infection, the viruses still may damage the liver. For this reason, screening is an important tool for early detection and treatment. It can prevent serious illness, such as cirrhosis and liver cancer, and hinder the spread of infection.

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How Is Hepatitis Treated

Someone who has hepatitis will need to drink enough fluids, eat healthy foods, and get rest. The persons family members may need to get hepatitis vaccines, if they havent already.

Later on, the person will get follow-up blood tests. Often the blood tests will show that the person no longer has hepatitis. Sometimes, the blood tests may show that someone is now a carrier of hepatitis he or she wont have hepatitis symptoms, but could pass the infection to other people.

Sometimes, blood tests will continue to show that some people still have hep B or C, which means they may have chronic hepatitis. If so, they will need to eat healthy foods and take very good care of themselves by getting rest and visiting the doctor regularly. In some cases, someone with chronic hepatitis may get special medicine for the condition.

We hope that this heads-up on hepatitis will help you stay safe. It may sound funny, but you can love your liver by washing your hands and making smart choices!

Hepatitis Blood Test Panel Acute

A Hepatitis Blood Test Panel includes: Hepatitis A antibody, IgM, hepatitis B core antibody, IgM, hepatitis B surface antigen, and hepatitis C antibody with reflex.

Also Known As: Acute Hepatitis Profile

Methodology:

No fasting required. Stop biotin consumption at least 72 hours prior to the collection.

Test Results:

2-3 days. May take longer based on weather, holiday or lab delays.

Also Known As: Acute Hepatitis Profile

Methodology:

No fasting required. Stop biotin consumption at least 72 hours prior to the collection.

Test Results:

2-3 days. May take longer based on weather, holiday or lab delays.

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What Blood Tests Are Important To Diagnose And Evaluate My Hepatitis B Infection

In order to understand your hepatitis B status, it is important that your doctor order the hepatitis B blood panel. This panel includes 3 basic biomarkers, but only one sample of blood is needed. Make sure you request a written copy of your blood test results so that you fully understand what tests were ordered and the actual results of each. Also, be sure to have your doctor clearly explain the results to you so that you fully understand your situation.

It is important to wait 6-8 weeks after a possible exposure before getting tested. If done before this time , the blood tests can have a false negative result. The window period is the time between exposure and the appearance of these markers in blood. The 3-part blood test includes the following:

1) Hepatitis B surface Antigen – This directly tests for the presence of the hepatitis B virus. It should be negative if there is NO virus present. 2) Hepatitis B surface Antibody – This tests for the production of protective antibodies against the hepatitis B virus. This blood test should be positive if the protective antibodies are produced in response to vaccination or recovery from a natural infection. 3) Hepatitis B core Antibody – This antibody does not provide any protection. A positive result may indicate that a person has been exposed to the hepatitis B virus. This test must be interpreted in relation to the above 2 test results.

How To Read Blood Test Results

Hepatitis B Foundation: Understanding Your Hepatitis B Test Results

While every laboratory or test-providing company may structure their result reports differently, they all must include the same components as mandated by federal legislation.

Some of that may be administrative content, such as the name of the person who did the blood test, the date the test was done, and the name of the doctor who ordered the test.

When it comes to understanding the results, you can look for the following :

  • Quantitative test result. Results will be typically written out numerically in cases when the test measured the quantity of something. For example, if the test measured the amount of cholesterol in your blood.
  • Abnormal markers. Often, a laboratory report will include some kind of marker to let you know if a result is outside the normal interval, and therefore abnormal. For example, you may see the letter H to indicate high, the letter L to indicate low, or the acronym WNL for within normal limits. You may see an asterisk and some additional comments in text if your results come out as highly abnormal. In this case, youll typically get a call from your doctor.
  • Reference range. Every laboratory will have its own reference range for each type of test. Typically, this reference range will be written in your laboratory report next to the numerical value of your result so you are able to see where your result falls in the range.

To a blood test, the nurse or technician:

  • Cleans the area on your arm where theyll draw the blood from.
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    Is There Anything Else I Should Know

    Hepatitis A vaccines are effective even when administered up to 15 days after exposure to the virus. Infants, immunocompromised people, people with chronic liver disease, or adults over 40 may be given an injection of immune globulin instead of the vaccine for post-exposure protection.

    Although hepatitis A IgM antibodies are considered diagnostic for acute infection with hepatitis A, there has been increasing use of the test in people who do not have signs and symptoms of acute hepatitis. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended that the test only be used for persons who clinically have acute hepatitis to decrease the possibility of falsely positive results.

    What Are My Next Steps Once I Get My Results

    It can be difficult to understand what the results of your test mean. A healthcare provider can help you interpret your results and decide whether you need to take further action:

    • If your results suggest that youre already immune to hepatitis B and arent contagious, you likely wont need to do anything.
    • If your results suggest that youre not immune, a doctor may recommend vaccination, especially if youre somebody whos at a high risk of infection.

    You may also need additional testing if more information is needed to interpret your results.

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    Educating Clients About Viral Hepatitis

    Clients may believe they know about viral , but their understanding of the disease may not be accurate. It is easy to confuse the three main types of viral , B, and C. Clients may have formed impressions based on limited or incorrect information. Counselors should briefly describe hepatitis A, B, and C, including their prevalence, , and relationship to drug use, as well as to other infections, such as HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. Specific strategies for speaking with clients include:

    • Speak clearly and keep the message simple, focused, and brief.
    • Use language, examples, and concepts that the client understands.
    • Use appropriate visual aids.
    • Frame numerical statements in terms that are easy to visualize. Say 5 out of 100 people rather than 5 percent of the population say more than half instead of the majority.
    • Repeat the information at different times in different ways. The average client retains only approximately one-third of what he or she is told. Summarize essential points.
    • Pay attention to a clients response to the information. For example, if a client stiffens his or her posture, consider saying, I notice that this topic seems to make you uncomfortable. It does for a lot of people. Please tell me what youre feeling right now. Id really like to help you with this.
    • Use the opportunity to describe the potential detrimental effects of alcohol and other substance use on the liver of a person who is infected with HCV.

    Is There A Cure For Hepatitis

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    According to Zappas, there is no technical cure for viral hepatitis, and antibodies will always test positive in a patient who has experienced hepatitis A, B or C. The management of chronic hepatitis B is complex and based on a myriad of factors. Some patients manage their condition with long-term antiviral medications.

    However, vaccinations for hepatitis A and B have proven highly effective. Hepatitis A and B vaccinations are recommended and routinely done in infancy, Zappas affirmed. Most people respond to these vaccinations, but post-vaccination testing may be indicated in high-risk patients.

    The outlook is even brighter when it comes to hepatitis C: Over the last 10 years, the hepatitis C treatment regimens have evolved, Zappas said. Now, theres nearly a 90% cure rate with certain antiviral medications, which can eradicate the replication of the hepatitis C RNA and therefore abate the damage of the virus on the liver. It is important to note that patients are not immune to hepatitis C after treatment, and can be reinfected and/or contract another strain.

    To measure the effects, providers look for a sustained virologic response indicating that the virus remains inactive, which is evaluated between 12 and 24 weeks after beginning the medication.

    To reference the work of our faculty online, we ask that you directly quote their work where possible and attribute it to âFACULTY NAME, a professor in the USC Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work

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    Preparing Clients For Screening

    Once clients are comfortable talking about viral , they might be more willing to undergo screening. However, clients might be anxious about the test itself a reassurance that testing is a simple procedure can help allay these concerns. Many substance use treatment facilities do not offer screening, and clients might need to be referred elsewhere. The following strategies can enhance the discussion of the hepatitis screening process and hepatitis prevention:

    Testing Procedures And Costs

    The test for HCV antibodies, as well as follow-up blood tests, can be done in most labs that perform routine blood work.

    A regular blood sample will be taken and analyzed. No special steps, such as fasting, are needed on your part.

    Many insurance companies cover hepatitis C testing, but check with your insurer first to be sure.

    Many communities offer free or low-cost testing, too. Check with your doctors office or local hospital to find out whats available near you.

    Testing for hepatitis C is simple and no more painful than any other blood test.

    But if youre at risk for the disease or think you may have been exposed to the virus, getting tested and starting treatment if necessary can help prevent serious health problems for years to come.

    CDC recommends that all adults ages 18 years and older should be screened for hepatitis C except in settings where the prevalence of HCV infection is less than 0.1%.

    Also, all pregnant women should be screened during each pregnancy, except in setting where the prevalence of HCV infection is less than 0.1%.

    Hepatitis C is often associated with sharing needles . But there are other methods of transmission.

    For example, healthcare workers who are regularly exposed to other peoples blood are at higher risk for contracting the virus.

    Getting a tattoo from an unlicensed tattoo artist or facility where needles may not be properly sterilized also increases the risk of transmission.

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