Common And Local Adverse Events
HB vaccine is well tolerated. Reactions are generally mild and transient, and include: irritability, headache, fatigue and injection site reactions in 10% or more of recipients.
There is no increase in adverse events when HAHB vaccine is compared with HA vaccine given alone or concomitantly with HB vaccine at a different injection site. When the adult formulation of HAHB vaccine is given to children in the 2 dose schedule, there is no increase in adverse events compared with those occurring after administration of the pediatric formulation of HAHB vaccine.
Reactions are usually mild and transient, and include fever, irritability, restlessness and injection site reactions .
Headache, diarrhea, fever, urticaria, angioedema and injection site reactions may occur.
How Far Apart Should Hep A Shots Be Given
How far apart should Hep A shots be given? The first type, the single-dose hepatitis A vaccine, is given as two shots, 6 months apart, and both shots are needed for long-term protection against hepatitis A.
Do you need 2 doses of Hep A? Children need 2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine: First dose: 12 through 23 months of age. Second dose: at least 6 months after the first dose.
What happens if you dont get the second Hep A shot? If you dont get your second dose at the recommended time, you can still get it later. You wont have to repeat the first dose. If you happen to get an extra dose, it isnt harmful, according to the CDC . Also, theres no cause for concern if one dose was Havrix and the other Vaqta.
How long can you wait between hepatitis shots? The recommended schedule for the hepatitis B vaccine is to receive the first shot, followed in one month by the second shot. Six months following the first shot, you should receive your third and final shot of the series.
Treatments For Hepatitis B
Treatment for hepatitis B depends on how long you have been infected for.
If you have been exposed to the virus in the past few days, emergency treatment can help stop you becoming infected.
If you have only had the infection for a few weeks or months , you may only need treatment to relieve your symptoms while your body fights off the infection.
If you have had the infection for more than 6 months , you may be offered treatment with medicines that can keep the virus under control and reduce the risk of liver damage.
Chronic hepatitis B often requires long-term or lifelong treatment and regular monitoring to check for any further liver problems.
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Who Needs A Hepatitis A Vaccine
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends hepatitis A vaccination for all children in the United States when they are one year of age, all children and teens through age 18 who were not pre- viously vaccinated, certain children age 6 through 11 months who are traveling outside the U.S., all adults
Hepatitis B Vaccine Side Effects
As with any medication, the hepatitis B vaccine may cause some side effects. Most people dont experience any unwanted effects. The most common symptom is a sore arm from the injection site.
When receiving the vaccination, youll likely receive information or a pamphlet regarding the side effects that you might expect, and others that warrant medical attention.
Mild side effects usually last only . Mild side effects of the vaccine include:
- redness, swelling, or itching at the injection site
- a purple spot or lump at the injection site
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Prevalence Of Chronic Hepatitis B
The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection varies between and within countries:58-61
- < 0.5% among Caucasians in the United States, northern Europe and Australia
- 15% in Mediterranean countries, parts of eastern Europe, Africa, and Central and South America
- > 10% in many sub-Saharan African, East and Southeast Asian, and Pacific island populations
Regions where 2% of the population is positive to hepatitis B surface antigen are considered to have moderate to high prevalence. In these regions, people mainly acquire the infection perinatally or in early childhood.55
Where To Get The Hepatitis B Vaccine
If you are already sure that you need the hepatitis B vaccine, you can book a vaccination appointment at your local pharmacy.
If you would like to discuss your specific requirements with a medical advisor, book a free telephone consultation. A Practio nurse will give an individual assessment of your needs and recommend a suitable vaccination programme.
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Symptoms Of Hepatitis B
Many people with hepatitis B will not experience any symptoms and may fight off the virus without realising they had it.
If symptoms do develop, they tend to happen 2 or 3 months after exposure to the hepatitis B virus.
Symptoms of hepatitis B include:
- flu-like symptoms, including tiredness, a fever, and general aches and pains
- loss of appetite
- tummy pain
- yellowing of the skin and eyes
These symptoms will usually pass within 1 to 3 months , although occasionally the infection can last for 6 months or more .
Immunisation Against Hepatitis B For People At Risk
In Victoria free hepatitis B vaccine is provided for people who are at increased risk, including:
- Men who have sex with men.
- People living with HIV.
- People living with hepatitis C.
- People no longer in a custodial setting who commenced, but did not complete, a free vaccine course while in custody.
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
- People born in priority hepatitis B endemic countries who arrived in Australia in the last 10 years priority countries include China, Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam, Afghanistan, Thailand, South Korea, Myanmar , Indonesia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Cambodia.
- Vulnerable citizens people who have experienced hardship that prevented them from accessing the vaccine earlier. Vulnerable citizens are vaccinated based on an individual assessment by an immunisation provider.
Immunisation is also recommended, but not free, for people who are at increased risk including:
If you think you have been exposed to hepatitis B, see a doctor immediately. Your doctor can give you treatment that, in some instances, can greatly reduce your risk of infection with hepatitis B.
Remember that being immunised against hepatitis B does not protect you against HIV, hepatitis C or other diseases spread by blood or bodily fluids. It is important that you take precautions to make sure you are not exposed to these diseases.
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Who May Need The Hepatitis B Vaccine
In general, you should consider having the hepatitis B vaccine, if you are travelling to an area of the world where you have a high risk of catching the disease. Check if there is a current risk of hepatitis B in the country you are travelling to.
In addition, the hepatitis B vaccine may be recommended to people who have a higher chance of getting ill. This includes:
people who inject illegal drugs
people who have unprotected sex
people who have contact with an infected person
babies born to mothers who have hepatitis B
But despite the fact that the majority is recommended to have the vaccine, the hepatitis B injection can cause problems for people who are allergic to any of the ingredients of the vaccine, pregnant and breastfeeding women, and people who are planning to have a baby.
It can also cause problems if you are currently unwell with a fever, if you are on dialysis for a kidney problem or if you are a carrier of hepatitis C or HIV.
If you belong to any of these groups or you are unsure whether you need the hepatitis b vaccine, you can book a free telephone consultation with one of our prescribing nurses for a personal assessment.
Concerns About Immunisation Side Effects
If the side effect following immunisation is unexpected, persistent or severe, or if you are worried about yourself or your child’s condition after a vaccination, see your doctor or immunisation nurse as soon as possible or go directly to a hospital.
It is important to seek medical advice if you are unwell, as this may be due to other illness, rather than because of the vaccination.
Immunisation side effects may be reported to SAEFVIC, the Victorian vaccine safety and reporting service. Discuss with your immunisation provider how to report adverse events in other states or territories.
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Burden Of Chronic Hepatitis B In Australia
Chronic infection and its sequelae, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, contribute to most of the hepatitis B disease burden in Australia. The burden from chronic disease has been increasing with the increasing number of immigrants from regions of high hepatitis B prevalence.62
First-generation immigrants from countries of high hepatitis B endemicity usually retain the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection of the country they are from. Migrants born in Asian, Pacific islands, North African, Middle Eastern and Mediterranean countries have a significantly higher prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection than the Australian-born population.62
Other population groups with higher prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection include:63,64
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
- people with HIV
- people who injected drugs between 1980 and 1990
- household contacts of someone diagnosed with hepatitis between 1980 and 1990
Notification of chronic hepatitis B virus infection depends on hepatitis B testing and reporting. Many people with chronic hepatitis B virus infection remain undiagnosed. Mathematical modelling suggests that, in Australia in 2015:64
- about 230,000 people were living with hepatitis B virus infection
- about 419 deaths were due to hepatitis B virus infection
Hepatitis A Vaccine: Canadian Immunization Guide
For health professionals
Last partial chapter update
: The immunoglobulin dosage for Hepatitis A pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylaxis was increased based on the Product Monograph update for GamaSTAN®, which is available on Health Canada’s Drug Product Database.
Last complete chapter revision: March 2018
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Can I Catch Hepatitis A From My Husband
Contact with feces of an infected person through sexual activity, including anal sex or oral-anal activity, can result in the spread of hepatitis A to a sexual partner. Even a condom may not be protective, because handling a contaminated condom may lead to spread of the virus onto hands and into the mouth.
What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Hepatitis B Immunisation
All medicines and vaccines can have side effects. Sometimes they are serious, most of the time theyre not.
Generally, the chance of having a serious side effect from a vaccine is much lower than the chance of serious harm if you caught the disease.
Talk to your doctor about possible side effects of hepatitis B vaccines, or if you or your child have possible side effects that worry you.
Common side effects of hepatitis B vaccines include:
- soreness where the needle went in
- low-grade fever
- body aches.
The Consumer Medicine Information links in How do you get immunised against hepatitis B? list the side effects of each vaccine.
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Hepatitis B Vaccine On The Nhs
A hepatitis B-containing vaccine is provided for all babies born in the UK on or after 1 August 2017. This is given as part of the 6-in-1 vaccine.
Hospitals, GP surgeries and sexual health or GUM clinics usually provide the hepatitis B vaccination free of charge for anyone at risk of infection.
GPs are not obliged to provide the hepatitis B vaccine on the NHS if you’re not thought to be at risk.
GPs may charge for the hepatitis B vaccine if you want it as a travel vaccine, or they may refer you to a travel clinic for a private vaccination. The current cost of the vaccine is around £50 a dose.
Primary Hepatitis B Vaccinations For Children In The Uk
In the UK, children born after August 2017 are eligible to be given hepatitis B vaccines when they are young.
This consists of three doses of a hepatitis B vaccine. These doses are given at eight, 12 and 16 weeks of age. Babies at high risk of developing the hepatitis B infection from infected mothers are given additional doses of the hepatitis B vaccine at birth, four weeks and one year of age.
However, if your child was born before this time, they are likely unvaccinated. If you are unsure which vaccinations your child has received, you should consult your doctor.
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Concurrent Administration Of Vaccines
HB-containing vaccines may be administered concomitantly with other vaccines or with HBIg. Different injection sites and separate needles and syringes must be used for concurrent parenteral injections.
Refer to Timing of Vaccine Administration in Part 1 for additional information about concurrent administration of vaccines.
Long Term Effects Of One Or Two Doses Of Hepatitis B Vaccine In Adults After Five Years
The aim of this study is to evaluatehepatitis B vaccine protection in those adults who have taken one or twodoes of vaccine before. It was a retrospective cross sectional study wasconducted on fifty-six military personnel in Tehran, Iran in the spring2007. Demographic data such as age, marital status, education level, numberof vaccine doses injected and, type of vaccine and date of last vaccinationwas collected. Their serum was tested for HBs Ab, HBc Ab and HBs Ag andfinally the results were analyzed by SPSS software. All individuals weremale with the mean age of 33.9 ± 8.9 years. Twelve individuals whohad only received one dose of injected vaccine had no antibody againstHBsAg and no protection against hepatitis B virus. Of forty-four individualsthat had received two doses of injected vaccine, 27 persons wereprotected and had serum HBsAb more than 10 MIU mL-1. In conclusionone dose of HBV vaccine cannot produce immunity for five years but twodoses of HBV vaccine can produce immunity for five years. However, HBsAbshould be tested to make sure of immunity.
|Howto cite this article:Gholam Ali Ghorbani, Seyed Moaied Alavian and Hamid Reza Ghadimi, 2008. Long Term Effects of One or Two Doses of Hepatitis B Vaccine in Adults After Five Years. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 11: 660-663.URL:|
MATERIALS AND METHODS
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What Are The Risk Factors For Getting Hepatitis B
Due to the way that hepatitis B spreads, people most at risk for getting infected include:
- Children whose mothers have been infected with hepatitis B.
- Children who have been adopted from countries with high rates of hepatitis B infection.
- People who have unprotected sex and/or have been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection.
- People who live with or work in an institutional setting, such as prisons or group homes.
- Healthcare providers and first responders.
- People who share needles or syringes.
- People who live in close quarters with a person with chronic hepatitis B infection.
- People who are on dialysis.
For How Long Is The Hepatitis B Vaccine Effective
The duration of immunity to hepatitis B virus from plasma-derived vaccine was generally believed to be around 10 years. However, rigorous determination of the upper time limit for immunity has not been carried out. Such information could be useful in devising vaccination schedules and possibly for developing public health policy with respect to the rationale for and timing of booster vaccinations.
McMahon and colleagues at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention studied 1578 Alaska Natives vaccinated at age 6 months or older between 1981 and 1982. Subjects received three doses of plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine appropriate for their age, and were tested annually for antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen and HBV infection markers for the first 11 years.
Anti-HBs levels decreased in the study population from a mean concentration of 822 mIU/mL after vaccination to 27 mIU/mL at 15 years. Higher levels of anti-HBs were noted in males, individuals with higher initial anti-HB levels, and those who were older at the time of vaccination. After adjusting for initial anti-HBs level and sex, the lowest HBs levels at 15 years post-vaccination were observed in those vaccinated between 6 months and 4 years of age.
Researchers detected asymptomatic breakthrough infections in 16 participants. Infection occurred more frequently in vaccine non-responders than in responders .
Annals of Internal Medicine
Persons With Inadequate Immunization Records
Evidence of long term protection against HB has only been demonstrated in individuals who have been vaccinated according to a recommended immunization schedule. Independent of their anti-HBs titres, children and adults lacking adequate documentation of immunization should be considered susceptible and started on an immunization schedule appropriate for their age and risk factors. Refer to Immunization of Persons with Inadequate Immunization Records in Part 3 for additional information.
What Hepatitis B Immunisation Involves
Full protection involves having 3 injections of the hepatitis B vaccine at the recommended intervals.
Babies born to mothers with hepatitis B infection will be given 6 doses of hepatitis B-containing vaccine to ensure long-lasting protection.
If you’re a healthcare worker or you have kidney failure, you’ll have a follow-up appointment to see if you have responded to the vaccine.
If you have been vaccinated by your employer’s occupational health service, you can request a blood test to see if you have responded to the vaccine.
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Interchangeability Of Hepatitis B Vaccines
The Engerix-B and H-B-Vax II vaccines are manufactured by different processes, and the hepatitis B surface antigen content of an equivalent dose of these vaccines is different. Switching vaccine brands is not recommended.
If the brand of vaccine used for previous doses is not known, use another age-appropriate equivalent dose brand. See:
For example, a study in healthy neonates showed comparable high levels of immunogenicity between 2 different mixed regimens that used 2 monovalent hepatitis B vaccines from different manufacturers.33