Saturday, January 28, 2023

Hepatitis B Vaccine Good For How Long

For Adults And Children

Why Are Adults 19 to 59 Recommended to Get the Hepatitis B Vaccine?

This vaccine schedule involves three doses within 2 months, followed by a booster dose at 1 year.

The initial accelerated doses provide immediate protection from HBV, and the booster dose helps provide long-term protection.

Below is the accelerated vaccination schedule approved for both adults and children:

Vaccine series
2 months after the first dose 1 year after the first dose

Why Should I Vaccinate My Newborn Child If I Know That I Am Not Infected With Hepatitis B Virus

Before the hepatitis B vaccine, every year in the United States about 18,000 children were infected with hepatitis B virus by the time they were 10 years old. This statistic is especially important because people are much more likely to develop liver cancer or cirrhosis if they are infected early in life, rather than later in life .

About 9,000 of the 18,000 children infected in the first 10 years of life caught the virus from their mother during birth. However, many young children didn’t catch the disease from their mother. They caught it from either another family member or someone else who came in contact with the child. Because hepatitis B can be transmitted by relatively casual contact with items contaminated with the blood of an infected person, and because many people who are infected with hepatitis B virus don’t know that they have it, it is virtually impossible to be “careful enough” to avoid this infection.

For these reasons, all young children are recommended to receive the hepatitis B vaccine. The best time to receive the first dose is right after birth. This will ensure that the child will be protected as early as possible from catching hepatitis B from people who dont know that they are infected with the virus.

Listen to Dr. Offit explain why newborns get the hepatitis B vaccine by watching this short video, part of the series Talking About Vaccines with Dr. Paul Offit.

How You Can Get Hepatitis B

You can get hepatitis B from:

  • injecting drugs using shared needles
  • being injured by a used needle
  • having a tattoo or piercing with unsterilised equipment
  • having a blood transfusion in a country that does not check blood for hepatitis B. Blood transfusions in the UK are checked for hepatitis B.

If you’re pregnant and have hepatitis B, you can also pass it onto your baby during pregnancy or birth.

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Immunisation Against Hepatitis B For Children

Vaccination is the best protection against hepatitis B infection and is recommended for all infants and young children, adolescents and those in high-risk groups. Vaccination can be with a vaccine against hepatitis B alone or with a combination vaccine.

Protection against hepatitis B is available free of charge under the National Immunisation Program Schedule.

In Victoria, vaccination against hepatitis B is free for all babies and children including:

  • Babies at birth vaccinate with hepatitis B vaccine as soon as possible after birth.
  • Babies at 2, 4 and 6 months immunisation in the form of a diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, hepatitis B, polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine .
  • Premature babies at 12 months premature babies born under 32 weeks gestation or under 2,000g birth weight receive a single booster dose.
  • Children up to and including 20 years of age.

What Is Hepatitis B Virus

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B virus attacks the liver. Hepatitis B virus infections are known as the “silent epidemic” because many infected people don’t experience symptoms until decades later when they develop hepatitis , cirrhosis , or cancer of the liver . Every year in the United States about 22,000 new hepatitis B infections occur and about 2,000 people die from their infections.

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The Hepatitis B Vaccine

The hepatitis B vaccine is used to prevent hepatitis B. Its usually provided in three doses.

The first dose can be taken on a date you choose. The second dose must be taken 1 month later. The third and final dose must be taken 6 months after the first dose.

Some people may need two or four doses of this vaccine.

There is also a newer hepatitis B vaccine thats offered in two doses.

How Common Is Hepatitis B

One U.S. study following trends in hepatitis B infection over a three-year periodfound that 4.3% of the population had a past or present HBV infection.

Estimates suggest that about 240 million people around the world have chronic hepatitis B. Up to 1.89 million people in the United States have a chronic HBV infection.

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What Is In The Hepatitis B Vaccine

Vaccines are given by a course of three injections, usually as part of the 6-in-1 vaccine scheme.

Although there are different types of vaccines, they usually contain one of the proteins from the surface of the hepatitis B virus thats then inserted in to the genetic code into yeast cells which stops the risk of viral DNA getting into the final product.

They also contain small amounts of sodium chloride and aluminium, and can contain yeast and formaldehyde.

Babies And Hepatitis B Vaccination

Hepatitis B Vaccine for Babies – Importance and Recommended Schedule

Pregnant women have a routine blood test for hepatitis B as part of their antenatal care.

Babies born to mothers infected with hepatitis B need to be given a dose of the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of their birth, followed by further doses at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age, plus a final dose when they’re 1 year old.

Babies of mothers identified by the blood test as particularly infectious might also be given an injection of HBIG at birth on top of the hepatitis B vaccination to give them rapid protection against infection.

All babies born to mothers infected with hepatitis B should be tested at 1 year of age to check if they have become infected with the virus.

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Hepatitis B Vaccination Schedule For Children And Infants

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that babies and children receive three 0.5 milliliter doses of either Engerix-B or Recombivax HB, starting just after birth.

The current recommended hepatitis B vaccine schedule for children and infants is as follows:

Hepatitis B Vaccination Schedule for Infants and Children
Hepatitis B Vaccine Dose
3 618 months old

If your child is undergoing hemodialysis, your healthcare provider may recommend that they receive additional doses of the HBV vaccine.

The Hepatitis B Vaccine Is Recommended For:

  • People who live with someone who has hepatitis B
  • People with chronic liver disease or end-stage kidney disease
  • Adults ages 1959
  • Adults, 60 and older, with or without known risk factors for hepatitis B infection

People who have not completed the vaccine series should contact their primary care provider to discuss the vaccine.

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Vaccine Side Effects And Risks

The vaccine is safe, effective and generally well tolerated. The most frequent reactions are pain and redness where the vaccine was given. Common side effects include headache, fever, dizziness, nausea or feeling faint shortly after receiving the vaccine. Reactions are usually mild and lasts only a few days.

In rare cases, serious allergic reactions such as trouble breathing, rash, swelling in the throat and face may occur. Allergic reactions can be treated and are usually temporary. Please stay at the clinic for 15 minutes after vaccination for staff to monitor for any reactions. There are no long-term side effects associated with this vaccine.

Where Is It Found

Green Cross Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin 0.5 Ml HepaBSV, Per Box 1 Vial ...

Hepatitis B prevalence is highest among some sub-Saharan African, East and Southeast Asian, and Pacific island populations but can also be found in high numbers in the Mediterranean countries, parts of Eastern Europe, Africa, and Central and South America. It is important to note that although there is a higher risk in certain countries or regions, Hepatitis B occurs in all countries.

Some people may have a higher risk of contracting Hepatitis B through their occupation, i.e. healthcare workers, police and other emergency services workers, funeral company employees, staff of residential care facilities, tattooists, acupuncturists, people who perform body piercings and sex workers.

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For Adults At High Risk Of Exposure

Adults who have not received the hepatitis B vaccine series should be immunized when they have an increased risk of exposure. Job, travel, health condition, or lifestyle all may increase a person’s risk of contracting hepatitis B.

People who live or work where there is risk of exposure include:

  • Health care and public safety workers who are likely to be exposed to blood or blood products.
  • Clients and staff of institutions or residential settings with known or potential HBV carriers.
  • People planning extended travel to China, Southeast Asia, Africa, and other areas where hepatitis B infection is high.

People who have health conditions that put them at high risk for exposure or a severe infection include:

  • People who have a severe kidney disease that requires them to have their blood filtered through a machine .
  • People who have chronic liver disease.
  • People who have hemophilia and other conditions in which they need to have blood products on an ongoing basis.
  • People who had a stem cell transplant.

People whose lifestyle puts them at high risk for exposure include:

  • People who inject illegal drugs.
  • Men who have sex with men.
  • People who have had more than one sex partner in the past 6 months or who have a history of sexually transmitted infection.
  • Household contacts and sex partners of hepatitis B carriers.
  • Prison inmates.

Hepatitis A And Hepatitis B Vaccine Dosing Information

Usual Adult Dose for Hepatitis B Prophylaxis:

Primary immunization: 1 mL IM in the deltoid area at 0, 1 and 6 months.Alternatively, a 4 dose schedule given on days 0, 7, and 21 to 30 followed by a booster at month 12 may be used.

Usual Adult Dose for Hepatitis A Prophylaxis:

Primary immunization: 1 mL IM in the deltoid area at 0, 1 and 6 months.Alternatively, a 4 dose schedule given on days 0, 7, and 21 to 30 followed by a booster at month 12 may be used.

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Who Should Be Vaccinated

For babies, the first dose ofhepatitis B should be administered at birth or within seven days following birth. A further three doses are given in a combination vaccine at six weeks, four, and six months of age as part of theNational Immunisation Program. Adults are recommended to receive a three dose course of hepatitis B vaccine, if they are not immune.

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Two versions of hepatitis B vaccine are available. One, called Heplisav-B, contains a novel adjuvant that was not present in previous versions used by adults . Some people did not respond to the older version hepatitis B vaccine. In fact, in a group of adults younger than 40 years of age who received two doses of the older version vaccine 75 of 100 were protected. Following the third dose, this number increased to 90 of 100. However, people older than 40 years of age were less likely to respond to the vaccine with increasing age. On the other hand, 90 to 100 of 100 adults 18 years of age and older respond to Heplisav-B, which was approved for use in 2018.

About 5-10 of every 100 children and adults younger than 40 years of age do not respond to the third dose of the hepatitis B vaccine. Some of these people will be recommended to get vaccinated again. About 5 of 100 people will still not respond after getting all recommended doses of both series. Note that children younger than 18 years of age cannot get Heplisav-B.

If the people who do not respond to vaccination are determined not to have chronic hepatitis B, they will be reliant on taking precautions to reduce the chance of exposure and relying on those around them for protection. In other words, these people will be reliant on herd immunity.

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Hepatitis B Vaccine Side Effects

The hepatitis B vaccine is considered a very safe and effective vaccine. Its made with an inactivated virus, so most types of the vaccine are even safe for pregnant people.

The hepatitis B vaccine may cause some mild side effects. The most common symptom is redness, swelling, or soreness where the injection was given. Some people also experience headache or fever. These effects usually last a day or two .

Rarely, some people have a serious and potentially life threatening allergic reaction to the vaccine. Call 911 or get to a hospital immediately if you experience any of the following symptoms after vaccination:

Immunisation Against Hepatitis B

The current Australian immunisation program provides free hepatitis B vaccine to protect all children against the hepatitis B virus.

A full course of hepatitis B injections must be given for a child to be protected. It is recommended that this course begins within 24 hours of birth with a vaccine against hepatitis B alone. Further doses are routinely given at 2 months , 4 months and 6 months of age, as a combination vaccine.

Vaccination is the best protection against hepatitis B infection. In Victoria a free hepatitis B vaccine is available for a number of groups at high risk, including but not limited to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, men who have sex with men, and people living with HIV.

The adult course involves 3 doses of the vaccine over 6 months and gives protection to about 95 per cent of people. Once you have had the 3 doses, you can have a blood test to see if you are protected.

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Pahos Technical Cooperation Aims To:

  • Provide guidance to national immunization programs for the introduction of universal hepatitis B birth dose and for maintenance of high infant vaccination coverage.
  • Provide access to affordable monovalent hepatitis B and combined vaccines containing hepatitis B for countries in the Americas through the Revolving Fund.
  • Monitor and reports progress towards hepatitis B regional elimination targets.
  • In coordination with WHO, contribute to developing methodologies, guidance and a process for the validation of mother-to-child and early childhood horizontal hepatitis B elimination in the countries in the Americas.

Infant Hep B vaccination

  • travelers to countries where the virus is endemic
  • men who have sex with men and
  • people with chronic liver disease .

In countries with high endemicity, the use of vaccines is limited as most adults are naturally immune.

While the 2-dose regimen of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine is used in many countries, other countries may consider the inclusion of a single-dose inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in their immunization schedules.

Facts About Hepatitis B

hepatitis B: Hepatitis B immunization of babies shows an upward trend ...
  • Two billion people, or one in three, have been infected with hepatitis B worldwide. Of these, almost 300 million live with chronic hepatitis B. This means about 1 of every 26 people throughout the world are living with a chronic hepatitis B infection.
  • Each year about 900,000 people die from hepatitis B worldwide, and about 2,000 of these deaths occur in the United States.
  • Hepatitis B is transmitted through blood and is 100 times more infectious than HIV. An estimated one billion infectious viruses are in one-fifth of a teaspoon of blood of an infected person, so exposure to even a very small amount, such as on a shared toothbrush, can cause infection.
  • Hepatitis B is sometimes referred to as the silent epidemic because most people who are infected do not experience any symptoms.
  • Liver cancer accounted for about 5% of cancer deaths in the U.S. during 2020.
  • Almost half of liver cancers are caused by chronic infection with hepatitis B.
  • The World Health Organization recommends the inclusion of hepatitis B vaccine in immunization programs of all countries in 2019, more than 8 of 10 infants born throughout the world received three doses of hepatitis B vaccine.

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More Information On Side Effects

Reactions listed under âpossible side effectsâ or âadverse eventsâ on vaccine product information sheets may not all be directly linked to the vaccine. See Vaccine side effects and adverse reactions for more information on why this is the case.

If you are concerned about any reactions that occur after vaccination, consult your doctor. In the UK you can report suspected vaccine side effects to the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency through the Yellow Card Scheme

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Before Taking This Medicine

Hepatitis A and B vaccine will not protect you against infection with hepatitis C or E, or other viruses that affect the liver. It will also not protect you from hepatitis A or B if you are already infected with the virus, even if you do not yet show symptoms.

You should not receive this vaccine if you are allergic to yeast or neomycin, or if you have ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction to any vaccine containing hepatitis A or hepatitis B.

Tell your doctor if you have ever had:

  • an allergy to latex rubber or

  • a weak immune system .

You can still receive a vaccine if you have a minor cold. In the case of a more severe illness with a fever or any type of infection, wait until you get better before receiving this vaccine.

Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

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