Thursday, September 22, 2022

Care Plan For Hepatitis C

Nursing Care Plan On Hepatitis B

Case Study on Hepatitis C||NCP||Case Presentation.

This Nursing care plan is based on the format of Indian nursing council according in which assessment points aren’t included. The hepatitis B is a most dangerous diseases condition and it’s Incubation period, 2 to 3 months.Prodronal symptoms : fatigue, anorexia, transient fever, abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, headache.May also have myalgias, photophobia, arthritis, angioedema, urticaria, maculopapular rash, vasculitis. Icteric phase occurs 1 week to 2 months after onset of symptoms.

This Nursing care plan is based on the format of Indian nursing council according in which assessment points aren’t included. The hepatitis B is a most dangerous diseases condition and it’s Incubation period, 2 to 3 months.Prodronal symptoms : fatigue, anorexia, transient fever, abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, headache.May also have myalgias, photophobia, arthritis, angioedema, urticaria, maculopapular rash, vasculitis. Icteric phase occurs 1 week to 2 months after onset of symptoms.

Box 1 Hepatology Nurse Specialist Role

This specialist role involves:

  • Screening clients at risk of hepatitis C virus infection
  • Educating clients and partners/relatives/friends about HCV after a positive diagnosis
  • Taking a thorough medical history, which includes assessing pre-existing conditions and looking for signs of extra-hepatic manifestations of HCV and cirrhosis or decompensated liver disease
  • Liaising with other health professionals involved in clients care, which is particularly important for managing side-effects
  • Closely monitoring treatment efficacy and side-effects according to a treatment protocol
  • Providing education to other health professionals to increase awareness of the disease

Questions For Your Doctor

When you visit the doctor, you may want to ask questions to get the information you need to manage your hepatitis C. If you can, have a family member or friend take notes. You might ask:

  • What kinds of tests will I need?
  • Are there any medications that might help?
  • What are the side effects of the medications you might prescribe?
  • How do I know when I should call the doctor?
  • How much exercise can I get, and is it all right to have sex?
  • Which drugs should I avoid?
  • What can I do to prevent the disease from getting worse?
  • How can I avoid spreading hepatitis C to others?
  • Are my family members at risk for hepatitis C?
  • Should I be vaccinated against other types of hepatitis?
  • How will you keep tabs on the condition of my liver?
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    Stages Of Hepatitis C

    The hepatitis C virus affects people in different ways and has several stages:

    • Incubation period. This is the time between first exposure to the start of the disease. It can last anywhere from 14 to 80 days, but the average is 45
    • Acute hepatitis C. This is a short-term illness that lasts for the first 6 months after the virus enters your body. After that, some people who have it will get rid of, or clear, the virus on their own.
    • Chronic hepatitis C. For most people who get hepatitis C — up to 85% — the illness moves into a long-lasting stage . This is called a chronic hepatitis C infection and can lead to serious health problems like liver cancer or cirrhosis.
    • Cirrhosis. This disease leads to inflammation that, over time, replaces your healthy liver cells with scar tissue. It usually takes about 20 to 30 years for this to happen, though it can be faster if you drink alcohol or have HIV.
    • Liver cancer. Cirrhosis makes liver cancer more likely. Your doctor will make sure you get regular tests because there are usually no symptoms in the early stages.

    Learn more about the stages and progression of hepatitis C.

    Box 2 Advice For Avoiding Onward Hcv Transmission

    Nursing care plan on hepatitis B

    Clients are advised:

    • Not to share any injecting equipment such as needles and syringes
    • Not to donate blood nor carry a donor card
    • Not to share razors, toothbrushes or anything else that may possibly be contaminated with blood
    • To use condoms when having sex. The risk of passing on the hepatitis C virus during sex is small, but is reduced even further by using condoms. However, partners in regular monogamous relationships may accept the small risk of having sex without condoms

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    What Your Diet Should Include

    Getting the right nutrients is crucial to your overall well-being. Not only can it support a healthy immune system, but it also has a direct effect on weight management.

    Its important to keep your weight in a healthy range, especially if you have hepatitis C. Having obesity or being overweight can lead to hepatic steatosis, a condition caused by excess fat buildup in the liver. This can make hepatitis C harder to control.

    People with hepatitis C also have an

    • eggs
    • soy products

    The amount of protein you eat daily depends upon your age, sex, and activity level. Usually, 2 to 6 1/2 ounces of protein is sufficient.

    Green smoothies that include protein powder can help you hit your protein and fruit and vegetable targets when youre short on time.

    If you have cirrhosis, your doctor may recommend a higher protein intake to of muscle wasting and fluid buildup.

    Image :Copyright: mikrostoker / 123RF Stock Photo

    It spreads via faeces of infected persons. Most often the virus transmits through consumption of contaminated water or food. Hepatitis A infections are mostly mild and a recovery is fast. It doesnt require any medications. It resolves on its own. People residing in areas with poor sanitation are more prone to this virus. One can receive HAV vaccination to prevent Hepatitis A.

    • Hepatitis B virus :

    • Hepatitis C virus :

    • Hepatitis D virus :

    • Hepatitis E virus :

    • Yellow skin and eyes, which may be signs of jaundice

    Prevent The Spread Of Hcv:

    No vaccine is available to prevent hepatitis C. The following can help prevent HCV from spreading to others:

    • Cover any open cuts or scratches. If blood from your wound gets on a surface, clean the surface with bleach right away. Throw away any items with blood or body fluids on them, as directed by your healthcare provider.
    • Do not share personal items. These items include toothbrushes, nail clippers, and razors. Do not share needles.
    • Tell household members and sex partners that you have HCV. They should be tested for HCV. Do not have sex, including oral and anal sex, until your healthcare provider tells you it is okay. If you have sex, make sure the male partner wears a latex condom.
    • Protect your baby. It is okay to breastfeed your baby unless your nipples are cracked or bleeding. If you are pregnant, ask your healthcare provider for more information on keeping your baby from getting HCV. Medicines used to treat hepatitis C cannot be used during pregnancy.
    • Do not donate blood, body organs, semen, or other tissues. Donations are checked for HCV, but it is best not to donate.

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    Advice For General Nurses

    Hepatology nurse specialists can provide vital information to other health professionals and help them identify clients at risk as well as signs of an infection that would not otherwise be diagnosed. While taking clients medical history, health professionals should consider some of the risk factors outlined in Box 3 before offering the opportunity to be tested for HCV.

    If a client is HCV antibody positive with a detectable HCV RNA, practitioners should request a referral to a consultant gastroenterologist or hepatologist. After an initial assessment, the consultant can arrange an appointment with a hepatology nurse specialist.

    Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements

    Plans to tackle Hepatitis C in San Diego County

    Nursing Diagnosis

    • Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements

    May be related to

    • Insufficient intake to meet metabolic demands: anorexia, nausea/vomiting
    • Altered absorption and metabolism of ingested foods: reduced peristalsis , bile stasis
    • Increased calorie needs/hypermetabolic state
    • Loss of weight poor muscle tone

    Desired Outcomes

    • Initiate behaviors, lifestyle changes to regain/maintain appropriate weight.
    • Demonstrate progressive weight gain toward goal with normalization of laboratory values and no signs of malnutrition.
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    Side Effects Of Treatment

    Treatments with direct-acting antivirals have very few side effects. Most people find DAA tablets very easy to take.

    You may feel a little sick and have trouble sleeping to begin with, but this should soon settle down.

    Your nurse or doctor should be able to suggest things to help ease any discomfort.

    You need to complete the full course of treatment to ensure you clear the hepatitis C virus from your body.

    If you have any problems with your medicines, speak to your doctor or nurse straight away.

    Side effects for each type of treatment can vary from person to person.

    For a very small number of people, more severe side effects from hepatitis C treatments may include:

    What Is Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis C is a liver infection that can lead to serious liver damage. Itâs caused by the hepatitis C virus. About 2.4 million people in the U.S. have the disease. But it causes few symptoms, so most of them don’t know. The virus spreads through an infected personâs blood or body fluids.

    There are many forms of the hepatitis C virus, or HCV. The most common in the U.S. is type 1. None is more serious than any other, but they respond differently to treatment.

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    Fatty Liver Foods To Avoid

    You should try and reduce your intake of these if youre trying to reverse fatty liver disease. On the whole these foods help you gain weight and increase blood sugar levels.

    • Alcohol is one of the major contributors to fatty liver disease. Many drinks also contain a lot of calories that can lead to weight gain.
    • Fried foods such as french fries, donuts and fried meats are high in saturated fats.
    • Added sugar in things such as such as candy, cookies, sodas, and fruit juices can cause high blood sugar levels, which eventually gets stored as fat
    • Refined carbohydrates like white bread, pasta, crackers, flour tortillas and biscuits can spike your blood sugar levels. There is also less fiber in refined carbs than whole grains, which makes them less filling. This can lead to overeating.
    • Red and processed meats bacon, canned meat, salami, sausages and beef are high in saturated fats.

    Prevent The Spread Of Germs:

    Nursing care plan on hepatitis B
    • Wash your hands often. Wash your hands several times each day. Wash after you use the bathroom, change a child’s diaper, and before you prepare or eat food. Use soap and water every time. Rub your soapy hands together, lacing your fingers. Wash the front and back of your hands, and in between your fingers. Use the fingers of one hand to scrub under the fingernails of the other hand. Wash for at least 20 seconds. Rinse with warm, running water for several seconds. Then dry your hands with a clean towel or paper towel. Use hand sanitizer that contains alcohol if soap and water are not available. Do not touch your eyes, nose, or mouth without washing your hands first.
    • Cover a sneeze or cough. Use a tissue that covers your mouth and nose. Throw the tissue away in a trash can right away. Use the bend of your arm if a tissue is not available. Wash your hands well with soap and water or use a hand sanitizer.
    • Stay away from others while you are sick. Avoid crowds as much as possible.

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    Hepatitis C Diet: Foods To Eat And Avoid

    Every disease requires a certain kind of diet. Check out the food to eat and avoid in Hepatitis C. Read on.

    Hepatitis C is a type of virus which causes inflammation and fibrosis in the liver. It is often also called hep C or HCV, and it is contained the human body fluids or the blood. Liver processes our food intake, both solids and liquids, and converts them into energy for our body and/or sythesises chemicals from it that are essential for normal body function. Special diets are not a necessity in most cases of Hepatitis C. However, in people suffering from Hepatitis C, having a poor diet can cause further liver damage. Obesity can cause a person to have a fatty liver which can result in cirrhosis when combined with hepatitis C. Eating healthy makes the immune system strong to defend the body against illnesses.

    Do I Need To Take Vitamin And Mineral Supplements

    Maybe. People with hepatitis may not absorb or use nutrients properly. If you are not eating well, you might need a multivitamin/mineral supplement.

    Do not take high doses of any vitamin or mineral, especially iron and vitamin A, unless your health care provider tells you to.

    High doses of some vitamins and minerals can be toxic. Talk to your health care provider before you take any supplements or herbal products.

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    How Effective Is Treatment

    Direct-acting antivirals cure 9 out of 10 patients with hepatitis C.

    Successful treatment does not give you any protection against another hepatitis C infection. You can still catch it again.

    There’s no vaccine for hepatitis C.

    If treatment does not work, it may be repeated, extended, or a different combination of medicines may be tried.

    Your doctor or nurse will be able to advise you.

    Hepatitis Diet: Recommended Foods To Eat

    Incorporating Hepatitis C in Integrated HIV Prevention and Care Planning

    For a patient with Hepatitis food choices are not limited to a few bland dishes. There are plenty of healthy, tasty food options which are both beneficial for the liver and for the recovery process.

    • Whole grains are very beneficial to consume as part of a healthy Hepatitis diet. These can be in the form of bran, whole wheat bread or cereal, brown rice, whole grain pasta or porridge. Include other whole grains such as whole oats, wild rice, rye, oatmeal and corn.
    • Fruits and vegetables should be a significant part of any diet to help in recovering from a liver disease. They are full of essential nutrients and are easy to digest. As a bonus, they also contain antioxidants, which can protect the liver cells from damage. However, it is recommended that one go easy on starchy vegetables such as potatoes when on a Hepatitis recovery diet. While canned or frozen fruits are fine it is always a good idea to try and eat fresh and seasonal produce when possible.
    • Olive oil, canola oil and flaxseed oil are all healthy fats that are recommended as part of a diet for patients with Hepatitis.
    • Healthy proteins in the form of low-fat milk and dairy products along with lean meats, beans, eggs and soy products can also be a part of a healthy liver diet.

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    Nursing Care Plan For Hepatitis

    inHepatitisNursing Care PlanNursing Care Plan for HepatitisNursing Care Plan for Hepatitis

  • Imbalanced nutrition: Less than body requirements related to anorexia, nausea and vomiting.
  • Impaired skin integrity related to pruritis
  • Activity Intolerance related to fatigue and generalized malaise
  • Acute pain related to the tender, Enlarged liver
  • Hyperthermia related to the body’s defensive reaction to invading organisms.
  • Risk for Infection
    • Encourage the patient to limit activity when fatigue
    • Assist the patient in planning periods of rest and activity when symptoms begin to subside.
    • Encourage gradual resumption of activities and mild excercise during recovery.
    • Asses and record presence or absence of abdominal pain or tenderness, hepatomegally and splenomegally.
    • Encourage the patient to maintain bedrest or restrict activities if abdominal pain or tenderness is present.
    • Administer analgesic as prescribed.

    Applying Lessons Learned From The Hiv Care Continuum

    Unlike in the case of chronic HCV, universal screening for HIV is currently recommended, regardless of risk profile. To maximize effectiveness of screening, interventions target sites where high-risk individuals, such as PWIDs, congregate. Opt-out and onsite rapid testing strategies facilitate targeted testing at substance abuse treatment centers , emergency departments , and prisons or jails . Opt-out testing alleviates the burden of consent and removes potential structural barriers to diagnosis- a strategy that could also be applied to HCV screening .

    Unlike in HIV, HCV diagnostic technology has mostly been limited to 2-stage enzyme immunoassay and nucleic acid testing. Rapid point-of-care screening tests for HCV antibodies were FDA-approved in 2010, allowing screening to be expanded to non-clinical settings , but implementation strategies have not yet been rigorously evaluated or published, with the exception of one preference study .

    The HIV epidemic has required a scale-up of multimodal approaches to adherence promotion since optimal adherence is frequently defined as â¥95% and treatment is life-long. With support, PWIDs can adhere to antiretroviral therapy and successfully achieve viral suppression . Though self-management tools like pillboxes or alarms are effective in some HIV populations, they are often insufficient strategies for PWIDs , who may require additional supportive interventions, like those described here.

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    Food Items You Can Easily Consume In Hepatic Encephalopathy

  • Coffee : Drinking coffee may also reduce the risk of developing a common type of liver cancer, and it has positive effects on liver disease and inflammation
  • Tea : Drinking 510 cups of green tea per day was associated with improved blood markers of liver health.
  • Grapefruit :The protective effects of grapefruit are known to occur in two ways by reducing inflammation and protecting cells.
  • Blueberries and Cranberries : Consuming these fruits for 34 weeks protected the liver from damage.
  • Grapes : They lower inflammation, prevent damage and increase antioxidant levels.
  • Beetroot Juice : It reduces oxidative damage and inflammation in the liver, as well as increases natural detoxification enzymes.
  • Cruciferous Vegetables : Cruciferous vegetables like Brussels sprouts, broccoli and mustard greens are known for their high fiber content and distinctive taste.
  • Nuts : Nuts are high in fats, nutrients including the antioxidant vitamin E which is beneficial for liver health.
  • Fatty Fish : The fats found in fatty fish are beneficial for the liver, as well.
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