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Hepatitis B Surface Ab Immunity Qn 5l

What Do Hepatitis B Test Results Mean

Understanding Hepatitis B Serology Results

Hepatitis B test results help determine if HBV infection is negative or positive, and if positive, whether the infection is acute or chronic, or if recovery is complete. A combination of results are considered to identify and classify HBV infection status.

The following are some interpretations of hepatitis B test results:

Table: Hepatitis B test results and interpretations

Test

Hepatitis B Blood Tests

The Hepatitis B Panel of Blood Tests

Only one sample of blood is needed for a hepatitis B blood test, but the Hepatitis B Panel includes three parts. All three test results are needed to fully understand whether a person is infected or not. Below is an explanation of the 3-part Hepatitis B Panel of blood test results.

  • HBsAg – A “positive” or “reactive” HBsAg test result means that the person is infected with hepatitis B. This test can detect the actual presence of the hepatitis B virus in your blood. If a person tests positive, then further testing is needed to determine if this is a new acute infection or a chronic hepatitis B infection. A positive HBsAg test result means that you are infected and can spread the hepatitis B virus to others through your blood.
  • anti-HBs or HBsAb – A “positive” or “reactive” anti-HBs test result indicates that a person is protected against the hepatitis B virus. This protection can be the result of receiving the hepatitis B vaccine or successfully recovering from a past hepatitis B infection. This test is not routinely included in blood bank screenings. A positive anti-HBs test result means you are immune and protected against the hepatitis B virus and cannot be infected. You are not infected and cannot spread hepatitis B to others.
  • Negative But Other Hepatitis Tests Are Positive

    Your HBsAb test may be negative even when other hepatitis B tests are positive, showing active or chronic infection. Further testing is necessary, especially for the hepatitis B surface antigen , which shows that the virus itself is circulating in your bloodstream and that you have an active or chronic infection.

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    Current Treatment Of Chronic Hepatitis B: Clinical Aspects And Future Directions

    • 1The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Jinhua, China
    • 2International Institutes of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Jinhua, China

    Hepatitis B virus infection is a public health threat worldwide, and there is no direct treatment yet available. In the event of infection, patients may present liver cirrhosis and cancer, which threaten the patients health globally, especially in the Asia-Pacific region and China. In 2019, Chinese hepatopathologists updated the 2015 Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B as the clinical reference. The other versions formulated by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases , European Association for the Study of the Liver , and Asian-Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver also provide clinical guidance. However, there are still some issues that need to be addressed. In the present study, the following aspects will be introduced successively: Who should be treated in the general population according to the guidelines Treatment of specific populations infected with HBV Controversial issues in clinical practice Perspective.

    What Is The Normal Range For Hepatitis B Surface Antibody

    Hepatitis B Viral Load Normal Range
  • Related Resources – What Is the Normal Range for Hepatitis B Surface Antibody?
  • Hepatitis B surface antibodies are measured in blood samples in milli-International Units/milliliter mIU/mL). The ranges for hepatitis B surface antibodies are:

    • Anti-HBs greater than 10-12 mIU/mL: Protected against hepatitis B virus infection, either from vaccination or successful recovery from a previous HBV infection.
    • Anti-HBs less than 5 mIU/mL: Negative for HBV infection, but susceptible and hence requires vaccination.
    • Anti-HBs from 5-12 mIU/mL: Inconclusive results and the test should be repeated.

    However, there is no standardization of these values so it is advisable to check the manufacturers values it is the reason values are mainly reported as positive or negative.

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    Hbv Dna Hbv Genotype And Hbv Drug Resistance Assays

    Specimen: Serum or plasma

    Container: Red-top tube, yellow-top tube , gel-barrier tube, plasma preparation tube, or lavender tube

    Collection method: Routine venipuncture

    The specimen should be transfused to separate plasma/serum from cells within 6 hours and kept frozen when testing cannot be done promptly.

    The tests use PCR amplification, DNA probe hybridization, and sequencing method.

    What Does Hepatitus B Surface Ab Immunity Indicates

    Quot Hepatitus B Surface AB Immunity” indicates “< 5L” . What does that mean?

    Doctor’s Assistant: The Doctor can help. Just a couple quick questions before I transfer you. How long have you had hepatitis?

    Hepatitus B Surface Antigen shows “Non-Reactive” and Hepatitus B Core shows “Non-Reactive.”

    Doctor’s Assistant: How old are you? Are you currently using any medications, either for hepatitis or anything else?

    46 No

    Doctor’s Assistant: Anything else in your medical history you think the Doctor should know?

    Liver enzymes elevated

    Hello, I’m Dr. Mark. I am board certified , and have twenty years experience. Please allow me to review your question.

    This means that you have never had 1) illness from Hepatitis, nor have you had 2) a successful series of the Hepatitis B vaccine.

    No, you do not have immunity.

    Many people do get the Hepatitis B vaccine.

    That means you’ve had Hepatitis A at some point in the past, but not recently.

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    What You Should Know About Hepatitis B:

    HBV is transmitted by blood-blood contact, by sexual contacts or directly from a mother to her child around birth. The latter is the most frequent route of transmission resulting in chronic infection, of unrecognized for decades. Adolescents and adults who are not vaccinated can catch the virus during unprotected sexual contact or by contaminated blood products or instruments, e.g. by tattooing or any invasive procedure, or by drug abuse with contaminated syringes and supplies.

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    Unlikely Sources Of Infection

    Viral hepatitis: Pathology Review

    Trace levels of HBV can also be found in saliva, tears, urine, and feces but in amounts that are highly unlikely to cause infection.

    While vaccination remains the cornerstone of HBV prevention, there are ways to further reduce the risk of transmission, especially if you or someone in your household has hepatitis B:

    • Wash your hands with soap and water if exposed to blood.
    • Avoid sharing razors or toothbrushes.
    • Use condoms during sex.

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    Understanding Your Test Results

    Understanding your hepatitis B blood tests can be confusing. It is important to talk to your health care provider so you understand your test results and your hepatitis B status. Are you infected? Protected? Or at risk? The Hepatitis B Panel of blood tests includes 3 tests and all three results must be known in order to confirm your status.

    Below is a chart with the most common explanation of the test results, but unusual test results can occur. Please note that this chart is not intended as medical advice, so be sure to talk to your health care provider for a full explanation and obtain a printed copy of your test results. In some cases, a person could be referred to a liver specialist for further evaluation.

    More Detailed Information About Hepatitis B Blood Tests

    An acute hepatitis B infection follows a relatively long incubation period – from 60 to 150 days with an average of 90 days. It can take up to six months, however, for a person to get rid of the hepatitis B virus. And it can take up to six months for a hepatitis B blood test to show whether as person has recovered from an acute infection or has become chronically infected .

    The following graphic from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention represents the typical course of an acute hepatitis B infection from first exposure to recovery.

    According to the CDC, a hepatitis B blood test result varies depending on whether the infection is a new acute infection or a chronic infection.

    Question 2 What Is The Hepatitis B Surface Antibody

    The hepatitis B surface antibody is the antibody that is produced in response to hepatitis B surface antigen , a protein present on the surface of the hepatitis B virus. Anti-HBs appears after convalescence from acute infection and lasts for many years. It can also be produced in response to hepatitis B vaccination.

    Other hepatitis B antibodies are not produced in response to vaccination. This is because these antigens are not in the vaccine.

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    How Is Hepatitis B Diagnosed

    There are three main ways to diagnose HBV infection. They include:

    • Blood tests: Tests of the blood serum shows how your bodys immune system is responding to the virus. A blood test can also tell you if you are immune to HBV.
    • Abdominal ultrasound: An ultrasound uses sound waves to show the size and shape of your liver and how well the blood flows through it.
    • Liver biopsy: A small sample of your liver tissue is removed though a tiny incision and sent to a lab for analysis.

    The blood test that is used to diagnose hepatitis B is not a test that you get routinely during a medical visit. Often, people whove become infected first learn they have hepatitis B when they go to donate blood. Blood donations are routinely scanned for the infection.

    The virus can be detected within 30 to 60 days of infection. About 70% of adults with hepatitis B develop symptoms, which tend to appear an average of 90 days after initial exposure to the virus.

    What Is Involved In A Liver Transplant

    A liver transplant is considered necessary when the liver is damaged and cannot function or in some cases of liver cancer. Your liver is very important. It is responsible for many functions related to making sure that your body stays healthy and is able to digest foods.

    You may be eligible for a transplant if you have chronic hepatitis B infection or some of the diseases that may result from it, including liver cancer and cirrhosis. You will have to complete testing and be evaluated before being approved for a transplant. It is likely that you will be placed on a waiting list while an appropriate organ is found.

    Donated livers come from two types of donors: living and deceased. Because the liver can regenerate, it is possible to use part of a liver for transplant. The remaining sections in both the donor and the receiver will grow into livers of adequate size.

    People who get liver transplants must take anti-rejection drugs for the rest of their lives. These drugs make you more susceptible to infection. However, liver transplants have become more successful over time and continue to improve.

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    How Is Hepatitis B Treated

    Your healthcare provider will treat you based on what type of hepatitis B you have, acute or chronic.

    Acute hepatitis B infections

    If you develop an acute form of the condition, you probably wont need medical treatment. Instead, your doctor will likely suggest that you get plenty of rest, drink lots of fluids and maintain a healthy diet to support your body as it fights off the infection.

    Chronic hepatitis B infections

    If you have chronic hepatitis B, you might be a candidate for drug therapy. Usually, drug therapy is used only if you have active liver disease. There are seven drugs that are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat hepatitis B. Two are injectable forms of interferon, while the five other antivirals are tablets.

    You will need to take these medications every day. They help by slowing the viruss ability to multiply in your system. This helps reduce swelling and liver damage. Youll need to be regularly monitored for early signs of liver damage and liver cancer. Your healthcare provider will want to see you once or twice a year.

    Analysis Of The Positive Results And Influencing Factors Of Hepatitis B Antibody In Hospitalized Neonates With Aghbs Positive Mothers

    • Department of Neonatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Childrenâs Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China

    Purpose: To investigate the results of positive antibody to hepatitis surface antigenin hospitalized neonates whose mothers were hepatitis B surface antigen positive and to explore the influencing factors.

    Method: The study subjects were hospitalized neonates whose mothers were positive for AgHBs. According to the serological test results of five immune markers of hepatitis B virus , they were divided into positive for anti-HBs and negative for anti-HBs. Retrospective analysis of relevant factors affecting results of anti-HBs.

    Result: 269 cases were positive for anti-HBs and 64 cases were negative for anti-HBs. Univariate analysis results: the number of hepatitis B immunoglobulin injections after birth, whether HBIG was injected within 6h, whether Hepatitis B vaccine was injected within 6h, whether combined immunization within 12h, whether Hep B was vaccinated on time after discharge, whether preterm birth, and whether low birth weight infants were statistically significant . The results of binary logistic regression analysis: HBIG injection time 6h , combined immunization time 12h were protective factors premature infants , ALB/GLO and failure to complete three vaccinations on time were risk factors .

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    Candidates In The General Population

    Antiviral treatment is an effective therapeutic strategy for CHB patients that efficiently suppresses HBV replication, decreases inflammatory necrosis in the liver, reduces the incidence of liver cirrhosis and related complications, and reduces the fatality rate associated with hepatocellular carcinoma and other liver diseases. In the 2019 China guidelines , HBV infection is divided into four phases: immune tolerance, immune clearance, immune control, and immune reactivity, and it is different from the 2015 version . Additionally, the 2019 China guidelines eased the restrictions on indications for antiviral therapy, and reducing the demand for HBV-DNA load. Conversely, the HBV-DNA load is considered for the performance of antiviral therapy in the 2018 guidelines updated by the 2018 AASLD guideline and the 2017 EASL guidelines . For the treatment of HBV infection with normal ALT , antiviral therapy is recommended in patients > 30-years-old with a family history of liver cirrhosis or cancer in the 2019 China guidelines. In another case > 30-years-old without a family history of liver cirrhosis or cancer, a hepatic biopsy was recommended. Although we can refer to many guidelines, there are many patients failed to fulfill the criteria for treatment at follow-up and eventually developed liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and cancer .

    Table 1. Comparison between 2015 and 2019 guidelines.

    Table 2. Indications for chronic hepatitis B treatment in 2017 and 2018 guidelines.

    Status Of General Information And Serum Test Results Of The Survey Respondents

    Hepatitis | Pathophysiology of Viral Hepatitis

    A total of 506 neonates were included in this study, and 48 were lost to follow-up. Among them, 3 patients died, 9 patients had incomplete case data, and 36 patients had incomplete information. Of the 458 neonates who were finally included, 125 were not tested for serology, and 333 were tested for hepatitis B antibodies. Among the newborns tested for serum antibodies, 269 were antibody positive and 64 were antibody negative.

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    What Are My Next Steps Once I Get My Results

    It can be difficult to understand what the results of your test mean. A healthcare provider can help you interpret your results and decide whether you need to take further action:

    • If your results suggest that youre already immune to hepatitis B and arent contagious, you likely wont need to do anything.
    • If your results suggest that youre not immune, a doctor may recommend vaccination, especially if youre somebody whos at a high risk of infection.

    You may also need additional testing if more information is needed to interpret your results.

    Question 3 How Is The Quantitative Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Test Performed

    An immunometric technique is used. The anti-HBs binds to HBsAg ad and ay subtypes, which are coated on the test wells. Binding of a horseradish peroxidase-labeled HBsAg conjugate to the anti-HBs completes the sandwich formation. Unbound materials are then washed away. In the next step, the horseradish peroxidase catalyzes oxidation of a luminogenic substrate, producing light. Light signals are detected and quantified. Intensity of the light is proportional to the amount of anti-HBs present in the patient sample. The result is standardized to an international unit system and reported as milliinternational units per milliliter .

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    Transmission Symptoms And Treatment

    How is HBV transmitted?

    HBV is transmitted through activities that involve percutaneous or mucosal contact with infectious blood or body fluids , including

    • sex with a partner who has HBV infection
    • injection drug use that involves sharing needles, syringes, or drug-preparation equipment
    • birth to a person who has HBV infection
    • contact with blood from or open sores on a person who has HBV infection
    • exposures to needle sticks or sharp instruments and
    • sharing certain items with a person who has HBV infection that can break the skin or mucous membranes , potentially resulting in exposure to blood.

    How long does HBV survive outside the body?

    HBV can survive outside the body and remains infectious for at least 7 days .

    What should be used to clean environmental surfaces potentially contaminated with HBV?

    Any blood spills should be disinfected using a 1:10 dilution of one part household bleach to 9 parts water. Gloves should be worn when cleaning up any blood spills.

    Who is at risk for HBV infection?

    The following populations are at increased risk for becoming infected with HBV:

    • Infants born to people with HBV infection
    • Sex partners of people with HBV infection
    • Men who have sex with men
    • People who inject drugs
    • Household contacts or sexual partners of known people with chronic HBV infection
    • Health care and public safety workers at risk for occupational exposure to blood or blood-contaminated body fluids
    • Patients on hemodialysis

    Who should be screened for HBV?

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