Sunday, February 5, 2023

Test To Detect Hepatitis B

Why The Test Is Performed

Understanding Hepatitis B Serology Results

Your provider may order this test if you have signs of hepatitis. It is used to:

  • Detect current or previous hepatitis infection
  • Determine how contagious a person with hepatitis is
  • Monitor a person who is being treated for hepatitis

The test may be performed for other conditions, such as:

  • Chronic persistent hepatitis

A normal result means no hepatitis antibodies are found in the blood sample. This is called a negative result.

Normal value ranges may vary slightly depending on the lab doing the test. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.

Which Serological Assay To Use

A systematic review compared the diagnostic performance of commercially available serological assays for the detection of HBsAg, when compared to a laboratory-based immunoassay reference standard . The review identified 30 studies from 23 countries with varying prevalence of hepatitis B and evaluated 33 different RDTs. There were five studies of eight different EIAs against an immunoassay reference standard . A mixture of serum, plasma, capillary and venous whole blood specimens were used for RDTs, but only serum or plasma was used for EIAs. Seven studies assessed performance using capillary or venous whole blood . Sample size varied from 25 to 3928, and populations studied included healthy volunteers and blood donors, at-risk populations, pregnant women, incarcerated adults, and patients with confirmed hepatitis B.

RDTs. In 30 studies of 33 different RDTs, the pooled clinical sensitivity of RDTs against different EIA reference standards was 90.0% and pooled specificity was 99.5% .

Summary test accuracy of RDTs and EIAs for HBsAg .

Brands: there was significant variation in performance between RDT brands and within the same brand of RDT, with sensitivity ranging from 50% to 100% and specificity from 69% to 100%.

Specimen type: results for capillary whole blood specimens were comparable to serum but less heterogeneous.

What Blood Tests Are Important To Diagnose And Evaluate My Hepatitis B Infection

In order to understand your hepatitis B status, it is important that your doctor order the hepatitis B blood panel. This panel includes 3 basic biomarkers, but only one sample of blood is needed. Make sure you request a written copy of your blood test results so that you fully understand what tests were ordered and the actual results of each. Also, be sure to have your doctor clearly explain the results to you so that you fully understand your situation.

It is important to wait 6-8 weeks after a possible exposure before getting tested. If done before this time , the blood tests can have a false negative result. The window period is the time between exposure and the appearance of these markers in blood. The 3-part blood test includes the following:

1) Hepatitis B surface Antigen – This directly tests for the presence of the hepatitis B virus. It should be negative if there is NO virus present. 2) Hepatitis B surface Antibody – This tests for the production of protective antibodies against the hepatitis B virus. This blood test should be positive if the protective antibodies are produced in response to vaccination or recovery from a natural infection. 3) Hepatitis B core Antibody – This antibody does not provide any protection. A positive result may indicate that a person has been exposed to the hepatitis B virus. This test must be interpreted in relation to the above 2 test results.

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What Does The Test Measure

Hepatitis B testing looks for antigens, antibodies, or the genetic material of the hepatitis B virus. HBV antigens are substances from the virus that cause a patientâs body to produce an immune response. Antibodies are substances made by the immune system in response to the hepatitis B virus.

Initial tests for hepatitis B measure antibodies and antigens related to HBV including:

If a patient is diagnosed with hepatitis B based on these initial tests, additional hepatitis B testing may be used to monitor the disease, guide treatment, and determine if a person can spread hepatitis B to others. These additional tests may include:

  • Hepatitis B e antigen : Hepatitis B e antigen is a protein from the hepatitis B virus found in some patients who are positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. Measuring this antigen can help doctors understand infectivity, which describes a personâs ability to spread HBV to others.

Who Should Get Screened For Hepatitis B

La Hepatitis B C Hbsag Kit De Prueba Rápida

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control calls for HBV screening of all foreign-born persons from regions where hepatitis B is common regardless of their vaccination history.

Additionally, all pregnant women should be screened for HBV at an early prenatal visit during each pregnancy, even if they have been previously tested or vaccinated.

Other groups recommended for HBV screening include:

  • Anyone seeking protection from the HBV infection
  • Healthcare and public safety workers
  • Household, sex, or needle-sharing contacts of persons infected with HBV
  • Intravenous drug users

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Where Can I Find A Hepatitis B Pcr Quantitative Test Near Me

Check our lab finder to locate a collection site in your area.

Note: Result turn around times are an estimate and are not guaranteed. Our reference lab may need additional time due to weather, holidays, confirmation/repeat testing, or equipment maintenance.

Detection Period:

The Hepatitis B PCR test can typically detect the virus 3 weeks from exposure or any time after. Some people may be detectable earlier.

Requirements:

Description:

What Is Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus . For some people, hepatitis B infection becomes chronic, meaning it lasts more than six months. Having chronic hepatitis B increases your risk of developing liver failure, liver cancer or cirrhosisa condition that causes permanent scarring of the liver.

Most people infected with hepatitis B as adults recover fully, even if their signs and symptoms are severe. Infants and children are more likely to develop a chronic hepatitis B infection.

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Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Test

A hepatitis B surface antigen test shows if you have an active infection. A positive result means you have hepatitis B and can transmit the virus to others. A negative result means you dont currently have hepatitis B.

This test doesnt distinguish between chronic and acute infection. This test is used together with other hepatitis B tests to determine the state of a hepatitis B infection.

Blood Tests And Diagnosis For Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B: CDC Viral Hepatitis Serology Training

Hepatitis B is diagnosed with a simple blood test that can be done at your doctors office or local health clinic. There are 3 parts to the hepatitis B panel of blood tests, so understanding your test results can be confusing. Are you infected with hepatitis B? Are you protected from hepatitis B because you were vaccinated or have recovered from a past infection? Are you at risk of being infected with hepatitis B? It is very important to understand your hepatitis B blood test results so that you receive the right kind of care and follow-up.

The hepatitis B blood test requires only one sample of blood and your health care provider should order the Hepatitis B Panel, which includes three parts. You and your health care provider will need to know all three test results in order to fully understand whether you are infected, protected or still at risk for a hepatitis B infection. Your health care provider may ask to check your blood again in six months after your first visit to confirm your hepatitis B status. Remember to ask for a copy of your hepatitis B blood test results so that you fully understand which tests are positive or negative.

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When Should I Get Hepatitis B Testing

Using hepatitis B tests to screen for HBV is recommended for certain groups that are at an increased risk of infection. Groups that may benefit from hepatitis B screening include:

  • Pregnant people
  • People born in parts of the world where hepatitis B is more common, including Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, South America, and parts of the Middle East
  • People who didnât receive a hepatitis B vaccine
  • HIV-positive people
  • Pain in the joints or abdomen
  • Loss of appetite, nausea, or vomiting
  • Yellowish skin and eyes

Using hepatitis B testing to assess immunity to HBV may be used before or after vaccination. Pre-vaccination testing is not always needed but may be performed if there is a chance that a patient has previously been infected with HBV or has already been vaccinated. Post-vaccination testing is used in certain groups of people who are at an especially elevated risk for HBV infection, including infants born to mothers with a hepatitis B infection.

Search Strategy And Identification Of Studies

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the diagnostic accuracy of HBsAg tests. The review was registered in PROSPERO and reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses check list. We utilised standardised methods for systematic reviews on diagnostics, including an a priori protocol .

Literature search strategies were developed by a medical librarian with expertise in systematic review searching, using a search algorithm consisting of terms for: hepatitis B, diagnostic tests, and diagnostic accuracy. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science Citation Index Expanded, SCOPUS, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde , WHO Global Index Medicus, WHOs International Clinical Trials Registry and the Web of Science. We also contacted researchers, experts and authors of major trials, with no relevant manuscripts in preparation identified. Additional pertinent citations were identified through bibliographies of retrieved studies.

Abstracts were screened by reviewers AA and HK according to standard inclusion and exclusion criteria. All studies identified for full manuscript review were assessed independently by two reviewers against inclusion criteria. Papers were accepted or rejected, with reasons for exclusion specified. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion between review authors and, when required, a third independent reviewer .

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How The Test Is Performed

Blood is most often drawn from a vein from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. The site is cleaned with germ-killing medicine . The health care provider wraps an elastic band around the upper arm to apply pressure to the area and make the vein swell with blood.

Next, the provider gently inserts a needle into the vein. The blood collects into an airtight tube attached to the needle. The elastic band is removed from your arm. Once the blood has been collected, the needle is removed. The puncture site is covered to stop any bleeding.

In infants or young children, a sharp tool called a lancet may be used to puncture the skin and make it bleed. The blood collects into a small glass tube, or onto a slide or test strip. A bandage may be placed over the area if there is any bleeding.

The blood sample is sent to a lab to be examined. Blood tests are used to check for antibodies to each of the hepatitis viruses.

Hepatitis Be Antigen Blood Test

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This test is used in the diagnosis and monitoring of Hepatitis B infections. The Be Antigen test looks for the presence of a protein found in the blood when the Hep B virus is actively replicating. During these periods, a person is considered to be highly infectious and at a higher risk for spreading the virus to others. Pregnant women have a much greater risk of spreading the virus to their infants during birth when the Hep B virus is replicating. This state usually occurs 3-6 weeks after infection.

Hepatitis B is a viral liver infection which is spread through exposure to infected blood or bodily fluids. It is the most common cause of acute viral Hepatitis. Hepatitis B infections often show no symptoms but when symptoms do occur they are often described as flu-like. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, fever, loss of appetite, nausea, joint pain, fatigue, jaundice, and dark colored urine. Chronic Hep B infections can cause serious health complications like Cirrhosis and Liver Cancer.

Turnaround time for the Hepatitis Be Antigen test is typically 1-2 business days.

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Screening Tests For Hepatitis B

Your blood may be screened for HBV for many different reasons. There are several types of test, but the three generally included are the HBsAg, the antibody to HBsAg , and the antibody to hepatitis B core antigen .

These tests allow the healthcare provider to know whether you could benefit from vaccination, or if you have active or chronic hepatitis B and need counseling, care, or treatment.

You may be routinely screened if you are pregnant, are donating blood or tissue, need immunosuppressive therapy, or have end-stage renal disease. You will also be screened if you are in groups that are at higher risk for HBV.

Is Hepatitis B Curable

Theres currently no known cure for hepatitis B, but there are many ways you can prevent infection and avoid transmitting the virus to others.

The most effective and safe way to prevent hepatitis B is to get vaccinated. You can also use barrier methods, like condoms, when having sex and avoid sharing needles.

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Whats The Hepatitis B Titer Test Used For

A hepatitis B titer test measures antibodies in your blood to see if youre immune either due to vaccination or previous infection.

Hepatitis B is a viral infection that targets your liver. It can be transmitted by coming into contact with the bodily fluids of an infected person. A person with the virus can also infect their child during birth.

Hepatitis B can develop into a chronic infection. Chronic infection occurs when your body cant fight off the virus within six months. Chronic hepatitis B infections most commonly develop less than six years old, especially in infants.

Hepatitis B titer tests can be used to evaluate:

  • whether a high-risk person is immune to hepatitis B
  • whether hepatitis B immunoglobulin is needed after a needle prick
  • men who have sex with men
  • people born in countries with a hepatitis B prevalence greater than 2 percent
  • people born in the United States not vaccinated as children and with parents born in regions with more than 8 percent hepatitis B prevalence

You may need your titer test results as proof of hepatitis B immunity in order to get into healthcare programs at many schools for example, the nursing program at Lone Star College. In the United States, employers are not allowed to withdraw a job offer if they learn you have hepatitis B.

How Do I Know If I Have Hepatitis

Hepatitis B Virus: Serology

Viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis A , hepatitis B and hepatitis C , is diagnosed by your symptoms, a physical exam and blood tests. Sometimes imaging studies such as a sonogram or CAT scan and a liver biopsy are also used.

What are the types of Hepatitis?

There are several types of hepatitis, but the three most common in the U.S. are:

  • Hepatitis A â It is considered highly contagious but is not a long-term infection and usually has no complications. Your liver usually heals within two months. Preventable with a vaccination, it can be spread by eating or drinking something that has been contaminated with the stool of a person who has the virus.
  • Hepatitis B â While it can lead to long-term liver damage, most children and adults recover within 6 months. You can spread the virus even though you show no symptoms. Pregnant women who are infected by the virus can pass it along to their newborn. Also, preventable through vaccine, hepatitis B is spread by:
  • Having sex with someone who’s infected
  • Sharing dirty needles
  • Having direct contact with infected blood or the body fluids of someone who’s got the disease

Who’s at Risk for Hepatitis Infection?

You are at increases risk hepatis A if you meet one or more of these criteria:

  • Children born to mothers who have HBV
  • People with certain high liver function blood tests

For hepatitis C, the CDC recommends that you have a blood test if any of the following is true:

  • Feeling sick to the stomach

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Study Selection And Characteristics

A total of 11,589 citations were identified, and 293 full-text articles examined which identified 40 studies meeting pre-defined criteria . Of the included studies, 33 compared RDTs and/or EIAs against an immunoassay reference standard, of which five focused on accuracy in HIV-positive individuals . Seven studies compared RDTs and/or EIAs against a NAT reference standard, of which 3 had data from HIV-positive patients . Studies were all either cross-sectional or case-control, predominantly in the laboratory setting, and performed in a broad range of populations, including healthy volunteers, blood donors, pregnant women, incarcerated adults, HIV and hepatitis patient cohorts with confirmed HBV infection. The prevalence of HBV ranged from 1.9 to 84% in populations tested. A mixture of serum, plasma and whole blood was used for RDTs, while studies of EIAs were performed on serum or plasma samples. Study characteristics are presented in Tables , and .

Fig. 1

Three studies had data from 442 HIV-positive patients in Uganda and South Africa, with pooled sensitivity and specificity of 57.9% and 95.8% , respectively. The corresponding pooled sensitivity and specificity for the 202 HIV-negative patients across two of these studies were 83.3% and 85.7% , respectively .

How To Get Tested

Hepatitis B testing is typically prescribed by a doctor and performed in a hospital, lab, or other medical setting. Taking a hepatitis B test requires a blood sample, which can be collected by a health care professional.

For laboratory-based testing, blood is drawn from a patientâs vein. After blood is collected, the sample is sent to a laboratory for analysis.

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