Thursday, September 29, 2022

Hepatitis C How Can You Get It

Why Is It So Important To Take Hepatitis C Drugs Correctly

Hepatitis C | Get tested, Get Cured

Taking any medicine correctly is extremely important. Taking medicines correctly means:

  • not skipping doses
  • taking the medicine as instructed, such as with or without food
  • not running out of the medicine before you have picked up your refill
  • not stopping the treatment earlier than planned
  • For hepatitis C drugs, these issues are especially important because, if a medicine is not taken correctly, it may not kill the virus completely. Then, because the virus has “seen” the drug, it learns how to mutate and change in ways that allow it to escape the drug and avoid getting killed off. This is called drug resistance.

    Developing drug resistance is a serious issue. It means that the treatment may not work and that the patient may not respond to future treatments.

    To prevent drug resistance, it is important to take any medication correctly, but especially DAAs such as Harvoni, Mavyret, Epclusa, and Zepatier.

    Resistance can develop quickly. It is very important to take these new antiviral medications according to instructions, on schedule, and not to skip or reduce doses.

    Hepatitis C Symptoms In Men

    Hepatitis C symptoms in men are the same as in women. However, a 2014 study indicated that men may be less likely to clear the virus than women.

    Hepatitis C in men may stay in their systems longer. It may also be more likely to cause symptoms in men compared to younger women.

    Currently, there isnt a hepatitis C vaccine, though research is underway. However, avoiding contact with the blood of someone who has an HCV infection can help prevent you from acquiring the hepatitis C virus.

    You can do this by:

    • avoiding using someone elses razor, nail clippers, or toothbrush
    • not sharing needles or syringes
    • getting tattoos or piercings only at licensed facilities
    • practicing safer sex with your partner by using condoms or other barrier methods

    If you think you may have been exposed to HCV, its important to get tested as soon as possible.

    Untreated chronic hepatitis C may eventually lead to complications, which can include severe scarring of the liver, which is called cirrhosis, and liver cancer.

    Some people with hepatitis C may need a liver transplant.

    If you believe you contracted HCV, the sooner you receive a hepatitis C diagnosis, the sooner your doctor can start a treatment plan to help you avoid complications.

    How Do Doctors Treat Hepatitis C

    Doctors treat hepatitis C with antiviral medicines that attack the virus and can cure the disease in most cases.

    Several newer medicines, called direct-acting antiviral medicines, have been approved to treat hepatitis C since 2013. Studies show that these medicines can cure chronic hepatitis C in most people with this disease. These medicines can also cure acute hepatitis C. In some cases, doctors recommend waiting to see if an acute infection becomes chronic before starting treatment.

    Your doctor may prescribe one or more of these newer, direct-acting antiviral medicines to treat hepatitis C:

    You may need to take medicines for 8 to 24 weeks to cure hepatitis C. Your doctor will prescribe medicines and recommend a length of treatment based on

    • which hepatitis C genotype you have
    • how much liver damage you have
    • whether you have been treated for hepatitis C in the past

    Your doctor may order blood tests during and after your treatment. Blood tests can show whether the treatment is working. Hepatitis C medicines cure the infection in most people who complete treatment.

    Hepatitis C medicines may cause side effects. Talk with your doctor about the side effects of treatment. Check with your doctor before taking any other prescription or over-the-counter medicines.

    For safety reasons, talk with your doctor before using dietary supplements, such as vitamins, or any complementary or alternative medicines or medical practices.

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    What Is The Difference Between Relapse And Nonresponse

    The goal of treating chronic hepatitis C is to completely clear the virus. This means that your “viral load” is zero or so low that the virus can’t be detected with standard blood tests.

    Without treatment, the hepatitis C virus in liver cells constantly makes copies of itself, and the virus ends up not just in liver cells but also in the bloodstream. Treatment is intended to completely stop reproduction of the virus so that it doesn’t continue to enter the bloodstream or cause any more injury to liver cells.

    Successful treatment results in a “sustained virological response.” This means the virus becomes completely undetectable before the treatment is finished, and it remains undetectable for 6 months after treatment is stopped.

    A “relapse” means the viral load drops to an undetectable level before treatment is completed, but becomes detectable again within 6 months after treatment is stopped. Even if the virus returns at a level that is lower than it was before treatment, a relapse is still considered to have occurred. A relapse can be determined if the viral load starts to rise during treatment, or at any time after the virus becomes undetectable.

    A “nonresponse” means the viral load never drops significantly and the virus remains detectable throughout the course of treatment.

    Hepatitis C Testing And Diagnosis

    Know The ABC

    Doctors will start by checking your blood for:

    Anti-HCV antibodies: These are proteins your body makes when it finds the hep C virus in your blood. They usually show up about 12 weeks after infection.

    It usually takes a few days to a week to get results, though a rapid test is available in some places.

    The results can be:

    • Nonreactive, or negative:
    • That may mean you donât have hep C.
    • If youâve been exposed in the last 6 months, youâll need to be retested.
  • Reactive, or positive:
  • That means you have hep C antibodies and youâve been infected at some point.
  • Youâll need another test to make sure.
  • If your antibody test is positive, youâll get this test:

    HCV RNA: It measures the number of viral RNA particles in your blood. They usually show up 1-2 weeks after youâre infected.

    • The results can be:
    • Negative: You donât have hep C.
    • Positive: You currently have hep C.

    You might also get:

    Liver function tests: They measure proteins and enzyme levels, which usually rise 7 to 8 weeks after youâre infected. As your liver gets damaged, enzymes leak into your bloodstream. But you can have normal enzyme levels and still have hepatitis C. Learn the reasons why you should get tested for hepatitis C.

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    What Are The Chances Of Getting Hepatitis C From Sex

    Hepatitis C can spread through sexual intercourse, but it’s rare. And it’s extremely rare among monogamous couples. In fact, the CDC considers the risk of sexual transmission between monogamous couples so low that it doesn’t even recommend using condoms. Also, there’s no evidence that hepatitis C is spread by oral sex. But you should avoid sharing razors, toothbrushes, and nail clippers, and sex during menstruation.

    If you have HIV or if you have multiple partners, you should take precautions. Using condoms will protect you and your partners.

    Tests For The Hepatitis C Virus

    If your doctor thinks that you may have hepatitis C, he or she may order:

      • A hepatitis C virus test. This is a blood test that looks for antibodies against the hepatitis C virus. It shows whether you have been exposed to the virus.
      • A blood test that looks for the genetic material of the hepatitis C virus. This test shows whether you are infected with the virus now.
      • A blood test to find out the kind of hepatitis C virus you have. Knowing your genotype will help you and your doctor decide if and how you should be treated.

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    Will The Baby Be Infected If The Mother Or Father Has Hepatitis C

    The baby’s risk of becoming infected with hepatitis C in the womb varies, depending on whether the parent with hepatitis C is the father or the mother.

    If the mother is infected, whether or not the father is infected, there is a 5% chance that the baby will be born with hepatitis C. The risk is the same regardless of whether the birth occurs by vaginal delivery or by cesarean section. The risk is higher if the mother is also living with HIV.

    If the father has hepatitis C but the mother does not, the baby cannot become infected because a father cannot pass the virus directly to a baby. If the father first passes the virus to the mother through sex, then the baby possibly could be infected by the mother. However, the chance of the virus being transmitted both from father to mother and then from mother to baby is almost zero.

    All children born to HCV-infected women should be tested for HCV infection. Testing is recommended using an antibody-based test at or after 18 months of age. Approximately 25-50 % infants with hepatitis C will clear the infection without any medical help by age 4. For those who become chronically infected, most have no symptoms .

    Can Hepatitis C Be Prevented Or Avoided

    Do You Need to Get Screened for Hepatitis C?

    The only way to prevent hepatitis C is to avoid coming in contact with an infected persons blood. Always have protected sex . Dont do intravenous drugs. Dont share personal care items with a person who has hepatitis C. If youre a health care worker, follow your workplaces standard safety practices.

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    Can The Symptoms Get Worse

    Untreated hepatitis C can lead to more dramatic medical concerns. Cirrhosis can develop from years of scarring. The condition weakens liver tissue, making it harder for the liver to function.

    You may also develop liver failure if enough of the liver stops functioning well. Some people may also develop liver cancer due to the liver cells becoming weakened.

    How Likely Am I To Become Infected With Hepatitis C From A Family Member Living In The Same House

    Household transmission of hepatitis C is extremely rare. Fewer than 1 in 1,000 family members or close acquaintances becomes infected each year through common, nonsexual contact with hepatitis C-infected persons.

    There are many possible ways by which hepatitis C could be passed from one person to another. Because the virus is carried in the blood, it could be transmitted between household members if a mucous membrane were to come in contact with blood or body fluids containing hepatitis C. Family members sometimes share razors, toothbrushes, or toothpicks, perhaps unknowingly. If an item were contaminated with hepatitis C-infected blood from one person, the virus could be passed to a second person if it were to tear the lining of the mouth or break through the skin.

    Although these sorts of possibilities are often discussed as potential ways for hepatitis C to infect family members, such events occur very rarely.

    If you aren’t sure of your hepatitis C status, get tested. If you test negative and have lived in a household with an infected family member or close acquaintance, you shouldn’t worry that any more contact will put you at risk.

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    Contaminated Needles And Infected Blood

    You can get hepatitis C from sharing contaminated needles, syringes and other injecting equipment during recreational drug use. Banknotes and straws used for snorting may also pass the virus on.

    Being exposed to unsterilised tattoo and body piercing equipment can also pass hepatitis C on. Occasionally, you can get it from sharing a towel, razor blades or a toothbrush if there is infected blood on them.

    Hepatitis C infection is also passed on in healthcare settings, from needle stick injuries or from medical and dental equipment that has not been properly sterilised. In countries where blood products are not routinely screened, you can also get hepatitis C by receiving a transfusion of unscreened blood and blood products.

    You can prevent hepatitis C by:

    • never sharing needles and syringes or other items that may be contaminated with infected blood
    • only having tattoos, body piercings or acupuncture in a professional setting, where new, sterile needles are used
    • following the standard infection control precautions, if youre working in a healthcare setting.

    What Are The Side Effects Of Drug Treatment

    What is hep C? by Hepatitis SA

    Common side effects for some treatments for hepatitis C may include the following:

    • nausea
    • fatigue
    • depression

    Side effects are usually worst during the first few weeks of treatment. They become less severe over time. If you are having trouble dealing with the side effects of your medicine, talk to your doctor. He or she can suggest ways to relieve some of the side effects. For example, if your medicine makes you feel nauseated, it may help to take it right before you go to sleep.

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    Additional Tests You Might Need

    Once youve been diagnosed with Hepatitis C, your doctor will likely order a number of tests to find out about the health of your liver and decide on a treatment plan thats most appropriate for you.

    Hepatitis C genotype

    The Hepatitis C genotype refers to a specific strain or type of the Hepatitis C virus. There are six major types of Hepatitis C around the world: genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. In the United States, genotypes 1, 2, and 3 are common:

    • Genotype 1: Most Americans with Hepatitis C have this type
    • Genotype 2: About 10% of Americans with Hepatitis C have this type
    • Genotype 3: About 6% of Americans with Hepatitis C have this type

    The genotype of Hepatitis C does not change over time, so you only need to get tested once.

    Genotype tests are done before a person starts treatment. Hepatitis C treatment works differently for different genotypes, so knowing your genotype helps your doctor choose the best treatment for you.

    Testing for Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B

    Your doctor may test to see if your body is immune to Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B. If these tests show no prior exposure or protection, he or she will recommend that you be vaccinated against these two viruses to eliminate the chance of becoming infected.

    Liver function tests or liver enzymes

    • ALT
    • AST

    Liver function tests also include ALP and total bilirubin, among other things.

    Tests to measure liver scarring or fibrosis

    • Liver Biopsy
    • Elastography
    • Serum markers

    Imaging tests

    How Do You Get Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis C spreads when blood or body fluids contaminated with the hepatitis C virus get into your bloodstream through contact with an infected person.

    You can be exposed to the virus from:

    • Sharing injection drugs and needles
    • Having sex, especially if you have HIV, another STD, several partners, or have rough sex
    • Being stuck by infected needles
    • Birth — a mother can pass it to a child
    • Sharing personal care items like toothbrushes, razor blades, and nail clippers
    • Getting a tattoo or piercing with unclean equipment

    You canât catch hepatitis C through:

    • Have been on long-term kidney dialysis
    • Have abnormal liver tests or liver disease
    • Have HIV
    • Were born to a mother with hepatitis C

    Since July 1992, all blood and organ donations in the U.S. are tested for the hepatitis C virus. The CDC says it is now rare that someone getting blood products or an organ would get hepatitis C. That said, The CDC recommends that anyone over the age of 18 get tested for Hepatitis C. If you haven’t been screened, you should consider having it done.

    Learn more about the risk factors for hepatitis C.

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    What Causes Hepatitis C Infection

    Hepatitis C is caused by the hepatitis C virus. It is spread by contact with an infected person’s blood.

    You can get hepatitis C if:

      • You share needles and other equipment used to inject illegal drugs.
      • You had a blood transfusion or organ transplant before 1992. Since the early 1990s, all donated blood and organs are screened for hepatitis C in Canada.
      • You get a shot with a needle that has infected blood on it. This happens in some developing countries where they use needles more than once when giving shots.
      • You get a tattoo or a piercing with a needle that has infected blood on it. This can happen if equipment isn’t cleaned properly after it is used.

    In rare cases, a mother with hepatitis C may spread the virus to her baby during pregnancy or childbirth, or a health care worker may be accidentally exposed to blood that is infected with hepatitis C.

    The risk of getting hepatitis C through sexual contact is very small.footnote 1 The risk is higher if you have many sex partners or you engage in unprotected sexual activity that may involve contact with blood or an exchange of blood with an infected person . The presence of HIV or other sexually transmitted infections also increases the chances of getting hepatitis C sexually.

    You cannot get hepatitis C from casual contact such as hugging, kissing, sneezing, coughing, or sharing food or drink.

    Is It Safe To Take Aspirin Or Tylenol If I Have Hepatitis C

    How Do You Get Hepatitis C?

    Tylenol is an over-the-counter pain killer. It can be harmful in high doses. If you have hepatitis or liver disease, then you can take Tylenol, but no more than 2,000 mg total over 24 hours. In general, this could be one 500 mg tablet every 6 hours, at the most. Acetaminophen is also included as an ingredient in some opiate medications and in some over-the-counter cold/flu medications, so please be aware of the dose of acetaminophen you may be taking from some combination medicines.

    Aspirin, ibuprofen , naproxen , and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs , can be harmful if you have cirrhosis. They are safe in hepatitis patients who do not have cirrhosis. But, if a patient has cirrhosis, then NSAIDs cannot be taken at all. If you are not sure, always check with your provider.

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