Thursday, October 6, 2022

Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antibody

What Is The Normal Range For Hepatitis B Surface Antibody

Hepatitis B Serology: Surface Antigen (HBsAg), Surface Antibody (anti-HBs), Core Antibody (anti-HBc)
  • What Is the Normal Range for Hepatitis B Surface Antibody? Center
  • Hepatitis B surface antibodies are measured in blood samples in milli-International Units/milliliter mIU/mL). The ranges for hepatitis B surface antibodies are:

    • Anti-HBs greater than 10-12 mIU/mL: Protected against hepatitis B virus infection, either from vaccination or successful recovery from a previous HBV infection.
    • Anti-HBs less than 5 mIU/mL: Negative for HBV infection, but susceptible and hence requires vaccination.
    • Anti-HBs from 5-12 mIU/mL: Inconclusive results and the test should be repeated.

    However, there is no standardization of these values so it is advisable to check the manufacturers values it is the reason values are mainly reported as positive or negative.

    Transmission Symptoms And Treatment

    How is HBV transmitted?

    HBV is transmitted through activities that involve percutaneous or mucosal contact with infectious blood or body fluids , including

    • sex with an infected partner
    • injection-drug use that involves sharing needles, syringes, or drug-preparation equipment
    • birth to an infected mother
    • contact with blood from or open sores on an infected person
    • exposures to needle sticks or sharp instruments and
    • sharing certain items with an infected person that can break the skin or mucous membranes , potentially resulting in exposure to blood.

    How long does HBV survive outside the body?

    HBV can survive outside the body and remains infectious for at least 7 days .

    What should be used to clean environmental surfaces potentially contaminated with HBV?

    Any blood spills should be disinfected using a 1:10 dilution of one part household bleach to 10 parts of water. Gloves should be worn when cleaning up any blood spills.

    Who is at risk for HBV infection?

    The following populations are at increased risk for becoming infected with HBV:

    • Infants born to infected mothers
    • Sex partners of infected people
    • Men who have sex with men
    • People who inject drugs
    • Household contacts or sexual partners of known people with chronic HBV infection
    • Health-care and public-safety workers at risk for occupational exposure to blood or blood-contaminated body fluids
    • Hemodialysis patients

    Who should be screened for HBV?

    CDC recommends that the following people be screened for HBV :

    • fever,

    Efficacy And Safety Of Hepatitis B Virus Vaccines

    Completion of HBV vaccination produces adequate lifelong antibody response in over 90% of healthy adults. Similar efficacy has been reported among the different three-dose formulations. The newer two-dose vaccine demonstrated comparable efficacy to traditional vaccines . However, PWID are one distinct population in whom HBV vaccine response may be attenuated. Reported seroprotection rates among PWID have ranged between 55% and 97% . Nonstandardized timing of anti-HBs measurement may impact estimates, with highest rates seen when testing for anti-HBs is performed 2 months following the third dose . Older age, active drug use, and coinfection, including HIV infection, have been linked with lower responses in individual studies. Safety concerns regarding the HBV vaccine are minimal. Anaphylaxis is extremely rare, estimated at 1 per 1.1 million doses . Although various conditions have been reported , no causal link between these conditions and the vaccine has been established.

    PIERRE VANDEPAPELIÈRE, in, 2000

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    Negative But Other Hepatitis Tests Are Positive

    Your HBsAb test may be negative even when other hepatitis B tests are positive, showing active or chronic infection. Further testing is necessary, especially for the hepatitis B surface antigen , which shows that the virus itself is circulating in your bloodstream and that you have an active or chronic infection.

    Screening For Viral Hepatitis

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    The purpose of screening for viral hepatitis is to identify people infected with the disease as early as possible, even before symptoms and transaminase elevations may be present. This allows for early treatment, which can both prevent disease progression and decrease the likelihood of transmission to others.

    Hepatitis A

    Hepatitis A causes an acute illness that does not progress to chronic liver disease. Therefore, the role of screening is to assess immune status in people who are at high risk of contracting the virus, as well as in people with known liver disease for whom hepatitis A infection could lead to liver failure. People in these groups who are not already immune can receive the hepatitis A vaccine.

    Those at high risk and in need of screening include:

    • People with poor sanitary habits such as not washing hands after using the restroom or changing diapers
    • People who do not have access to clean water
    • People in close contact with someone who has hepatitis A
    • People who use illicit drugs
    • People with liver disease
    • People traveling to an area with endemic hepatitis A

    The presence of anti-hepatitis A IgG in the blood indicates past infection with the virus or prior vaccination.

    Hepatitis B

    The CDC, WHO, USPSTF, and ACOG recommend routine hepatitis B screening for certain high-risk populations. Specifically, these populations include people who are:

    Other

    Hepatitis A

    Hepatitis B and C

    Hepatitis D

    Hepatitis E

    Alcoholic hepatitis

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    Hbcab Or The Hepatitis B Core Antibody Test

    The hepatitis B core antibody is produced by your immune system after infection by the hepatitis B virus, and it can persist for life. It is a sign that you either have an new, active hepatitis B infection or that you acquired hepatitis B in the past.

    HBcAb is an immune system response to a protein in the core of the virus, and it is only present if you have been infected, rather than immunized against the virus. It is part of a routine screening panel of tests for hepatitis B. If your rest results turn out to be positive, your healthcare provider will order further tests to determine the stage of the infection: acute or chronic .

    Also Known As: anti-HBc, HBcAb

    Question 2 What Is The Hepatitis B Surface Antibody

    The hepatitis B surface antibody is the antibody that is produced in response to hepatitis B surface antigen , a protein present on the surface of the hepatitis B virus. Anti-HBs appears after convalescence from acute infection and lasts for many years. It can also be produced in response to hepatitis B vaccination.

    Other hepatitis B antibodies are not produced in response to vaccination. This is because these antigens are not in the vaccine.

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    Does Hepatitis B Show Up In Routine Blood Tests

    Routine blood tests do not detect hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatitis B tests are specifically done if blood tests show abnormal liver function results, or if a person experiences symptoms or falls into the high-risk category for HBV infection.

    A panel of HBV-specific blood tests are required to detect HBV infection.

    Understanding Your Test Results

    High Levels of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen…

    Understanding your hepatitis B blood tests can be confusing. It is important to talk to your health care provider so you understand your test results and your hepatitis B status. Are you infected? Protected? Or at risk? The Hepatitis B Panel of blood tests includes 3 tests and all three results must be known in order to confirm your status.

    Below is a chart with the most common explanation of the test results, but unusual test results can occur. Please note that this chart is not intended as medical advice, so be sure to talk to your health care provider for a full explanation and obtain a printed copy of your test results. In some cases, a person could be referred to a liver specialist for further evaluation.

    More Detailed Information About Hepatitis B Blood Tests

    An acute hepatitis B infection follows a relatively long incubation period – from 60 to 150 days with an average of 90 days. It can take up to six months, however, for a person to get rid of the hepatitis B virus. And it can take up to six months for a hepatitis B blood test to show whether as person has recovered from an acute infection or has become chronically infected .

    The following graphic from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention represents the typical course of an acute hepatitis B infection from first exposure to recovery.

    According to the CDC, a hepatitis B blood test result varies depending on whether the infection is a new acute infection or a chronic infection.

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    The Correlation Between The Anti

    We evaluated correlations between the anti-HBs titers at 1 and 2 years after vaccination and the anti-HBs titer at the primary response . The anti-HBs titers at 1 and 2 years after vaccination were significantly correlated with the anti-HBs titer at the primary response . Age, sex, and primary response were included in a multivariate linear regression analysis to identify factors associated with anti-HBs titers at 1 and 2 years after vaccination the primary response was the only significant factor .

    Hepatitis B Vaccine And Surface Antibody Titer Faqs

    PLEASE NOTE: This is program specific some programs require 3 Hepatitis B vaccines AND a positive Hepatitis B Surface Antibody titer while others will accept 3 vaccines OR a titer. Please read the information in your CastleBranch account carefully so that you know exactly what you need to meet your programs requirements. If you have any questions, please email and a team member will respond.

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    What Is The Difference Between Hepatitis B Surface Antibody And Antigen

    An antigen is a substance that induces antibody production. Hepatitis B surface antigen is a protein on the surface of hepatitis B virus.

    Hepatitis B surface antibodies are produced by the bodys immune system in response to HBsAg. The presence of adequate hepatitis B surface antibodies in the blood indicates protection against hepatitis B virus infection.

    Question 3 How Is The Quantitative Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Test Performed

    WHO

    An immunometric technique is used. The anti-HBs binds to HBsAg ad and ay subtypes, which are coated on the test wells. Binding of a horseradish peroxidase-labeled HBsAg conjugate to the anti-HBs completes the sandwich formation. Unbound materials are then washed away. In the next step, the horseradish peroxidase catalyzes oxidation of a luminogenic substrate, producing light. Light signals are detected and quantified. Intensity of the light is proportional to the amount of anti-HBs present in the patient sample. The result is standardized to an international unit system and reported as milliinternational units per milliliter .

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    Extrahepatic Manifestations Of Hepatitis B

    Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis B are present in 110% of HBV-infected patients and include serum-sicknesslike syndrome, acute necrotizing vasculitis , membranous glomerulonephritis, and papular acrodermatitis of childhood ., Although the pathogenesis of these disorders is unclear, immune complexmediated injury related to high level of HBV antigenemia is thought to be the cause.

    The serum-sicknesslike syndrome occurs in the setting of acute hepatitis B, often preceding the onset of jaundice. The clinical features are fever, skin rash, and polyarteritis. The symptoms often subside shortly after the onset of jaundice, but can persist throughout the duration of acute hepatitis B. The course of this syndrome often parallels the duration and level of HBV viremia: rapid clearance of the virus leads to rapid resolution of the illness. This disorder resembles experimental serum sickness, in which immune complexes activate the complement pathways leading to complement-mediated injury. Patients with this syndrome have low complement levels and high-level circulating immune complexes containing HBV antigens and complement components.

    Other immune-mediated hematological disorders, such as essential mixed cryoglobulinemia and aplastic anemia have been described as part of the extrahepatic manifestations of HBV infection, but their association is not as well-defined therefore, they probably should not be considered etiologically linked to HBV.

    Question 7 Is Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Antibody Always Acquired After A Completed Vaccination Protocol

    No. After 3 intramuscular doses of vaccine, > 90% of healthy adults and > 95% of those < 19 years of age develop immunity .1 However, there is an age-specific decline in development of immunity. After age 40 years, about 90% of people become immune, but by age 60 years, only 75% of people become immune.1 Larger vaccine doses or an increased number of doses are required to induce immunity in many hemodialysis patients and in other immunocompromised people.1

    References

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis B. . Accessed May 30, 2013.
  • Ganem D, Prince AM. Hepatitis B virus infectionnatural history and clinical consequences. N Engl J Med. 2004 350:1118-1129.
  • This FAQ is provided for informational purposes only and is not intended as medical advice. A clinicians test selection and interpretation, diagnosis, and patient management decisions should be based on his/her education, clinical expertise, and assessment of the patient.Document FAQS.105 Revision: 0

    Quest, Quest Diagnostics, the associated logo, Nichols Institute, and all associated Quest Diagnostics marks are the registered trademarks of Quest Diagnostics. All third-party marks®’ and ‘are the property of their respective owners. © 2000- 2021 Quest Diagnostics Incorporated. All rights reserved.Image content features models and is intended for illustrative purposes only.

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    Demographic Characteristics And Clinical Status

    The analytic samples drawn from 294 patients with HBsAg/anti-HBs+serostatus at baseline, comprised 23 cases and 311 matched controls Table shows their demographic and clinical characteristics. Mean age and rheumatic disease types were similar between case and control groups. No patients with HBsAg/anti-HBs+serostatus had detectable HBV DNA at enrolment. Compared with controls, cases had lower baseline serum anti-HBs titers, more prevalent comorbidities , and relatively higher accumulated doses of sulfasalazine, leflunomide, and prednisolone. Most people in both groups used anti-TNF agents . No study subjects were kidney transplant recipients.

    Table 1 Baseline characteristics of cases and controls treated with biologic DMARDs

    No cases had clinical HBV reactivation during follow-up , and no cases developed alanine transaminase elevation, or received any anti-viral treatment during median follow-up of 30months after anti-HBs loss. Only one of the 16/23 cases whose serum HBV DNA was monitored after anti-HBs loss ever had a detectable viral load , which was observed only once, with no recurrence as of August 2020.

    Question 5 What Is The Natural History Of Hepatitis B Surface Antibody During Acute Hepatitis B Infection And Convalescence

    High Levels of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen…

    HBsAg can be detected in the blood 4 to 10 weeks after exposure. This corresponds to onset of symptoms and viremia detectable by nucleic acid amplification methods. Most hepatitis B infections are self-limited and are associated with disappearance of HBsAg within 4 weeks of onset of symptoms. The anti-HBs then appears and increases to a plateau level that persists indefinitely.2

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    Data Analysis And Statistics

    All analyses were done using nonparametric statistical software with penalized maximum likelihood to remove first-order bias. A p-value < 0.05 for two-sided tests was considered statistically significant. Continuous variables were expressed as means plus/minus standard deviation or mean , categorical variables as numbers . Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals for loss of anti-HBs putative associated factors included age, sex, type of rheumatic disease, conventional DMARDs, biologic DMARDs , comorbidity, and baseline anti-HBs titer.

    What Is Hepatitis B Surface Antibody

    When you are exposed to hepatitis B, your body mounts an immune reaction against it as an invader. This happens whether you are exposed due to blood or sexual contact or if you are vaccinated with the hepatitis B vaccine.

    The hepatitis B virus has proteins on its surface that cause your immune system to produce antibodies. With the vaccine, the sample contains the protein only and not the virus itself.

    The first response your body will make when exposed to hepatitis B is to manufacture hepatitis B IgM antibodies. These early antibodies are produced to fight against several parts of the virus including its core. These antibodies are seen in the initial response, but they eventually fade away.

    Your immune system then begins to produce IgG antibodies. It continues to produce these antibodies for the rest of your life. In this way, your immune system is always ready to attack hepatitis B virus when it is exposed to it.

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    The Immunological Effect Of Booster Vaccination In Non

    To confirm the efficacy of booster HBV vaccination in non-responders and low-responders, we evaluated 33 subjects at 1 year after booster vaccination and 10 subjects at 2 years after booster vaccination. Although the anti-HBs titer increased significantly after booster vaccination, this response was not sustained .

    Serial changes in the anti-HB titers of subjects who received a booster vaccination. The vertical axis shows the change in anti-HB titer over time. The horizontal axis shows the indicated time points at which the anti-HB titer was measured at 1 year and 2 years after vaccination. Statistical significance was evaluated using the Friedman test. P values of < 0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. n.s.: not significant

    Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Test

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    A hepatitis B surface antigen test shows if youre contagious. A positive result means you have hepatitis B and can spread the virus. A negative result means you dont currently have hepatitis B. This test doesnt distinguish between chronic and acute infection. This test is used together with other hepatitis B tests to determine the .

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    Results Of The Hbcab Test

    There are two variations of antibodies. The IgM antibody is the largest antibody and the first produced in an infection. It shows that you may have a current, active infection. Sometimes it persists for years, but it usually drops to undetectable levels.

    The HBcAb IgG variant is produced later in the course of the infection, and it’s likely that you will have a positive HBcAb IgG test the rest of your life.

    The screening panel usually has a test that is for total HBcAb, which includes both IgM and IgG. The IgM test may be ordered to help determine if you have an acute infection.

    A positive HBcAb test must be interpreted along with the results of the other tests. You may have an active or chronic infection, or you may be immune to hepatitis B due to past infection. Discuss the results with your healthcare provider. In any case, a positive HBcAb test means your blood or organs cannot be donated to a recipient.

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