How Is It Diagnosed
Your healthcare provider will ask about your medical history and symptoms. Your provider will look at your skin and eyes for signs of hepatitis. Your provider will check your belly to see if the liver is bigger than it should be or hurts when it is touched.
You will have blood tests. If blood tests show that your liver is not working normally, your provider will do tests to find out if a virus is causing the problems. Tests that find a virus will also determine the type of virus.
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Can Hepatitis A Be Prevented
The following will help keep people safe from hepatitis A:
- regular hand washing, especially after going to the bathroom or diapering a baby, and before eating
- washing fruits and vegetables before eating them
- not eating raw shellfish, such as raw oysters
- getting the vaccine for hep A
Getting vaccinated helps a persons body make antibodies that protect against hepatitis infection. The hepatitis A vaccine is now given to all kids when theyre between 1 and 2 years old, and to people who are traveling to countries where the virus could get into the food and water supply.
Treatment Of Relapse Or Non
Sometimes you may need to take a different combination of medicines if your first round of treatment didnt work very well. If it was not done before, your doctor may do a test to find out which genotype caused the infection. This may help the doctor choose a medicine that is more likely to cure the infection.
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How Is Hepatitis A Treated
Unlike other types of viral hepatitis, hepatitis A rarely causes long-term liver damage and doesnât become a long-term illness. There isnt a specific treatment for hepatitis A, and most people will recover fully within one to two months. Usually, symptoms are managed at home with plenty of rest and painkillers and/or medication to help with itchiness, nausea or vomiting may be prescribed.
Occasionally hepatitis A can last longer and, in rare cases, it can be life-threatening if it causes the liver to stop working properly .
Whether youve got symptoms or not, dont prepare food for others or have sex until a healthcare professional tells you that youre no longer infectious.
Once youve recovered from hepatitis A youre immune this means you cant get it again. But you can get other types of hepatitis.
Other Body Fluids And Tissues
Synovial fluid , amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, and peritoneal fluid can contain the hepatitis B virus, but the risk of transmission to workers is not known.
Feces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, urine, and vomit have not been implicated in the spread of hepatitis B. Unless they are visibly contaminated with blood, the risk of contracting hepatitis B from these fluids in the workplace is very low.
Hepatitis B is not transmitted by casual contact. For example, hospital employees who have no contact with blood, blood products, or blood-contaminated fluids are at no greater risk than the general public. However, the virus can spread through intimate contact with carriers in a household setting, possibly because of frequent physical contact with small cuts or skin rashes. The virus can also spread through biting and possibly by the sharing of toothbrushes or razors. It is not spread through sneezing, coughing, hand holding, hugging, kissing, breastfeeding, sharing eating utensils, water or food.
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Tests For The Hepatitis C Virus
If your doctor thinks that you may have hepatitis C, he or she may order:
- A hepatitis C virus test. This is a blood test that looks for antibodies against the hepatitis C virus. It shows whether you have been exposed to the virus.
- A blood test that looks for the genetic material of the hepatitis C virus. This test shows whether you are infected with the virus now.
- A blood test to find out the kind of hepatitis C virus you have. Knowing your genotype will help you and your doctor decide if and how you should be treated.
Can You Get Hepatitis A From Eating Shellfish
When the shellfish is harvested and eaten raw or undercooked, it can make people sick. It can take as few as 100 viruses to make someone ill. Hepatitis A outbreaks in this country have been linked to ill food service workers, to imported berries, to shellfish, and to other produce such as lettuce and green onions.
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Check If You Have Hepatitis A
Symptoms of hepatitis A infection include:
- a high temperature
- flu-like symptoms, such as tiredness, headache, and muscle pains
- feeling sick or being sick
- pain in your upper tummy
- diarrhoea or constipation
- pale yellow or pale grey poo
- itchy skin you may also have a raised rash
- yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes
Most children, and some adults, may have mild symptoms or no symptoms.
Disinfection Of Potentially Contaminated Foods
Development of disinfection procedures for produce or shellfish has been hampered by the technical difficulties involved with detection of infectious HAV in food. Cell culture assays can indicate the presence of infectious HAV, but they are expensive and require several days to perform. Wild-type virus is not easily detectable, because it usually is not cytopathic. RT-PCR protocols can detect viral particles more rapidly but cannot readily distinguish infectious virus from noninfectious HAV RNA, and the variety of PCR inhibitors present in foods requires the development of food-specific protocols. Specific methods to detect enteric viruses, such as HAV, are necessary, because water and shellfish with low coliform counts have been shown to contain viable HAV , and outbreaks of hepatitis A associated with shellfish harvested from waters where fecal coliform counts were within accepted limits have been reported . Despite these challenges, methods are being developed to detect HAV on some types of produce , in shellfish , and in water .
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Immunizing Agents Available For Use In Canada
Hepatitis A-containing vaccines
- GamaSTANÃÂ® , Grifols Therapeutics LLC.
Standard human immunoglobulin is a sterile, concentrated solution for intramuscular injection containing 15% to 18% immunoglobulin. It is obtained from pooled human plasma from screened donors and contains mainly IgG with small amounts of IgA and IgM. For complete prescribing information, consult the product leaflet or information contained within the product monograph available through Health Canadaâs Drug product database.
Refer to Contents in Immunizing Agents Available for Use in Canada in Part 1 for lists of vaccines and passive immunizing agents available for use in Canada and their contents.
Can You Get Hepatitis From Raw Beef
There were 269 cases of hepatitis A we registered. The consumption of raw beef is recommended. The percentage difference between the two is 0% 95% CI 2. 1-120. The most likely way to get sick was by drinking alcohol . One month before the outbreak began, a food handler at an epidemiologically linked meat distribution plant contracted hepatitis A.
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Can You Get Hepatitis From Crab Legs
Undercooked and Raw Shellfish Shellfish are animals that filter the water from their surroundings. Because of this, they can become contaminated with hepatitis A virus if they are grown in polluted waters.
Which hepatitis is from seafood?
Hepatitis A Raw shellfish from contaminated water. A sick food handler who didnt wash their hands before preparing your meal. These are just a few ways you can contract hepatitis A . The virus is spread through food or water that contains microscopic amounts of stool from someone whos infected .
Medical Care Overseas Or Blood Transfusions In Australia Prior To 1990
Moderate to low risk
In some developing countries, the blood used for transfusions is not properly screened for hep C. Surgical equipment may also not be well sterilised, which means theres a risk it could transmit hep C.
In Australia, the blood used for transfusions has been screened for hep C since 1990 and is very safe. There is a very low risk in Australia that some procedures involving blood may be performed by workers who do not have a good understanding of sterile procedure and infection control .
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Risk Assessment And Public Health Significance
How Is The Virus Spread
Hepatitis A virus is usually spread from person to person by putting something in the mouth that has been contaminated with the stool of a person with hepatitis A. This type of transmission is called the “fecal-oral” route. For this reason, the virus is more easily spread in areas where there are poor sanitary conditions or where good personal hygiene is not observed.
Most infections in the United States result from contact with a household member or sex partner who has hepatitis A.Hepatitis A virus may also be spread by consuming food or drink that has been handled by an infected person. Waterborne outbreaks are infrequent and are usually associated with sewage-contaminated or inadequately treated water. Casual contact, as in the office, factory or school setting, does not spread the virus.
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How Does It Spread
Hepatitis A is spread when a person ingests faecal matter from an infected person. This can occur through person-to-person contact , or consumption of contaminated food and water.
Hepatitis A is quite an infectious virus. Only microscopic amounts of poo are needed to infect people and cause symptoms. People living in the same house with a person with hepatitis A have an increased risk of acquiring hepatitis A unless receiving preventive interventions.
The virus can survive on hands and other surfaces such as cooking utensils and plates for hours. So its important to ensure that infected people properly wash their hands after using the toilet, and completely avoid handling food.
Hepatitis A infections occur infrequently in Australia, with the number of cases detected dropping profoundly in the last 20 years. Most infections are in people who have travelled in countries where hepatitis A transmission is common due to poor sanitation and lack of access to safe water.
When outbreaks occur, they are due to contaminated foods, as we saw with the frozen pomegranate seeds, or person-to-person transmission. This is the case for the current outbreak in Victoria, which has predominantly been spread between sexual partners, although other routes of transmission have also occurred.
Hepatitis A And E Symptoms
Hepatitis A and hepatitis E present with similar symptoms. The diseases may develop without any signs or symptoms, or symptoms may be nonspecific. If you experience any of the symptoms below for more than two weeks, make an appointment with a gastroenterologist.
There are three phases of hepatitis A and E, and symptoms may differ depending on the stage. Early in the disease, called the prodromal phase, symptoms may include:
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How Is Hepatitis C Spread
People can become infected with the Hepatitis C virus during such activities as:
- Sharing needles, syringes, or other equipment to inject drugs
- Needlestick injuries in health care settings
- Being born to a mother who has Hepatitis C
Less commonly, a person can also get Hepatitis C virus infection through:
- Sharing personal care items that may have come in contact with another persons blood, such as razors or toothbrushes
- Having sexual contact with a person infected with the Hepatitis C virus
Has This Happened Before
Pomegranates have been linked to outbreaks internationally but not in Australia.
Past food-related outbreaks in Australia have occurred in oysters, lettuce, semi-dried tomatoes and frozen berries.
These outbreaks led to some questions regarding the screening and regulations of imported food coming into Australia and prompted new regulations by the Department of Agriculture, requiring the producer of imported berries to be declared. The Department of Agriculture and Food Standards Australia New Zealand also issued guidance and recommendations to ensure industry producers are compliant with Australias food standards.
Microbiological screening tests for imported berries currently only involves testing for the intestinal bacterium E.Coli.
Anyone can get hepatitis A, but certain persons are at increased risk of infection, including:
- Children and adults living in areas with increased rates of hepatitis
- Persons traveling to countries where hepatitis A is common
- Men who have sex with men
- Injecting and non-injecting drug users
- Sexual contacts of infected persons
- Household contacts of infected persons
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Keep Personal Items Personal
Any tools or implements that may have a bit of blood on them from infected people are potential sources of hepatitis B or C transmission. Toothbrushes, nail clippers, razors, needles, and washcloths may all contain trace amounts of blood that can transmit infection. Keep personal items such as these to yourself and never use personal items that belong to others.
Tests For Liver Problems
To check how well your liver is working, you may have:
- Liver function tests. These are blood tests that can help your doctor find out if you have liver damage.
- A liver biopsy. The doctor puts a needle in the liver to find out whether the virus has caused scarring or damage to your liver.
- Imaging tests such as a CT scan, an MRI, or an ultrasound to make sure that you dont have liver cancer.
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Injecting Drug Use And Hcv
Worldwide, most HCV infections are related to injection drug use. This includes medical and non-medical settings, through sharing needles and other equipment.
HCV is a tougher and smaller virus than HIV. It can remain infectious for days to weeks in syringes, cookers, cotton, water, measuring syringes and ties.
Cleaning syringes with bleach reduces the risk of HIV transmission, but it is less effective against HCV.
Using clean needles and your own works each time you inject stops both HIV and HCV transmission .
It also reduces the risk of other infections.
If you caught HIV from drug use, you were probably infected with HCV first, before HIV. This is because HCV is a smaller virus that is not easily killed by bleach, making it more infectious than HIV.
Sharing injecting recreational drugs including mephedrone and crystal meth in UK gay clubs and/or sex parties has a high risk of HCV transmission, see this link.
Sharing Personal Care Items
The chances of spreading hepatitis C within your household are low but possible. To be safe, dont share personal care items that could be contaminated with blood, Lee says. These include razors, toothbrushes, cuticle scissors, and nail clippers.
In addition, be mindful when you go to nail salons or barbershops, where the same tools are used on all customers. A study published in the November-December 2014 issue of the Journal of Public Health Management & Practicefound that while regulations to safeguard the public exist in most states, its unknown how many businesses comply with them. Ask about tool-sterilization procedures before you frequent these establishments. You can also bring your own nail care supplies.
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Ways You Wont Spread Hepatitis C
There are some ways in which you wont spread HCV, though. Go ahead and let your significant other have a bite of your sandwich or dessert. According to the CDC, hepatitis C isnt spread by sharing silverware or drinking glasses, or through water or foods. Showing affection by holding hands, hugging, or kissing is also safe, Lee says. And although germs from sneezing or coughing might cause you to get a cold, they wont give you hepatitis C.
Whats The Worst Hepatitis Ab Or C
About 15 to 25 percent of people with hepatitis B get chronic liver disease, which can include liver damage, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Acute hepatitis C can cause the same symptoms as acute hepatitis B infections. However, hepatitis C is more likely than hepatitis B to become a chronic condition.
Can you get hep C from a door handle?
There could be a risk of transmission if a person with hepatitis C spills a drop of blood on a commonly used surface, such as a tabletop or door handle. More blood is likely to pose more risk of infection.
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How Is Hepatitis A Infection Prevented
- The hepatitis A vaccine offers excellent protection against HAV. The vaccine is safe and highly effective. Vaccination consists of 2 doses of vaccine spaced 6-12 months apart. Protection starts 1-2 weeks after the first dose of vaccine, and lasts for 20 years to life after 2 doses.
- The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all children should receive hepatitis A vaccine starting at 1 year of age .
- The CDC recommends hepatitis A vaccine for all persons traveling to countries where HAV is common . For infants that will be traveling internationally, an early dose of Hepatitis A vaccine can be given at age 6-11 months.
- People who have hepatitis A infection become immune to HAV for the rest of their lives once they recover. They cannot get hepatitis A twice.
- The blood test for immunity to hepatitis A is called the Hepatitis A Total Antibody test. People who have had hepatitis A and those who have received hepatitis A vaccine show positive antibodies to hepatitis A on this test for the rest of their life.
- Good personal hygiene and proper sanitation help prevent the spread of the HAV virus. Always wash your hands with soap and water after using the bathroom, changing a diaper, and before preparing, serving, or eating food.
- Alcohol-based hand sanitizers do not kill the hepatitis A virus
After Exposure to HAV