Who Should Be Vaccinated For Hepatitis B
All newborns should be vaccinated. Also, people who are under 18 who were not vaccinated at birth should also get the vaccine. Other groups who should be sure to be vaccinated are those in certain high-risk categories, such as:
- People who have more than one sexual partner.
- Men who have sex with men.
- Adults with diabetes.
- Sexual partners of infected people and people who share households with infected individuals.
- People who are exposed to blood and other bodily fluids, including healthcare and public safety professionals, and people who work in jails and other places taking care of people who cant take care of themselves.
An Ounce Of Prevention
As a liver transplant specialist, Dr. Choi notes that the most common reasons for a liver transplant in the U.S. are alcohol-related liver disease and metabolic-associated fatty liver disease also known as fatty liver.
Alcohol use and metabolic syndromeobesity plus diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressurehave been on the rise in our country, and we are seeing their impact in the liver world, he says, concluding that adopting a healthier lifestyle can prevent both diseases.
As well, the HBV vaccine should be offered to all infants and children, and to adults who are not immune to the virus.
Dr. Choi also points to several diseases that are not always preventable, such as autoimmune liver disease. Fortunately, he says, most of these diseases can be treated or controlled so that you wont develop cirrhosis or liver cancer. Thats why screening to diagnose liver disease early is so crucial.
While a liver transplant can save your life, not needing one in the first place is the best outcome, he adds.
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Should I Be Screened For Hepatitis B
Screening is testing for a disease in people who have no symptoms. Doctors use blood tests to screen for hepatitis B. Many people who have hepatitis B dont have symptoms and dont know they are infected with hepatitis B. Screening tests can help doctors diagnose and treat hepatitis B, which can lower your chances of developing serious health problems.
Your doctor may recommend screening for hepatitis B if you9,14
- were born in an area of the world where 2 percent or more of the population has hepatitis B infection, which includes Africa, Asia, and parts of the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and South America
- didnt receive the hepatitis B vaccine as an infant and have parents who were born in an area where 8 percent or more of the population had hepatitis B infection, which includes sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia
- are HIV-positive
- are a man who has sex with men
- have lived with or had sex with a person who has hepatitis B
- have an increased chance of infection due to other factors
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How Is Hepatitis B Diagnosed
There are three main ways to diagnose HBV infection. They include:
- Blood tests: Tests of the blood serum shows how your bodys immune system is responding to the virus. A blood test can also tell you if you are immune to HBV.
- Abdominal ultrasound: An ultrasound uses sound waves to show the size and shape of your liver and how well the blood flows through it.
- Liver biopsy: A small sample of your liver tissue is removed though a tiny incision and sent to a lab for analysis.
The blood test that is used to diagnose hepatitis B is not a test that you get routinely during a medical visit. Often, people whove become infected first learn they have hepatitis B when they go to donate blood. Blood donations are routinely scanned for the infection.
The virus can be detected within 30 to 60 days of infection. About 70% of adults with hepatitis B develop symptoms, which tend to appear an average of 90 days after initial exposure to the virus.
Chronic Hepatitis Pathology Outlines
Chronic hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that can last for months or years. The most common form of chronic hepatitis is caused by the hepatitis C virus . Other forms of chronic hepatitis include hepatitis B virus and non-viral causes such as autoimmune hepatitis and chronic alcohol abuse. The liver is a vital organ that plays an important role in metabolism, detoxification, and immunity. Chronic hepatitis can lead to liver damage, scarring , and liver cancer.
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What Are The Treatments For Hepatitis
Treatment for hepatitis depends on which type you have and whether it is acute or chronic. Acute viral hepatitis often goes away on its own. To feel better, you may just need to rest and get enough fluids. But in some cases, it may be more serious. You might even need treatment in a hospital.
There are different medicines to treat the different chronic types of hepatitis. Possible other treatments may include surgery and other medical procedures. People who have alcoholic hepatitis need to stop drinking. If your chronic hepatitis leads to liver failure or liver cancer, you may need a liver transplant.
History Of Hepatitis B Virus
In 1965, the Ã¢Australian AntigenÃ¢ was then discovered and identified as the Hepatitis B virus surface antigen HBsAg. This was one of the first breakthroughs in the effort to understand the pathology of viral hepatitis that instigated jaundice in those infected with HBV. It allowed industrialized countries to reliably diagnose asymptomatic carries of Hepatitis B virus and the discovery provided healthcare professionals a way to screen blood for Hep B before administering blood transfusions.
Today, Hepatitis B Virus infection is easily avoided by receiving one of the Hepatitis B vaccines. The plasma-derived HepB vaccine was licensed in 1981 and was subsequently replaced in 1986 with the recombinant HepB vaccine. Engerix B was approved in 1989 and Heplisav-B was approved in 2017. All of which provide protection against HBV.
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Risk Factor: Genetic Conditions
Certain disorders make you more prone to developing chronic liver disease. These include autoimmune conditions like primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cholangitis , which happen when the immune system attacks the bowel ducts and autoimmune hepatitis, which happens when the immune system attacks the liver. Chronic liver disease can also be caused by genetic disorders, including Wilsons disease, which causes excess copper accumulation in the body alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, caused by a deficiency in a protein and the most common genetic cause of liver disease in children and hereditary hemochromatosis, a genetic mutation that causes excess iron absorption.
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Who Should Get Vaccinated Against Hepatitis A
Vaccination is recommended for certain groups, including:
- Men who have sexual encounters with other men
- Users of recreational drugs, whether injected or not
- People with chronic or long-term liver disease, including Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C
- Travelers to countries where Hepatitis A is common
- People with clotting-factor disorders
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Search For A Clinical Trial
Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new medical approaches work in people. Before an experimental treatment can be tested on human subjects in a clinical trial, it must have shown benefit in laboratory testing or animal research studies. The most promising treatments are then moved into clinical trials, with the goal of identifying new ways to safely and effectively prevent, screen for, diagnose, or treat a disease.
Speak with your doctor about the ongoing progress and results of these trials to get the most up-to-date information on new treatments. Participating in a clinical trial is a great way to contribute to curing, preventing and treating liver disease and its complications.
Is There A Cure For Chronic Hepatitis B
Currently, there is no complete cure for hepatitis B. But when managed properly, those living with the virus can expect to live a normal life. Maintaining a healthy diet and avoiding beverages that contain alochol and tobacco products are crucial components in managing the disease.
You should also visit a doctor familiar with hepatitis B at least annually though twice a year might be best to monitor your liver through blood tests and medical imaging. As with most diseases, detecting it early leads to a better outcome. If youre exposed to the virus, you should get an antibody injection within 12 hours of exposure.
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How Do Doctors Treat The Complications Of Hepatitis B
If chronic hepatitis B leads to cirrhosis, you should see a doctor who specializes in liver diseases. Doctors can treat the health problems related to cirrhosis with medicines, minor medical procedures, and surgery. If you have cirrhosis, you have an increased chance of liver cancer. Your doctor may order blood tests and an ultrasound or another type of imaging test to check for liver cancer.
If chronic hepatitis B leads to liver failure or liver cancer, you may need a liver transplant.
What Are The Symptoms Of Hepatitis A
Some people have symptoms 2 to 7 weeks after they come in contact with the virus.3 People with hepatitis A typically get better without treatment after a few weeks. In some cases, symptoms can last up to 6 months. These symptoms may include
- yellowish eyes and skin, called jaundice
Some people infected with hepatitis A have no symptoms, including many children younger than age 6.3 Older children and adults are more likely to have symptoms.
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About The Hepatitis B Virus
The hepatitis B virus is a small DNA virus that belongs to the Hepadnaviridae family. Related viruses in this family are also found in woodchucks, ground squirrels, tree squirrels, Peking ducks, and herons.
Structure of the Hepatitis B Virus The hepatitis B virus contains an outer envelope and an inner core.
- The outer envelope of the virus is composed of a surface protein called the hepatitis B surface antigen or âHBsAgâ. The HBsAg can be detected by a simple blood test and a positive test result indicates a person is infected with the hepatitis B virus.
- The inner core of the virus is a protein shell referred to as the hepatitis B core antigen or âHBcAg,â which contains the hepatitis B virus DNA and enzymes used in viral replication.
Life Cycle of the Hepatitis B Virus
The hepatitis B virus has a complex life cycle. The virus enters the host liver cell and is transported into the nucleus of the liver cell. Once inside the nucleus, the viral DNA is transformed into a covalently closed circular DNA , which serves as a template for viral replication . New HBV virus is packaged and leaves the liver cell, with the stable viral cccDNA remaining in the nucleus where it can integrate into the DNA of the host liver cell, as well as continue to create new hepatitis B virus. Although the life cycle is not completely understood, parts of this replicative process are error prone, which accounts for different genotypes or genetic codes of the hepatitis B virus.
Hepatitis A: What Happens
Hepatitis A is highly contagious and can spread from person to person in many different settings. It typically causes only a mild illness, and many people who are infected may never realize theyâre sick at all. The virus almost always goes away on its own and does not cause long-term liver damage.
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Main Causes Of Chronic Liver Disease
According toShahid M. Malik, M.D., clinical assistant professor of medicine and co-director of the Liver Outreach Program at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, about 80% of liver disease in the United States is caused by one of three things: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease , alcohol overuse, and viral hepatitis. Alcohol overuse is the number one cause of liver transplant. And then there are another dozen or so liver-specific diseases we see commonly as specialists, but they make up a minority of cases, Dr. Malik adds. Well break down these risk factors for you.
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What Is Viral Hepatitis
Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. The liver is a vital organ that processes nutrients, filters the blood, and fights infections. When the liver is inflamed or damaged, its function can be affected. Heavy alcohol use, toxins, some medications, and certain medical conditions can cause hepatitis. However, hepatitis is often caused by a virus. In the United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C.
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Why Are The Trial Results Significant
The trial offers the first evidence that mRNA technology may be effective against melanoma.
The company can make one of its melanoma vaccines within about eight weeks, a Moderna spokesperson said in an email.
The technology is very exciting, said Patrick Hwu, president and chief executive officer of Moffitt Cancer Center in Tampa.
Researchers can test to see if its successful against other forms of cancer, said Hwu, a tumor immunologist.
How Common Is Liver Disease
Overall, about 1 in 10 Americans have some type of liver disease. About 5.5 million people in the U.S. have chronic liver disease or cirrhosis.
Some types of liver disease are becoming more common in the U.S. because they are related to rising rates of obesity. An estimated 20% to 30% of adults have excess fat in their liver, a condition called non-alcohol rekated fatty liver disease . This may be renamed metabolic-associated fatty liver disease to reflect its relationship to metabolic syndrome and conditions like diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and obesity.
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Contact The Hepatitis Infoline For More Information
Have questions about the causes of liver damage and disease? Get in touch with the Hepatitis Infoline and have your questions answered today. You can also browse our key services if youd like to know more about how we can help you understand hepatitis A, B, C and your liver.
Your health is more than just about your liver. If you want other information about your health, see our Commonwealth partner HealthDirect.
What Is Toxic Hepatitis
Toxic hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver caused by exposure to chemicals or drugs, or from drinking excessive amounts of alcohol.
The liver has several major functions:
- It converts proteins and sugars into byproducts that can be used for energy and biological processes.
- It acts as a filter to remove chemicals and drugs from the bloodstream.
- It stores vitamins, hormones, and minerals and releases them into the body as needed.
- The liver also produces bile, a greenish fluid that is stored in the gallbladder. Bile helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
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How Long Does It Last
Hepatitis A can last from a few weeks to several months.
Hepatitis B can range from a mild illness, lasting a few weeks, to a serious, life-long condition. More than 90% of unimmunized infants who get infected develop a chronic infection, but 6%10% of older children and adults who get infected develop chronic hepatitis B.
Hepatitis C can range from a mild illness, lasting a few weeks, to a serious, life-long infection. Most people who get infected with the hepatitis C virus develop chronic hepatitis C.
Hepatitis A And B Vaccines
There are vaccines to protect against hepatitis A and B. The CDC recommends hepatitis A vaccination for all children ages 12 to 23 months and for adults who plan to travel or work in areas with hepatitis A outbreaks or who have other risk factors. People with chronic hepatitis B or C should also get the hepatitis A vaccine if they donât already have immunity to the disease. The hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for all infants at birth and for adults who have any of the risk factors we discussed earlier. There is no vaccine for hepatitis C.
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Urgent Advice: Contact Your Gp If:
- you have any persistent or troublesome symptoms that you think could be caused by hepatitis
- your child develops any symptoms of hepatitis, such as yellowing of the eyes and skin
Long-term hepatitis also may not have any obvious symptoms until the liver stops working . Routine blood tests can help diagnose hepatitis.
In the later stages it can cause:
- swelling in the legs, ankles and feet
- blood in your poo or vomit
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What Other Problems Can Hepatitis B Cause
In rare cases, acute hepatitis B can cause liver failure.
If you have ever had hepatitis B, the virus may become active again, or reactivated, later in life. This could start to damage the liver and cause symptoms.
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Molecular Sieves And Desiccants
Apart from distillation, ethanol may be dried by addition of a , such as , , or . The desiccants can be dried and reused. can be used to selectively absorb the water from the 95.6% ethanol solution. Molecular sieves of pore-size 3 , a type of , effectively sequester water molecules while excluding ethanol molecules. Heating the wet sieves drives out the water, allowing regeneration of their dessicant capability.