Saturday, June 22, 2024

What Does Hepatitis B Vaccine Do

Reduce Your Chance Of Infection

Why Do Newborns Get the Hepatitis B Vaccine?

You can reduce your chance of hepatitis B infection by

  • not sharing drug needles or other drug materials
  • wearing gloves if you have to touch another persons blood or open sores
  • making sure your tattoo artist or body piercer uses sterile tools
  • not sharing personal items, such as toothbrushes, razors, or nail clippers
  • using a latex or polyurethane condom during sex

Hepatitis A And Hepatitis B Vaccine Dosing Information

Usual Adult Dose for Hepatitis B Prophylaxis:

Primary immunization: 1 mL IM in the deltoid area at 0, 1 and 6 months.Alternatively, a 4 dose schedule given on days 0, 7, and 21 to 30 followed by a booster at month 12 may be used.

Usual Adult Dose for Hepatitis A Prophylaxis:

Primary immunization: 1 mL IM in the deltoid area at 0, 1 and 6 months.Alternatively, a 4 dose schedule given on days 0, 7, and 21 to 30 followed by a booster at month 12 may be used.

Hepatitis B Vaccination Schedule For Children And Infants

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that babies and children receive three 0.5 milliliter doses of either Engerix-B or Recombivax HB, starting just after birth.

The current recommended hepatitis B vaccine schedule for children and infants is as follows:

Hepatitis B Vaccination Schedule for Infants and Children
Hepatitis B Vaccine Dose
3 618 months old

If your child is undergoing hemodialysis, your healthcare provider may recommend that they receive additional doses of the HBV vaccine.

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Does Hepatitis B Go Away

In most cases, hepatitis B goes away on its own. You can relieve your symptoms at home by resting, eating healthy foods, drinking plenty of water, and avoiding alcohol and drugs. Also, find out from your doctor what medicines and herbal products to avoid, because some can make liver damage caused by hepatitis B worse.

Hepatitis B Vaccination In Pregnancy

The Global Need for Hepatitis B Immunization

Hepatitis B infection in pregnant women may result in severe disease for the mother and chronic infection for the baby.

This is why the hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for pregnant women who are in a high-risk category.

There’s no evidence of any risk from vaccinating pregnant or breastfeeding women against hepatitis B.

And, as it’s an inactivated vaccine, the risk to the unborn baby is likely to be negligible .

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Vaccines For Hepatitis A And B

Our immune system battles foreign invaders every day, such as when we get a cold virus. When this happens, we develop immunity to that specific virus. This means that our body will fight off the virus if it is ever exposed to it again.

The same protection happens with vaccines. However, the benefit of a vaccination is that you don’t have to go through being sick to enable your body to fight off disease.

Gregory Poland, MD, director of the Mayo Clinic’s Vaccine Research Group, explains that hepatitis vaccinations contain a small amount of the inactive virus. When you get a dose of the vaccine, he says, your immune cells respond by developing immunity against the virus. This immunity lasts over a long period of time.

“So if I get these two doses of hepatitis A vaccine, and then I get exposed 30 years from now, my body will remember that immunity to the vaccine and rapidly start producing antibodies again,” says Poland.

Due to the way hepatitis vaccinations are developed, it is impossible to contract the virus from the vaccine itself, according to Poland.

The hepatitis A vaccine is usually given in two shots and the hepatitis B vaccine is administered as a series of three shots. The most common side effects are redness, pain, and tenderness where the shots are given.

To get long-term protection from these viruses, it’s important to receive all the shots as scheduled. However, if you received one shot and never went back for the others, it’s not too late to catch up.

Why Is The Hepatitis B Vaccine Important

Because of the vaccine, cases of acute hepatitis B have decreased by a lot in the United States. But chronic hepatitis B is still common up to 2.2 million people in the United States have it. Chronic hepatitis B can lead to serious liver problems and even death.

Getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent hepatitis B.

Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused by a virus. There are 2 types of hepatitis B:

  • Acute hepatitis B
  • Chronic hepatitis B

Many children who get acute hepatitis B dont have any symptoms, but most adults do. Symptoms may include:

  • Dark pee or clay-colored poop
  • Pain in the muscles, joints, and stomach

Acute hepatitis B symptoms usually last a few weeks but they can last as long as 6 months.

If the acute hepatitis B infection does not go away after 6 months, its considered a chronic hepatitis B infection. Most people who have chronic hepatitis B dont have symptoms at first. But chronic hepatitis B is a lifelong illness that can lead to serious and possibly deadly liver problems, like:

  • Has sex with a person who has hepatitis B
  • Touches the blood or open sores of a person who has hepatitis B

All children and most adults need to get the hepatitis B vaccine.

Infants and children

All children need to get the hepatitis B vaccine as part of their routine vaccine schedule.

Children need 3 doses of the vaccine at the following ages:

  • Birth for the first dose
  • 1 through 2 months for the second dose
  • 6 through 18 months for the third dose

Adults

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Hepatitis B In The United States

In the United States, about 862,000 people have chronic hepatitis B.6 Asian Americans and African Americans have higher rates of chronic hepatitis B than other U.S. racial and ethnic groups.10 Researchers estimate that about half of the people living with chronic hepatitis B in the United States are Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders.11 Chronic hepatitis B is also more common among people born in other countries than among those born in the United States.7

The hepatitis B vaccine has been available since the 1980s and, in 1991, doctors began recommending that children in the United States receive the hepatitis B vaccine. The annual rate of acute hepatitis B infections went down 88.5 percent between 1982 and 2015.12 In 2017, the annual number of hepatitis B infections rose in some states.13 Experts think the rise was related to increases in injection drug use. Injection drug use increases the risk of hepatitis B infection.

Transmission Symptoms And Treatment

Hepatitis B Vaccine

How is HBV transmitted?

HBV is transmitted through activities that involve percutaneous or mucosal contact with infectious blood or body fluids , including

  • sex with a partner who has HBV infection
  • injection drug use that involves sharing needles, syringes, or drug-preparation equipment
  • birth to a person who has HBV infection
  • contact with blood from or open sores on a person who has HBV infection
  • exposures to needle sticks or sharp instruments and
  • sharing certain items with a person who has HBV infection that can break the skin or mucous membranes , potentially resulting in exposure to blood.

How long does HBV survive outside the body?

HBV can survive outside the body and remains infectious for at least 7 days .

What should be used to clean environmental surfaces potentially contaminated with HBV?

Any blood spills should be disinfected using a 1:10 dilution of one part household bleach to 9 parts water. Gloves should be worn when cleaning up any blood spills.

Who is at risk for HBV infection?

The following populations are at increased risk for becoming infected with HBV:

  • Infants born to people with HBV infection
  • Sex partners of people with HBV infection
  • Men who have sex with men
  • People who inject drugs
  • Household contacts or sexual partners of known people with chronic HBV infection
  • Health care and public safety workers at risk for occupational exposure to blood or blood-contaminated body fluids
  • Patients on hemodialysis

Who should be screened for HBV?

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Eating Diet And Nutrition For Hepatitis B

If you have hepatitis B, you should eat a balanced, healthy diet. Obesity can increase the chance of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease , and NAFLD can increase liver damage in people who have hepatitis B. Talk with your doctor about healthy eating and maintaining a healthy weight.

You should also avoid alcohol because it can cause more liver damage.

The Hepatitis B Vaccine Is Recommended For:

  • People who live with someone who has hepatitis B
  • People with chronic liver disease or end-stage kidney disease
  • Adults ages 1959
  • Adults, 60 and older, with or without known risk factors for hepatitis B infection

People who have not completed the vaccine series should contact their primary care provider to discuss the vaccine.

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Why Should My Baby Get The Hepatitis B Shot

  • Protects your child from against hepatitis B, a potentially serious disease.
  • Protects other people from the disease because children with hepatitis B usually dont have symptoms, but they may pass the disease to others without anyone knowing they were infected.
  • Prevents your child from developing liver disease and cancer from hepatitis B.
  • Keeps your child from missing school or child care and you from missing work.

More Information On Side Effects

HEPLISAV

Reactions listed under âpossible side effectsâ or âadverse eventsâ on vaccine product information sheets may not all be directly linked to the vaccine. See Vaccine side effects and adverse reactions for more information on why this is the case.

If you are concerned about any reactions that occur after vaccination, consult your doctor. In the UK you can report suspected vaccine side effects to the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency through the Yellow Card Scheme

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A Note About Sex And Gender

Sex and gender exist on spectrums. This article will use the terms male, female, or both to refer to sex assigned at birth. .

It is important that infants who are born to females with hepatitis B receive accurate doses of the hepatitis B vaccine. They may also be required to receive hepatitis B immunoglobulin if it is available.

The WHO also recommends using antiviral prophylaxis to help prevent hepatitis B transmission.

The table below outlines the two recommended hepatitis B vaccine schedules for infants born to those who have hepatitis B:

Vaccine series

When To Delay Or Avoid Hepb Immunization

Doctors delay giving the vaccine to babies who weigh less than 4 pounds, 7 ounces at birth whose mothers do not have the virus in their blood. The baby will get the first dose at 1 month of age or when the baby is discharged from the hospital.

The vaccine is not recommended if your child:

  • is currently sick, although simple colds or other minor illnesses should not prevent immunization
  • had a serious allergic reaction after an earlier dose of the vaccine or is allergic to baker’s yeast

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Why Are The Trial Results Significant

The trial offers the first evidence that mRNA technology may be effective against melanoma.

Modernas COVID-19 shot also uses mRNA technology, which allows for faster development of vaccines.

The company can make one of its melanoma vaccines within about eight weeks, a Moderna spokesperson said in an email.

The technology is very exciting, said Patrick Hwu, president and chief executive officer of Moffitt Cancer Center in Tampa.

Researchers can test to see if its successful against other forms of cancer, said Hwu, a tumor immunologist.

Important Information About Vaccine And Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin Shot Administration

Hepatitis B vaccine for Grade 7 Students

Where available, the hepatitis B birth-dose and HBIG should be administered within 24 hours of birth in order to prevent the transmission of hepatitis B from mother to child. It is very important that the shots be given in opposite limbs, to ensure the highest effectiveness. Please see chart above for more information.

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What Are Clinical Trials For Hepatitis B

Clinical trialsand other types of clinical studiesare part of medical research and involve people like you. When you volunteer to take part in a clinical study, you help doctors and researchers learn more about disease and improve health care for people in the future.

Researchers are studying many aspects of hepatitis B, such as

  • progression of hepatitis B and long-term outcomes
  • new treatments for hepatitis B
  • prevention of reactivated or worsening hepatitis B in people receiving cancer treatment

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

The interprofessional health care team faces many challenges when vaccinating patients for hepatitis B. While few medical interventions have as significant an impact on health as vaccinations, and the hepatitis B vaccination is generally safe, lack of knowledge about the vaccine by healthcare team members and patient concern about adverse events can decrease coverage. Challenges on knowledge of the vaccine for healthcare team members include staying current on evolving recommendations for whom the vaccine is indicated. All team members can increase the vaccination rate of their patients by encouraging all staff to become trained in the assessment of vaccination histories and any pertinent staff in the administration of the vaccine. Protecting the time available for the team to do this is an essential component of this strategy. All patients should receive education on the benefits of vaccination, including its herd immunity effect, the generally safe side effect profile, and the relatively few contraindications. A presumption of acceptance may be effective with most patients. The hesitant parent and patient who does not respond to this can pose a challenge in vaccination. Motivational interviewing techniques have shown to be effective with these hesitant patients.

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Does The Hepatitis B Vaccine Have Side Effects

Some children will develop pain or soreness in the local area of the shot, and low-grade fever.

There is one extremely rare, but serious, side effect. About 1 out of every 600,000 doses of the hepatitis B vaccine will cause a severe allergic reaction, called anaphylaxis, with symptoms including swelling of the mouth, difficulty breathing, low blood pressure or shock. Anaphylaxis usually occurs within 15 minutes of receiving the vaccine. Although anaphylaxis can be treated, it is quite frightening. People should remain at the doctors office for about 15 minutes after getting the vaccine.

Although the hepatitis B vaccine is made in yeast cells, no one has ever been shown to be allergic to the yeast proteins contained in the hepatitis B vaccine .

Immunization With Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin

Free Hepatitis B vaccination for non

Machaira et al stated that the cost-effectiveness of augmenting immunization against hepatitis B infection with hepatitis B immune globulin remains controversial, particularly for the subpopulation of babies of HBsAg+/HBeAg- mothers that are considered as low-infective. These researchers evaluated the effectiveness of vaccine alone compared with vaccine plus HBIG for the immunization of babies of HBsAg+/HBeAg- mothers. They searched PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases to identify studies comparing the effectiveness of combined immunization with vaccine alone in neonates of HBsAg+/HBeAg- mothers. A systematic review and meta-analysis of eligible studies was performed. A total of 9 eligible studies were identified . No difference was found regarding the primary outcome of this meta-analysis, namely occurrence of hepatitis B infection, between neonates who received vaccine only, compared with those who received both vaccine and HBIG . This finding was consistent with regards to sero-protection rate . Safety data were not reported in the included studies. The authors concluded that available limited published evidence suggested that vaccine alone seems to be equally effective to the combination of HBIG and hepatitis B vaccine for neonates of HBsAg+/HBeAg- mothers in preventing infection. They stated that further studies are needed in order to clarify the potential benefit of combined immunization to this specific subgroup of patients.

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The Hepatitis B Vaccine And Immunosuppressants

If you are taking or about to start taking a medication that suppresses your immune response, let your healthcare provider know. Immunosuppressants may make certain vaccines less effective. Your healthcare provider may recommend that you get the hepatitis B vaccine at a particular time during your course of medication.

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Should I Be Screened For Hepatitis B

Screening is testing for a disease in people who have no symptoms. Doctors use blood tests to screen for hepatitis B. Many people who have hepatitis B dont have symptoms and dont know they are infected with hepatitis B. Screening tests can help doctors diagnose and treat hepatitis B, which can lower your chances of developing serious health problems.

Your doctor may recommend screening for hepatitis B if you9,14

  • were born in an area of the world where 2 percent or more of the population has hepatitis B infection, which includes Africa, Asia, and parts of the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and South America
  • didnt receive the hepatitis B vaccine as an infant and have parents who were born in an area where 8 percent or more of the population had hepatitis B infection, which includes sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia
  • are HIV-positive
  • are a man who has sex with men
  • have lived with or had sex with a person who has hepatitis B
  • have an increased chance of infection due to other factors

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Experimental And Investigational Or Not Medically Necessary

  • For persons with normal immune status who have been vaccinated, booster doses are considered not medically necessary.
  • Aetna considers hepatitis B vaccine experimental and investigational for all other indications because its effectiveness for indications other than the ones listed above has not been established.
  • Footnote1*Note: Aetna generally does not cover immunizations required for travel or because of work-related risk. Check contract language, limitations and exclusions for coverage details.

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