Recommendations For Service Providers
Integrate hepatitis C education into existing sexual health and HIV services for gbMSM:
- Know hepatitis C risk factors. Educate gbMSM about the sexual transmission of hepatitis C. Encourage gbMSM having sex that could lead to hepatitis C to:
- use a new condom for each partner, including on sex toys
- use a new glove for each partner when fisting
- use individual lube containers and regularly apply lube
Integrate hepatitis C testing services into existing sexual health and HIV services:
Integrate sexual health and harm reduction services and programs to support gbMSM:
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Q: How Do You Clean Up Hcv
A: You may want to keep a first-aid kit in your home and in your car. Always use rubber gloves when cleaning up blood so that you do not come into direct contact with it. The area should be cleaned using a solution of 1 part bleach to 10 parts water or other good disinfectant. Scrub the area thoroughly.
What Is Hepatitis C
The term hepatitis means an inflammation of the liver. The inflammation may damage the liver, which is the largest internal organ in the body. The liver filters the blood and breaks down harmful substances.
Infection with a virus is the most common cause of hepatitis. If a person contracts HCV, the disease is called hepatitis C, or hep C for short.
Hepatitis A and hepatitis B are other types of hepatitis that result from viral infection. Hepatitis A, B, and C differ in the way they spread, their effect on the liver, and their method of treatment, according to the
HCV causes hepatitis C. A person may contract HCV by coming into contact with the blood of someone else who has the condition. Even microscopic amounts of blood may be enough to spread the virus.
In the United States, the way for someone to contract hepatitis C is by sharing drug-injection equipment, such as needles or syringes.
According to the , other ways a person may contract hepatitis C include:
- coming into contact with the open sores or blood of a person with the condition
- using the toothbrush, nail clippers, or razor of a person with the condition
- getting a tattoo or piercing with non-sterile instruments or inks
- getting an accidental stick with a needle from someone with hepatitis C
About 6% of babies born to people with hepatitis C will develop hepatitis C.
Sometimes an individual will experience symptoms 13 months after contracting HCV, according to
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Is Hepatitis C Sexually Transmitted
The question of whether Hepatitis C is a sexually transmitted disease comes up quite regularly and is inevitably controversial. In this post, I will answer the question using the combination of the most recent scientific research and personal experience.
The short answer to the question Is Hepatitis C a sexually transmitted disease? is No, Hepatitis C is not a sexually transmitted disease.
Research shows that the chance of catching, or transmitting, Hepatitis C through vaginal sex is about 200,000 in one. In other words, if you were to have sexual intercourse 200,000 times there is one chance you might catch Hep C from an infected partner.
To put this in a real world context I had Hepatitis C for the first 35 years of my marriage. My wife and I were sexually active all through those years and my wife did not catch Hep C from me. I have heard the same experience from many other couples.
To put this in perspective, according to my maths, you would need to have sex 20 times a day every day for more than 20 years to have one chance of catching Hepatitis C through vaginal sexual intercourse. Hepatitis C can only be transmitted through blood-to-blood contact.
Is Hepatitis A Sexually Transmitted
Is Hep A an STD? How is Hep A spread? Hepatitis A virus can be transmitted through any sexual activity that is with someone who has the infection. This also goes for what is called a brown shower in the BDSM world. A brown shower is when the excrement of someone is emptied into the mouth of another person. Similar to a golden shower, which refers to urine instead of feces.
Can I Get it Again?
No, if you have been infected with hepatitis A in the past, your body has developed antibodies to the hepatitis A virus, therefore you cannot get it again.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , hepatitis A transmission is decreasing in the United States. Getting tested is especially important if you have traveled or lived in locations such as Eastern Europe, Africa, Mexico, Central or South America, or certain parts of Asia where hepatitis A is prevalent.
Those at a higher risk of acquiring HAV may include those who:
- Live in areas that have a lack of safe water
- Live in a household with an infected person
- Have poor sanitation/hygiene
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How Are Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C Spread From Person To Person
Like HIV, the hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses spread:
- Perinatally: Pregnant people can pass these infections to their infants. HIV-HCV coinfection increases the risk of passing on hepatitis C to the baby.
- Sexually: Both viruses can also be transmitted sexually, but HBV is much more likely than HCV to be transmitted sexually. Sexual transmission of HCV is most likely to happen among gay and bisexual men who have HIV.
How Do You Prevent Hepatitis C
There is no vaccine for hepatitis C but there are a number of ways to reduce the risk of infection.
Never share needles and syringes or other items that may be contaminated with infected blood, even old or dried blood can contain the virus.
Only have tattoos, body piercings or acupuncture in a professional setting, where new, sterile needles are used
You can also stop the spread of the virus by practising safer sex. Use condoms, especially during rough sex or if youre menstruating. Use dental dams and latex gloves for rimming, fingering and fisting. Knowing the status of your sexual partner is another important way to stay safe.
If you have HIV, taking your antiretroviral treatment keeps your immune system strong. This way so youre less likely to get other infections, including hepatitis C. For more details on hepatitis C and HIV read our in detail tab.
Having regular STI tests is one of the best ways to look after your sexual health. If you are having sex with multiple partners, its even more important to use condoms and get tested regularly even if you dont have any symptoms.
If youve been diagnosed with hepatitis C you should avoid sex until you have finished your treatment and a health care professional says its safe.
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What Is The Treatment For Hepatitis C
Drugs are licensed for treatment of persons with chronic hepatitis C. Combination drug therapy, using pegylated interferon and ribavirin, can get rid of the virus in up to five out of ten of persons with genotype 1, the most common genotype in the U.S. and eight out of ten persons with genotype 2 or 3. It is important to know that not everyone will need treatment. The decision to treat hepatitis C is complex and is best made by a physician experienced in treating the disease.
Why Are We Talking About Sexual Transmission Of Hepatitis C Among Gbmsm
Drug use, and injection drug use in particular, is a well-understood pathway for hepatitis C transmission. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C isnt as clear. The evidence suggests that sexual transmission of hepatitis C among heterosexual couples is rare.1 However, as we will discuss below, sexual transmission of hepatitis C can occur among gbMSM. Further, changing sexual practices among gbMSM2 using new HIV prevention approaches may be having an impact on the rates of sexual transmission of hepatitis C.
The Blueprint to inform hepatitis C elimination efforts in Canada indicates that gbMSM are an emerging priority population for efforts to eliminate hepatitis C infection. The Blueprint states that sexual transmission and/or transmission through drug use are the main risk factors for hepatitis C among gbMSM.3 However, hepatitis C infection may not be widely considered a priority for sexual health services and education for gbMSM.
It is challenging to understand the risk of sexual transmission among gbMSM, including separating the risks of transmitting hepatitis C through sex and through drug use. In the studies discussed in this article, where information on drug use is included in the research it is often based on self-reported data, which may be an underestimate because of the stigma that can be associated with drug use.
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In Development: Genital Herpes Vaccines
Genital herpes is a viral infection caused by herpes simplex viruses. Some infected people may have few or no symptoms of illness, but many others experience blisters and sores in the genital area. The infection can remain in the body indefinitely, and sores can recur again and again.
Researchers have developed many experimental attenuated and inactivated herpes vaccines, starting in the 1930s and continuing through the 1970s, though none was effective enough to be approved and licensed.
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline co-sponsored a Phase 3 clinical trial of a candidate subunit herpes vaccine on nearly 8,000 women across the country. The vaccine had previously shown some promise in a certain subset of women. In September 2010, however, researchers reported that the Phase 3 trial failed to show that the vaccine was effective. Another herpes candidate vaccine, sponsored by Sanofi Pasteur, uses the whole virus and is in pre-clinical studies.
As much as it would be useful to have a highly effective herpes simplex vaccine, the current options are not likely to be broadly useful.
Epidemiology Of Sexually Transmitted Hcv
2.1.1. Trends in HCV infections in HIVpositive and negative MSM
2.1.2. Molecular epidemiology
Molecular epidemiology is increasingly used to identify clusters and transmission pathways in rapidly evolving pathogens such as HIV and HCV. The main aim of these molecular approaches was to aid the public health response by identifying factors of the epidemic, such as hotspots or emerging clusters, otherwise missed.
2.1.3. Risk factors for acquiring sexually transmitted HCV
Finally, studies consistently show that biological factors might play a role: confection with STI, HIV1 infection in itself, a lower CD4 cell count and higher HIV RNA levels are associated with an increased risk of incident HCV infection 24, 58, 66, 68. These factors might affect the mucosal microenvironment and activate specific immune cells within mucosal tissues, which would allow HCV entry and retention.
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What Is A Sexually Transmitted Disease
The definition of a sexually transmitted disease is A bacterial or viral infection transmitted from an infected person to an uninfected person through sexual contact. Examples of sexually transmitted viruses and bacteria are chlamydia, gonorrhoea, herpes, human papillomavirus infection, HIV/AIDS, and syphilis.
How Do I Test For Hepatitis C
A simple blood test will show whether you have the virus. You may also be given an extra test to see if your liver is damaged.
If youve got hepatitis C you should be tested for other STIs. It’s important that you tell your recent sexual partner/s so they can also get tested and treated. Many people who have hepatitis C do not notice anything wrong, and by telling them you can help to stop the virus being passed on. It can also stop you from getting the infection again.
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Can You Get Hepatitis C By Having Sex The Sexual Transmission Of Hepatitis C Among Gay And Bisexual Men And Other Men Who Have Sex With Men
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Hepatitis C is not commonly considered a sexually transmitted infection it is usually passed through blood-to-blood contact. However, the sexual transmission of hepatitis C is an increasing concern among some gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men . Over the past two decades, sexual transmission of hepatitis C has predominantly occurred among gbMSM living with HIV. Recently a small but increasing number of HIV-negative gbMSM have been getting hepatitis C. This article reviews how hepatitis C is passed sexually, the types of sex where it can be passed and the rates of hepatitis C sexual transmission among gbMSM. It also includes strategies to reduce the likelihood of sexual transmission and recommendations for service providers working with gbMSM.
What Are The Rates Of Sexually Acquired Hepatitis C Infection Among Gbmsm
gbMSM living with HIV
In the early 2000s, reports began to appear of hepatitis C outbreaks among populations of gbMSM living with HIV where the vast majority of the men did not report typical blood-related risks for transmission, such as injection drug use or medical/dental care in countries where universal precautions to prevent hepatitis C infection have not been consistently implemented.6,15 These were the first reports to suggest that hepatitis C could be passed through sex. Over time, as more research was published globally on rates of hepatitis C infection among gbMSM living with HIV, it became accepted that sex was a pathway for transmission of hepatitis C among gbMSM living with HIV.6,10,16
Two international systematic reviews reported that the hepatitis C prevalence rate among HIV-positive gbMSM with no history of injection drug use is about seven in 100.17,18 This is higher than the estimated prevalence rate of five in 100 among gbMSM with/without HIV in a survey across five cities in Canada.19
HIV-negative gbMSM have much lower rates of new hepatitis C infections than HIV-positive gbMSM. Rates ranged from 0.4 to 1.5 new hepatitis C infections per 1000 person-years among HIV-negative gbMSM.16
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Can You Pass Hepatitis C To A Sex Partner
Sex and Sexuality
Yes, but it is not likely. Compared to hepatitis B virus and the human immunodeficiency virus , it is less likely that you will spread the hepatitis C virus to your sex partner.
If you have one long-term sex partner, and one of you has hepatitis C and one of you does not, you do not need to change your sex habits at all. But, if either you or your partner is worried about the small chance of spreading the hepatitis C virus, you can use latex condoms. This will make it almost impossible to spread the virus. Long-term partners of people with hepatitis C should get tested for the virus. If the test is negative, you will probably not need to repeat it.
If you have more than one sex partner, you are more likely to spread the virus. In this case, reduce the number of sex partners you have, practice safer sex, and always use latex condoms.
There have been outbreaks of sexually transmitted HCV infection among men who have HIV and who have sex with men. It is recommended that men who have sex with men use condoms to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted HCV and other sexually transmitted infections.
How Is The Virus Spread
Like hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus is spread when blood of an infected person enters the body of a person who is not infected, such as through sharing needles or “works” when shooting drugs or occupational needle stick injury. The risk of sexual transmission has not been thoroughly studied but appears to be low in long-term, monogamous relationships. There is no evidence that the hepatitis C virus can be transmitted by casual contact such as hugging or shaking hands, through foods, by sharing eating utensils or drinking glasses, or by coughing or sneezing. Hepatitis C is not spread by breastmilk.
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Q: What Are The Chances Of A Person Becoming Chronically Infected Or Dying From Hepatitis C
A: Some people with hepatitis C infection develop a long-term infection, chronic liver disease, cirrhosis , or liver cancer. Many people live decades with the virus and die of other causes unrelated to liver disease.
Of every 100 persons infected with hepatitis C about:
- 85 persons may develop long-term infection
- 70 persons may develop chronic liver disease
- 15 persons may develop cirrhosis over 20-30 years or longer
- 5 persons may die from liver cancer or cirrhosis
Sharing Toothbrushes Scissors And Razors
There’s a potential risk that hepatitis C may be passed on through sharing items such as toothbrushes, razors and scissors, as they can become contaminated with infected blood.
Equipment used by hairdressers, such as scissors and clippers, can pose a risk if it has been contaminated with infected blood and not sterilised or cleaned between customers. However, most salons operate to high standards, so this risk is low.
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