Other Side Effects Of Ribavirin
Other side effects of ribavirin may include:
- nausea and vomiting
All DAAs are oral drugs that you swallow. Follow your doctors or pharmacists instructions on how to take these medications. They can also tell you what side effects are possible and symptoms of any serious side effects to look out for.
What Health Professionals Need To Know About Hepatitis C
Hepatitis C is not a vaccine-preventable disease.
Hepatitis C is reportable by laboratories and clinicians to local public health authorities in all provinces and territories.
- hepatitis C antibody and nucleic acid amplification testing methods for screening the blood supply were implemented in 1992
- prior to this implementation, thousands were infected with the hepatitis C virus after receiving blood or blood products
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Protease Inhibitor Antiviral Medications
Protease inhibitors work by preventing the spread of infection within the body by stopping viruses from multiplying.
Grazoprevir is a protease inhibitor for hepatitis C genotypes 1 and 4. Its only available in combination with elbasvir and sold as grazoprevir/elbasvir.
The drug combination is sold under the brand name Zepatier.
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Getting Tested For Hepatitis C
Seek medical advice if you have persistent symptoms of hepatitis C or thereâs a risk youâre infected, even if you do not have any symptoms.
A blood test can be carried out to see if you have the infection.
GPs, sexual health clinics, genitourinary medicine clinics or drug treatment services all offer testing for hepatitis C.
Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent or limit any damage to your liver, as well as help ensure the infection is not passed on to other people.
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What Causes Hepatitis C
The hepatitis C virus causes hepatitis C. The hepatitis C virus spreads through contact with an infected persons blood. Contact can occur by
- sharing drug needles or other drug materials with an infected person
- getting an accidental stick with a needle that was used on an infected person
- being tattooed or pierced with tools or inks that were not kept sterilefree from all viruses and other microorganismsand were used on an infected person before they were used on you
- having contact with the blood or open sores of an infected person
- using an infected persons razor, toothbrush, or nail clippers
- being born to a mother with hepatitis C
- having unprotected sex with an infected person
You cant get hepatitis C from
- being coughed or sneezed on by an infected person
- drinking water or eating food
- hugging an infected person
- shaking hands or holding hands with an infected person
- sharing spoons, forks, and other eating utensils
- sitting next to an infected person
A baby cant get hepatitis C from breast milk.18
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How Is Hepatitis C Spread
In Canada, most people are infected by:
- using or sharing drug paraphernalia contaminated with infected blood, including:
If you have hepatitis C, you can pass the virus to your baby during:
- breastfeeding if your nipples are cracked and bleeding, and your baby also has bleeding in or on the mouth
- it can be hard to tell if a baby has bleeding in or on the mouth
- cracked nipples may not be bleeding but may begin to during breastfeeding
You can also be infected if you receive contaminated:
Although rare, hepatitis C can also be spread through unprotected sex especially if it involves blood contact, such as:
- open sores, cuts or wounds
Unprotected sex means having sex without using a condom or other barrier safely.
Hepatitis C is not spread through:
How Do Doctors Treat Hepatitis C
Doctors treat hepatitis C with antiviral medicines that attack the virus and can cure the disease in most cases.
Several newer medicines, called direct-acting antiviral medicines, have been approved to treat hepatitis C since 2013. Studies show that these medicines can cure chronic hepatitis C in most people with this disease. These medicines can also cure acute hepatitis C. In some cases, doctors recommend waiting to see if an acute infection becomes chronic before starting treatment.
Your doctor may prescribe one or more of these newer, direct-acting antiviral medicines to treat hepatitis C:
You may need to take medicines for 8 to 24 weeks to cure hepatitis C. Your doctor will prescribe medicines and recommend a length of treatment based on
- which hepatitis C genotype you have
- how much liver damage you have
- whether you have been treated for hepatitis C in the past
Your doctor may order blood tests during and after your treatment. Blood tests can show whether the treatment is working. Hepatitis C medicines cure the infection in most people who complete treatment.
Hepatitis C medicines may cause side effects. Talk with your doctor about the side effects of treatment. Check with your doctor before taking any other prescription or over-the-counter medicines.
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Sofosbuvir Velpatasvir And Voxilapresvir
This drug combination is similar to Epclusa but also includes a drug called voxilapresvir.
Facts about Vosevi include:
- Treatment time is 12 weeks for people without cirrhosis or compensated cirrhosis .
- Dosage is fixed at 400 mg of sofosbuvir, 100 mg of velpatasvir, and 100 mg of voxilapresvir once per day with food.
- Common side effects include tiredness, a headache, diarrhea, and nausea.
Doctors often recommend Vosevi for people who have had previous treatment for hepatitis C that did not work.
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Preventing Hepatitis C Transmission
If you have actually just been identified with hepatitis C, you may worry about passing on the virus to a loved one. If youve had the disease for a very long time without understanding it, you may harp on every little occurrence in the past where you might have inadvertently exposed a family member to the disease.
Its essential to bear in mind that hepatitis C isnt really simple to capture. If you take a few safety measures, its almost difficult to hand down the disease to someone else.
Liver disease C is spread just through exposure to an infected persons blood. It can not be spread through:
- breastfeeding .
- sharing utensils or glasses.
- sharing food and water.
As you can see, everyday contact is not dangerous. The transmission rate between people in a family is probably simply a little above no.
However, hepatitis C can be spread out through blood. So follow these common safety measures:
- Do not share razors, tooth brushes, nail clippers, or anything else that might have your blood on it. Cover any open wounds or sores with plasters.
- Thoroughly get rid of tampons, sanitary napkins, tissues, used bandages, and anything else that might have your blood on it.
- If youre using injected street drugs, enter into a treatment program. At the minimum, dont share needles or equipment with anybody else.
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Complications Of Hepatitis C
If the infection is left untreated for many years, some people with hepatitis C will develop scarring of the liver .
Over time, this can cause the liver to stop working properly.
In severe cases, life-threatening problems, such as liver failure, where the liver loses most or all of its functions, or liver cancer, can eventually develop.
Treating hepatitis C as early as possible can help reduce the risk of these problems happening.
Avoid Direct Exposure To Blood Infected With Hepatitis C
Keep in mind that its also possible for hepatitis C to spread through accidental contact with an infected persons blood. So even if you dont share needles or razors, or get a tattoo, theres the risk of infection if you live with someone infected with the virus, or if you work in healthcare and handle needles but only if you come in contact with infected blood.
To protect yourself at home, wear gloves before tending to cuts and other bloody injuries, and clean contaminated surfaces with bleach. If you have a family member with hepatitis C, encourage them to get treatment, because newer medications are highly effective at curing the infection, thus eliminating any chance of spreading it to others, says Adalja.
Any gloves, bandages, or tissues covered with infected blood should be sealed in a plastic bag and disposed of in the trash, and you should wash any contaminated fabrics at the highest temperature with bleach.
Needle stick injury among healthcare workers is another possible method of transmission, says Dr. Seeni, so these workers should always practice safety. Wear protective gear, especially gloves, when handling blood and blood products as well as sharp items, and always report and get yourself treated if theres any incident of accidental needle stick, she warns.
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Limit Your Alcohol Intake
Drinking alcohol can negatively affect an already damaged liver. Its important to decrease the amount of alcohol you consume on a regular basis. Your doctor may even recommend that you refrain from alcohol altogether.
Your liver is the primary organ responsible for metabolizing nutrients and other substances you ingest. If theres too much alcohol in your system, your liver enzymes may be ill-equipped to process it. In turn, the excess alcohol circulates through the rest of your body.
As a rule of thumb, its important to drink in moderation. This equates to two drinks a day for men, and one a day for women .
Still, moderate alcohol consumption can be dangerous when youre living with hepatitis C. Ask your doctor for specific recommendations.
Where Can You Get More Information
Your doctor, nurse, or health care clinic listed in the telephone directory can provide you with more information.
Persons who inject drugs can substantially reduce their risk of getting and transmitting HIV, viral hepatitis and other blood borne infections by using a sterile needle and syringe for every injection. The Massachusetts Department of Public Health supports programs where persons who inject drugs can access sterile needles and syringes through syringe services programs . Through these programs you can get sterile needles and syringes free of cost, dispose of used needles and syringes, and get connected to other services such as testing for hepatitis C, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, overdose education, and narcan . To find an MDPH-supported SSP program near you, please click here.
Hepatitis C and Related Resources in Massachusetts This provides information about MDPH-supported programs including testing for hepatitis C, linkage to treatment for individuals with hepatitis C infection, and other resources such as overdose prevention programs.
Additional information about substance use disorder treatment programs may be obtained from the MDPH.
Viral Hepatitis Information from the CDC. The CDC provides resources on a variety of topics, including general information regarding transmission and prevention, statistics about HCV, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis C.
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What Is The Risk Of Getting Hiv Hepatitis B Or Hepatitis C
The risk of getting HIV, hepatitis B or C depends on the amount of virus in the blood or body fluid and the type of contact. For example, a piercing through the skin poses a greater risk than a splash on the skin.
The emergency department health care provider will tell you whether your exposure puts you at risk of these infections.
Should I Be Screened For Hepatitis C
Doctors usually recommend one-time screening of all adults ages 18 to 79 for hepatitis C. Screening is testing for a disease in people who have no symptoms. Doctors use blood tests to screen for hepatitis C. Many people who have hepatitis C dont have symptoms and dont know they have hepatitis C. Screening tests can help doctors diagnose and treat hepatitis C before it causes serious health problems.
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How Do You Get Hepatitis C
The hepatitis C virus is usually spread through blood-to-blood contact.
Some ways the infection can be spread include:
- sharing unsterilised needles particularly needles used to inject recreational drugs
- sharing razors or toothbrushes
- from a pregnant woman to her unborn baby
- through unprotected sex although this is very rare
In the UK, most hepatitis C infections happen in people who inject drugs or have injected them in the past.
Itâs estimated around half of those who inject drugs have been infected with the virus.
Considerations For Hepatitis C Cases Who Were Transplant Recipients
With the availability of curative treatment for HCV infection, an increasing number of transplant recipients are receiving organs from anti-HCV and HCV-RNA positive donors . This can result in transmission of hepatitis C to the recipient, which is then treated with DAA agents . In some jurisdictions, these expected donor-derived HCV transmissions might represent a significant proportion of new acute HCV infections therefore, jurisdictions are encouraged to reach out to transplant facilities and discuss public health reporting of expected donor-derived HCV infections.
A listing of transplant facilities in the United States, including facility location and phone number, can be found on the OPTN websiteexternal icon . As these patients are already linked to testing and treatment, the infections should be notified to CDC as new acute cases. However, the jurisdiction need not investigate beyond indicating that the infection was donor-derived.
Typically, there are two outstanding questions that only the public health jurisdiction can answer: 1) Did the recipient have any behavioral or other risks for hepatitis C and 2) Does the jurisdiction have any ongoing investigations of health care-associated hepatitis C that might be related to this investigation?
Table 4-3. Considerations for hepatitis C cases who were organ transplant recipients*
|Organ Recipient Pre-transplant|
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Symptoms Of Hepatitis C
Hepatitis C often does not have any noticeable symptoms until the liver has been significantly damaged.
This means many people have the infection without realising it.
When symptoms do occur, they can be mistaken for another condition.
Symptoms can include:
- feeling and being sick
The only way to know for certain if these symptoms are caused by hepatitis C is to get tested.
Who Should Get Tested
Since universal screening of blood and blood products did not occur until 1992, anyone who had a blood transfusion or organ transplant before that time should be tested. It is recommended that people be tested for hepatitis C if they were/are:
- Born between 1945 and 1965
- Exposed to blood and body fluids
- Sharing toothbrushes, razors, nail clippers or other personal items with an infected individual
- Using and/or sharing needles to inject drugs
- Receiving tattoos and body piercings with unsterile needles
- Women thinking about becoming pregnant
- Born to an infected mother
- Receiving long-term hemodialysis
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Avoid Sharing Personal Care Items
Razors, cuticle scissors, and nail clippers can sometimes cause minor nicks and cuts. If you or someone else has HCV, infected blood can get on these items and spread the virus when shared between people, notes the Hepatitis C Trust.
Be mindful that the virus might also be spread by direct contact with dried contaminated blood, according to the U.K. National Helath Service . So its important to never share razors, nail clippers, scissors, and other personal care items like toothbrushes that may facilitate blood exposure, warns Amesh Adalja, MD, an infectious disease physician and senior scholar at Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security who is based in Pittsburgh.
If personal care items have been contaminated with infected blood, a bleach-based product is a good way to clean these items, continues Dr. Adalja. And once cleaned, store them separately from personal items used by others.
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Wikipedia: Featured List Candidates/list Of People With Hepatitis C/archive1
- The following is an archived discussion of a featured list nomination. Please do not modify it. Subsequent comments should be made on the articles talk page or in Wikipedia talk:Featured list candidates. No further edits should be made to this page.
The list was not promoted by User:Matthewedwards 22:00, 30 September 2008 .
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How Common Is Hepatitis C In The United States
In the United States, hepatitis C is the most common chronic viral infection found in blood and spread through contact with blood.14
Researchers estimate that about 2.7 million to 3.9 million people in the United States have chronic hepatitis C.13 Many people who have hepatitis C dont have symptoms and dont know they have this infection.
New screening efforts and more effective hepatitis C treatments are helping doctors identify and cure more people with the disease. With more screening and treatment, hepatitis C may become less common in the future. Researchers estimate that hepatitis C could be a rare disease in the United States by 2036.17
How To Prevent Hepatitis C
This article was co-authored by Raj Vuppalanchi, MD. Dr. Raj Vuppalanchi is an Academic Hepatologist, a Professor of Medicine at Indiana University School of Medicine, and the Director of Clinical Hepatology at IU Health. With over ten years of experience, Dr. Vuppalanchi runs a clinical practice and provides care to patients with various liver disorders at the University Hospital in Indianapolis. He completed dual fellowships in Clinical Pharmacology and Gastroenterology-Hepatology at Indiana University School of Medicine. Dr. Raj Vuppalanchi is board certified in Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology by the American Board of Internal Medicine and is a member of the American Association for Study of Liver Diseases and the American College of Gastroenterology. His patient-oriented research is dedicated to finding new treatments for various liver disorders as well as the use of diagnostic tests for non-invasive estimation of liver fibrosis and portal hypertension . This article has been viewed 11,339 times.
Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by a virus. To get it, you have to come in contact with an infected person’s blood.XExpert SourceRaj Vuppalanchi, MDAcademic HepatologistExpert Interview. 28 October 2020. Hepatitis C can become a serious issue if left untreated, so if you do contract it, get it checked out immediately. It is curable, but could cause serious health problems if not detected and treated early.
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